Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 5

Nexus among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Change and Culture: Evidence from Lebanon

Tuzubekova Madina Konratbayevna, Accounting and Audit Kazakh University of Technology and Business

Tatyana V. Yarovova, The Moscow State Institute of International Relations (The Odintsovo Branch)

Tatyana P. Kovshova, NAO North Kazakhstan University named after M. Kozybaev

Vitaly G. Pichugin, Financial University under The Government of The Russian Federation

Alexey S. Govorkov, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Irkutsk National Research Technical University

Natalia V. Arsenyeva, National Research University Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)

Vasyl Rossikhin, Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics


It's a difficult task to describe the organizational transition because of the many contributions present in literature. To generate impact in an enterprise, we should define organizational change as an economic, financial, cultural, human or technical shift. To stimulate corporate growth, we can also view organizational change as several theories, values, strategies and techniques which aim to change the workplace. Although the concepts accessible for characterizing organizational transition are heterogeneous, we may describe them broadly as a mechanism initiated by an organization to satisfy a resolute need for growth. Personnel engagement in decision-making not only builds confidence but also helps to deter negative and harmful attitudes and behavior. The research implemented a mixed approach methodology throughout distributing a questionnaire over 400 respondents and maintaining 370 answers, and the throughout conducting in-depth interviews in Small Medium Enterprises in Lebanon. The results revealed that change management tends to affect job satisfaction in a positive way but this change should be managed effectively and efficiently. Commitment and Culture tends to play an important role in implementing change management practices.


Change Management, Culture, Commitment, Job Satisfaction, Lebanon.


It's a difficult task to describe the organizational transition because of the many contributions present in literature. Although the concepts accessible for characterizing organizational transition are heterogeneous, we may describe them broadly as a mechanism initiated by an organization to satisfy a resolute need for growth. Because present economies and markets are dynamic and volatile, companies face a wide range of future actions and requests for reform the need for success in any phase in the process of change is directly related to this fact when it comes to all the new nuances and requirements. It includes a need to consider how operational improvements can be best understood and what kind of organizational adjustments may be. It is easy to understand that not every shift has the same scope or purpose of clearing up some of these doubts. While a shift to the first degree is shallow and incremental, a move in the second degree is a broader one. Regarding the nature of organizational reform, organizational improvements are also defined in literature as being possible or unplanned. It believes it's a kind of transition that can be planned and regulated because it requires individual rationality. From administrators, it is clear that an organization is being revamped, redesigned or restructured to be better able to deal with internal and external challenges (Robbins & Sanghi, 2007). The main concern of managers is to make change successful and to take the right actions in this respect. It is essential to understand the association between the expected effectiveness of improving procedures and the related organization’s behavior metrics, following this line of thought. The principal goal of this research is to examine and to appreciate what impacts organizational engagement and job satisfaction on the perceived success of the cycle of corporate reform. The explanations for this study include the option of variables of engagement and job fulfilment. In terms of the literature, not only the assessment of its determinants but also their implications has received considerable support from organizational commitment. The explanation for the literature's importance lies in the fact that engagement was associated with several related organizational metrics, including behaviors, characteristics of work and corporate trust. The model suggests three components of commitment: affective (will to retain a body owing to an established affection); ongoing (willingness to keep in an organization because it feels that it is advisable); normative (desire to sustain in an organization as the moral and ethical option).

This style of engagement is defined by a thorough comprehension and communication of principles between individual goals and organizational objectives. The impact of relational structure, in particular the implications on the success of staff, was a clear focus of literature. The literature compares the active contribution of the company to absenteeism following this line of reasoning. It is characterized as positive feelings based on a work characteristics appraisal (Robbins & Sanghi, 2007). One of the most important factors of job satisfaction is the working condition. It is widely used to assess job satisfaction by the number of challenges, type of duties and obligations or form of experiences that an individual could have on a daily basis. Such forms of predictors contribute to the heart of certain systems of systemic transformation within this line of reasoning. Such systemic changes take place based on changes in workers ' roles, duties and workforce transformation. It is rational to understand the relationship between organizational reform and job satisfaction. The position of affective organization, as the bond between the person and the organization, will play a key role in this partnership should be also considered. Satisfaction is usually the cumulative feature of the condition and occurrences. The situational features that are perceived to be key factors affecting employee satisfaction are jobs itself, wages, advancement, leadership and relationships. In addition, age, race, employment, schooling and many other aspects influence job satisfaction as well as detailed research to track their consequences in the workforce. Many studies showed a weak relation while the others implied that happiness is likely to be correlated with success. Several scholars explored the positive connection between employee participation and job satisfaction. Several previous studies have explored the correlation between organizational and job results. In some research, for instance, there was a strong correlation between organizational engagement and work performance.

Literature Review

According to Reichers & Schneider (1990), cultural scientists have conducted various studies with respect to cultural meanings; there are comparatively few researchers interested in cultural and performance analysis. The only explanation was the ambiguity of the culture structure's organizational framework. The connection between long-term organizational and economic performance in over 200 companies is studied according to Kotter & Heskett (1992). More than ever, the thesis has made three important contributions, being one of the most effective and diligent research efforts in this field. The first thing that makes their work good is its connection between culture and performance.

Secondly, the author gives the theoretical views of the existence and reaches of society a significant mix. Thirdly, they create strong links between community, management and performance. It is the obvious function that culture may play in the competitive advantage that corporate culture is linked to success. Rousseau (1990) has been researching how to solve those limits of organizational calculation. Finally, the results show that the connection between culture and workplace success is not favorable. Once the approaches of recent research have been critically examined, the connections between culture and success have been presumed (Lim, 1995). The outcomes of recent research; theory is that the creation of organizational competences, both superior and wrongly imitative by rivals, offers a durable competitive advantage (Saa-Perez & García-Falcón, 2002). According to the study, workers are obligated and dedicated to their jobs as they make decisions and are approved, which in turn helps them to achieve organizational objectives. Employees must therefore be granted freedom to decide on their own to a certain degree, according to the authority point, so they can cope with the outcome either negatively or positively. When this occurs, they are forced to be creative and innovative by the sense of responsibility. Therefore, management should encourage more participatory management techniques. It is advised (Allam & Shaik, 2020; Asad et al., 2020; Al Kahtani et al., 2016). Based on research carried out, workplace engagement in decision-making has been shown to contribute to effective and efficient decision-making. On the grounds of the above, the opinions of workers as it concerns their job in the company should be searched into. It will insure not only that the decisions taken in favor of the company are successfully implemented, but also that they are taken from the box to achieve things quickly and correctly. The analyst celebrates a new pay system that appreciates multiple workers and classes. Any qualified specialist advisors will set up the compensation package. This would not only promote performance-based promotions rather than seniority but would also fix the morale issue and boost employee trust and management confidence (Asad, 2020; Allam, 2019). The analysis shows that the staff of this organization has a high degree of dedication and willingness to work. They assume that the management has a responsibility to consider the needs of workers only then that a high level of work is feasible. These underlying positive behaviors are vice versa from now on. Management must pay the employee adequately well and also guarantee their well-being to ensure that their employee feels willing to do their work. Therefore, companies only earn what they pay their staff. A company can only thrive if it complies with management's dream and purpose. Those workers who feel careful to make a major contribution to the success of the company or who believe they are part of the company make additional attempts even (Haider et al., 2017). From this analysis it is clear that there is a lack of skilled workers in the labor market and impact on recruiting practices for that organization as regards the retention of talent. The management should therefore recognize the need to check the courses with the necessary skills and know-how through the Nation’s Education Authority as a serious matter. Senior high schools can also be hired explicitly and internal preparation can also be provided for variety. More diligent recruiting practices will contribute to increased efficiency. The curriculum strategy should be checked in order to address and improve student training issues. For all staff with key skills, in particular, an appropriate career development program and management of the training school is also suggested (Shah & Asad, 2018).

Research Hypothesis

The following section will address the model that will be implemented in the research:
The dependent variable is: Job Satisfaction
The independent variable is: Change Management
The mediator variables: Organizational Commitment
The moderator variable is: Organizational culture
Based on the above variables, the following hypotheses will be tested:

H1 There is a significant relationship between change management and Job Satisfaction.

H2 There is a significant relationship between change management and job satisfaction taking commitment as a mediator

H3 There is a significant relationship between change management and job satisfaction taking organizational culture as a moderator


This paper reflects the way the research is conducted for the whole sample. This article explains the techniques used in the collection of data, variable measures taken and the techniques used in this analysis. Data collection is important because the outcomes of research rely only on their accuracy. Therefore, methods used for this reason should be reasonably suitable to help the analysis. Methodology was conducted according to the procedure in line with Centobelli et al. (2019), Saris et al. (2007) and Sing et al. (2018).

Sources of Data

The study was conducted utilizing primary and secondary details. The most important result was the outcomes of the questionnaires and frontal interviews conducted by the HR & Management section of the organization.

Primary Data

The primary data is based on the random sample and top management by frontal interviews with the few top and key management employees of the company. Certain organizational employees such as managers, officers and clerks were provided questionnaires to provide the personnel of the chosen study with a detailed insight into the HR processes that were likely to affect their efficiency and behavior.

Secondary Data

Secondary data comes from HR papers, posts, textbooks, and publications generated in several universities online. This data was evaluated extensively to determine its adequacy, trust, adequacy and precision.


The study is based on the survey chosen from workers working in small and medium-sized companies in Lebanon.

Sampling Techniques

Because this research reflects on the impact of human capital on Lebanese small and medium-sized enterprises ' behavior of corporate citizenship, sample size is 377. Although the habits are many hundreds, as in this instance, a stratified sample was also used, which was 10 percent of the total amount, because this is a purposeful analysis. The interviews with the top ten executives of the organization were performed frontally. The sample size of 337 indicated variation in population, time restrictions and the background for conducting the analysis in keeping with the agreed definition. The research was to be completed and distributed.

Data Collection Instruments

As previously stated, samples of 377 workers and data were obtained through self-examination via questionnaires and personal interviews. In the context of Google data collection methods, surveys and interviews are transmitted, and knowledge is processed with both SPSS and AMOS for the modeling of structural equations.


Depending on the objectives of the analysis, 15 questionnaires were generated and shared amongst various employee groups. Frameworks were used to cut costs, stop premature proposals and save energy. This study aims to examine these systematic works shaping the chosen HR activities. The questionnaires were therefore able to receive answers to the study and accomplish the research goals.


For this analysis, the researcher performed frontal interviews. Prior to the interview, researchers introduced to the interviewees the field of research, the central purpose of the interview and its methodology. There was also an unofficial talk to make the interviewees smoother before the interview started. The terms of the watch were namelessness and anonymity. During these interviews no documentation was undertaken because the participants were not satisfied with it. The interviews were conducted in an engaging atmosphere and the interviewer recorded the answers carefully.

Data Analysis Techniques

The processing and successful review of relevant data or information is quite special. The interviews were transcribed for analysis of the information collected after the evidence were obtained. This was done to reduce the limits of human memory and also to encourage research by other investigators, as necessary later. The starting point of this research was transcription, and also the categorization of results. As the qualitative analysis methods were different in terms of interpreting the documents, categorization systems were used. The findings of the interviews were therefore grouped into descriptive groups, which guided the intended sample. That is why an editing technique was introduced, which obscures taking categorizing decisions after all the interviews were transcribed. The corresponding knowledge was then presented in the results section in order to answer the questions for the interview.

Results & Discussion

Factor Analysis

The job satisfaction, commitment, culture and change management variable showing a valid relation of 0.895, 0.869, 0.854 and 0.883 respectively (Table 1).

Table 1 Component Matrix
  Cronbach Alpha
Job Satisfaction 0.895
Commitment 0.869
Culture 0.854
Change Management 0.883

The Relationship between Change Management and Job Satisfaction

From regression analysis (Table 2a & 2b), a significant relationship has been observed between job satisfaction and change management (significance level<0.05 and R2 50.8%).

Table 2a Model Summarya
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.713a 0.508 0.507 0.600
Table 2b Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta    
1 (Constant) 0.785 0.069   11.433 0.000
Change Management 0.689 0.035 0.713 19.662 0.000

The Relationship between Change Management and Satisfaction Using Commitment as a Mediator

From regression analysis (Table 3a & 3b), a significant relationship has been observed between job satisfaction and change management (significance level<0.05 and R2 63.9%).

Table 3a Model Summarya
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.799a 0.639 0.637 0.515
Table 3b Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 0.382 0.068   5.600 0.000
Change Management 0.371 0.041 0.384 9.135 0.000
Commitment 0.433 0.037 0.489 11.624 0.000

Commitment as a mediating factor increased the strength of this relationship.

The Relationship between Change Management and Satisfaction Using Commitment as a Mediator and Culture as a Moderator

From regression analysis (Table 4a & 4b), a significant relationship has been observed among commitment (0.001), change management (0.001), culture (0.004) and job satisfaction (significance level<0.05 and R2 65.7%). Culture as a mediating factor, increased the strength of this relationship.

Table 4a Model Summarya
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.811a 0.657 0.655 0.502

Pearson Correlations

There exists a positive correlation among the concerned variables. There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and change management (Pearson Coefficient: 0.747), commitment and satisfaction (Pearson Coefficient: 0.636) and culture and satisfaction (Pearson Coefficient: 0.713) (Table 5). Consequently, higher change management, commitment and managing culture will tend to increase job satisfaction of the employees in the Small-Medium Enterprises in Lebanon (Table 6).

Table 5 Pearson Correlations
Change Management Pearson Correlation 0.747**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 376
Commitment Pearson Correlation 0.636**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 376
Culture Pearson Correlation 0.713**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 376
Table 6  Nexus Between Research Findings and Critical Literature Review
Research Findings Literature Review Findings
Positive relationship between change management and satisfaction Asad et al. (2020) proved that implementing change management effectively tend to have a positive impact on employee satisfaction
Positive relationship between commitment and satisfaction Suliman & Obaidli (2013) proved that commitment tend to have a positive impact on employees satisfaction
Positive relationship between culture and employees satisfaction Restubog et al. (2006) proved that culture tend to have a positive relationship on employees satisfaction

Conclusion & Recommendations

The employees generally feel that their management's employability is not protected and unfair recruiting is much sought after. Many workers less nervous were comfortable with their own run teams, but they also found like they needed to ensure adequate process management and the selection of team members. Although the naive supported this point of view, Lebanese small medium-sized companies were very risky and could not be held easily because they endangered lives. The compensation is usually considered fair but workers have to ensure that the procedure remains unbiased. Employees decided that employees should be paid on the basis of their jobs and would expect better performance in this role. We said that this would greatly decrease the workers ' resentment, contributing to animosity, which would de-motivate their staff. The training theme guided by workers was not very respected during this review. Instead, an evaluation of the requirements of organization, which would not only improve performance, but also be essential to remain operational, has been strongly suggested. Further emphasis has been paid to teaching that realistic instruction must also be offered in tandem with university preparation. The goal was to reengineer and evaluate the practices of training schools. Many workers have also demonstrated a need for effective communication in order to promote integration of work activities and their perception of improved and stronger results. When they are well-informed about the job issues in particular that impact or worry the workforce in a way. They know that they contribute to the Business in that sense. On the base of the outcomes, following recommendations are suggested for consideration. Employees feel they may affect their job attitude and behavior. Inadequate awareness, skill, details and the necessity for specific job success may result from negative behavior and attitude. However, if workers are not informed of the fundamental facts that are important to their job and their role in the company's overall activities, their behavior and actions according to their work would definitely not adhere to the goals and objectives of the company. Lack of right and appropriate information, experience and abilities to do the job can also impair the actions and attitude of an employee. To order for organizational and effective personnel to be part of the Decision-making process and to fulfill their duties, the survey must be performed. The wide range of workers agreed that mutual respect is a key contributor to a productive working environment. The workers are expected to take part in their everyday work to achieve the desired goals. Since they will directly benefit from such actions, it would be reasonable enough to include them in decision-making. It became obvious that this contributes to cohesive and efficient corporate achievement. This would also allow staff to recognize and solve their problems.

Limitations of the Study & Future Research Directions

The key issue during this work was the need to control information. Knowledge management consists of knowledge acquisition and dissemination, analysis of the information obtained about the activities of the organization, and of the processes promoted in management for the business awareness creation and skills arising from the cycle of organizational learning. This would in turn reduce poor power supply accidents and other unintended consequences across the world. For benefit organizations, it is important for consider and transform working human capital management strategy into information. On this basis, Lebanese SMEs would consider Human Capital Management as the long-term strategic asset that would boost and improve efficiency in the future. Additional research can also be carried out in order to recognize the implications of the handling of human capital. Innovatory approaches such as a standardized score card can be used.


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