Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 2

One-Stop Service Policy as a Bureaucratic Reform in Indonesia

Akmal Umar, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Manajemen Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia

Umi Farida, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Yusriadi Yusriadi, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Hukum Pengayoman, Makassar, Indonesia

Hasmin Tamsa, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Muhammad Yahya, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Ansar, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Asrin Tendi, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Hendra Gunawan, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar,Indonesia

Chuduriah Sahabuddin, Al Asyariah University, Mandar, Indonesia

Muhlis Madani, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar, Makassar,Indonesia

Saidna Zulfiqar Bin-Tahir, University of Iqra Buru, Maluku, Indonesia

Zarina Akbar, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia

Elpisah, STKIP Pembangunan Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia

Ratnawaty, Magister Program STIE Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Muh Nasri Nur Achir, Magister Program STIE Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Sry Haryudith, Magister Program STIE Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Muhammad Rusdi, Magister Program STIE Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Aci, Magister Program STIE Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia

Geminastiti Sakkir, State University of Makassar, Makassar, Indonesia

A Yusdianti Tenriawali, University of Iqra Buru, Maluku, Indonesia

Misnawati Misnawati, Magister Program Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

Abstract

Bureaucratic reform is an effort to improve the system of government administration, especially institutional aspects, management, and human resources of the apparatus. One of the bureaucratic reforms in Indonesia is the establishment of the One-Stop Service (OSS) office which handles and integrates all forms of licensing. This article examined how the implementation of public service reform and how the change of management practices had been implemented in the OSS of Bone Regency. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview with 16 of OSS’ employees and nine service-users. This study applied a qualitative approach using a case study design. Techniques of data collection used three kinds of instrument, namely: in-depth interviews, observation, and office document. Data were analyzed through some phases of data reduction, presentation, and conclusions and verification. The results found that many obstacles still faced by the government during the implementation in the OSS, they are the lack of human resources and the technical staff, the fact that these staff is working at their original offices/agencies, not in the OSS. Another obstacle found that there are problems with various institutional statuses with different implications. The socialization model carried out by the OSS is considered to be less effective. Through this research, the researchers did verification of the local wisdom as one of the characteristics of the society that justified to this research, which called “Assimellereng”. 

Keywords

Bureaucratic Reform, Decentralization, One-Stop Service, Public Service.

Introduction

Bureaucratic reform is a fundamental requirement in improving public services and the economy as a whole, by carrying out functions appropriately, rapidly, and consistently to realize an accountable and good bureaucracy (Yusriadi, 2018a). The government is required to provide community-oriented services and needs. Therefore, a reform through the new organizational models to provide public services based on the customer's point of view, both the general public and the business community. The institutional model of public service is required to facilitate the community in dealing with the licensing from the government; one of the concepts developed is a service model that integrates various types of government licensing services at one office, known as a One-Stop Service (OSS). In connection with licensing services, the government created the OSS as a form of licensing in the licensing sector, having the authority to manage permissions from publishing documents with various types of permits administered in one office.

The implementation of decentralization of licensing referred to the Government Regulation Number 38 in 2007 regarding the division of government affairs between the province and regency governments in Indonesia. In article two of Government Regulation Number 38 in 2007 regarding licensing was one of the matters handed over to the local government of the Regency/City. Thus, the implementation licensing service became an obligatory business for every local government (Indonesia, 2007).

Based on the report of the Investment Board in 2015, Indonesian’s achievement for the growth target of investment climate needed to increase the competitiveness (Elias, 2013). This could be seen from the achievement of global competitiveness index based on the World Economic Forum (WEF) in 2014 which ranked Indonesia as 34th of 58 countries. This achievement only shifted slightly shows the 38th position in 2013 where the realization of investment in 2013 amounted to 406 trillion Rupiahs, the target for 2014 was 456 trillion Rupiahs, while in 2015 targeted to reach 524 trillion Rupiahs (grew to 15 percent) (Smajgl et al., 2016).

To achieve the investment target of 15 percent, it is necessary to improve One-Stop Service policy in the provinces, districts, and cities where the OSS is an institution had an authority to serve the licensing and non-licensing activities. Currently, there are 552 OSS’ operators of investment spread over 34 provinces in Indonesia, at the province level, there are 33 OSS’, in regencies are 358 OSS’ and in the city are 98 OSS’ (Wibowo et al., 2016).

One innovation delivered public services are through One-Stop Service as regards to law number 25 in 2007 is an investment. The Government of Bone Regency responded positively to policies made by the central government in public services as mandated by law number 25 of 2009 on public service system and One-Stop Service (OSS). Therefore, to improve the quality of service to the society, in 2006, Bone Regency government formed One-Stop Service by Bone Regency Regulation Number 5 of 2013 regarding on the Second Amendment upon Bone Regency Regulation Number 4 of 2008 concerning the establishment of organization and the technical institution of Bone Regency. To realize licensing service process faster, economizing, and more transparent, Bone Regency Government enacted Regent Regulation No. 52 in 2015 regarding on transferring some of the regent’ authority to the Head of Bone licensing service.

OSS is one of the local government tools in Bone regency applied to licensing services. OSS as a specialized agent assigned to provide licensing services directly connected with the society. Basically, it can be regarded as a breakthrough or innovation of the local government management that is expected to ensure the quality of public services by the demands and expectations of the society.

The quality of public services in the OSS of Bone Regency has not been optimally implemented due to the inconsistency between the waiting time and time consume in providing services to the public as consumers, it should be implemented quickly and responsively, but stakeholders have not been able to realize it efficiently (Miller & Lee, 2001).

Based on the phenomena, the researchers are interested in researching to explore the implementation of One-Stop Service policy in Bone regency. Another reason for selecting OSS of Bone Regency caused it has the largest area in South Sulawesi with the population in mid- 2014 as much as 738,515 citizens with the area of 4,559,00 km² (Statistics of Bone Regency, 2015), it shows the high intensity of licensing comparing to another regency in South Sulawesi. With these considerations, the success or the failure of bureaucratic reform in Bone regency will be a picture of the success or the failure of bureaucracy reform related to One-Stop Service on a national scale. Based on these facts and phenomena, the researchers feel the urge to research by focusing on whether the implementation of the OSS program in Bone regency has been going well or not.

Methodology

This research used a qualitative approach based case research to guide researchers in describing how the researcher's attention is theoretically reflected in a case. The researcher conducted a case study on various bureaucratic issues of the OSS office in Bone regency with a view to describe the informants experiences related to licensing services in OSS. It is for this reason that a qualitative approach is needed to describe a phenomenon that is relevant to the research problem in depth. With this approach would be holistic observation and naturalistic. While the analysis used the approach analyzes interactive model of Miles & Huberman (Miles et al., 2014). The primary data of this research gained from interviews with 16 employees who were directly involved in the public services and with the stakeholder of One-Stop Service (OSS) in Bone regency. For triangulation purposes, the data were also obtained by observation. While for some additional data gained from tape-recording (Bin Tahir, 2015:2017). Those participants selected through purposive sampling technique. Therefore, to ensure the degree of confidence of the results of this research, techniques done to maintain the validity of such data among others by the way; a) persistence of observations, b) triangulation, c) Carrying out checks peer through the conclusion of discussion, d) Presenting a detailed description and d) Holding auditing. The data analysis technique used in this research was the interactive model (Miles et al., 2014). This analysis consisted of three basic components namely; data reduction, data presentation and conclusion or verification, the mechanism took place interactively. The analysis started from the data collection and continued until the time the research ended.

Results

In May 2016, OSS South Sulawesi was awarded as the best OSS in Indonesia which is superior to 561 of OSS in local governments across Indonesia. The best OSS’ assessment parameter was the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), which the OSS of South Sulawesi has managed 181 types of permits. Interestingly, based on the report of the Asia Foundation which released a statement on business licensing mechanisms in some regions/districts found out the knowledge of the doer of business licensing is still low, on the other hand, in taking care of Izin Mendirikan Bangunan (IMB) (building permit) must go through a lengthy process and it consumes the cost management in “Under the table” (tribune news/antarasulsel.com). This phenomenon should not happen if there are qualified of human resources in a region because of the OSS has been validated nationally.

The first condition for efficient service delivery is they must genuinely know and understand how to provide satisfaction for the society. The results of the implementation of OSS in Bone regency over past four years had been an increasing number of service users taking care of licenses and showing positive results. It can be observed through the results of the implementation of licensing stated by a provider who served in the One-Stop Service and also through the statement expressed by society. Although there were still some citizens who were not satisfied with the utilization of the OSS services.

In general, the implementation of OSS in Bone Regency followed the Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation Number 20 in 2008 regarding Organization Guidelines and Working Procedures of Licensing Services Unit in the Region wherein the technical guidelines are also explained the composition of the OSS management team of the district/city that will carry out all the OSS activities in their respective areas.

The chart of the management team of One-Stop Service licensing implemented in the district/city can be seen in the following Figure 1.

Figure 1.Oss Manager At Regency/City (Source: Juknis Oss, 2008).

This structure is a guideline of the OSS policy implemented in Bone regency. Further elaborated based on the Ministry of Home Affairs Number 20 in 2008 regarding the job description of each OSS management team of the district/city has been integrated and has been an integral part of the implementation of OSS. Therefore, all the areas included in this OSS should be covered in the manager organizational structure. The management team of OSS job descriptions in Bone regency is:

Main Tasks

Assisting the Regent in carrying out the duty of Licensing Services by the authority submitted.

Function

1. Preparation of guidance materials and work programs in the field of Licensing Services.

2. Implementation of Licensing, Monitoring and Evaluation Services in the course of licensing services.

3. Providing information and counseling for the incidence of public complaints regarding licensing services.

4. Implementation of other duties given by the Regent according to their responsibilities and functions.

The function focuses on the responsibility of the OSS’ organizer and staff so that it can synergize with other functions related to OSS implementation such as performing administrative duties related to reporting mechanism and accountability of the financial statements. Except OSS’ management team headed by the Head of OSS, it has also formed a technical group of the local government in Bone regency whose job united with OSS.

The tasks of the OSS technical team are very important when viewed from the involvement of institutions located at the local government of Bone regency. With the involvement of these institutions, the success of the OSS can be more easily realized. But the question is whether the technical team has been working effectively in pushing the OSS to achieve the set targets? So it is deemed necessary to see the achievement of the OSS for previous four years. The result of the interview with MD the informant (MD) as the technical team revealed that:

“In the OSS office, human-resources are still lacked and need additional staffs. The total permit submissions in a day were approximately 20, while the technical team of permits was only two people that employees were overwhelmed, but we still tried to make the permit come out in accordance with the standard operating procedures” (Interview).

The results of interviews with the informants (MNL) who are still in touch with human resources, revealed that:

“At the OSS office, improvements are made to public services. Indeed, we are constrained by the limited human resources, but we keep trying to improve ourselves to give the good services” (Interview).

The information above indicates that human resources in the OSS office have not been optimal. The main target of OSS is prime service, by looking at the indicator of the number of permits came out from year to year has decreased from 4,719 permits in 2012 that managed 22 permits, 4,096 permits in 2013 with administered as many as 22 permits, and which has greatly decreased in year 2014 with the number of permits out of 3,073 with administered as many as 24 permits, this is very surprising data that in 2014, the number of permits in OSS increased but the outgoing permit decreased.

The most interesting phenomena are the success achieved by the OSS of Bone regency seen from the number of permits came out has reached the target from the previous years in 2015, the number of permits issued 5,564 with managed as many as 24 permits. Where in 2015, the OSS of Bone regency increased more licenses with 3,073 permits than in 2014. Thus, it needs a strategy to be able to achieve the success of OSS into a prime service. The results of interviews with the informant (MA) revealed that:

Our office has collaborated with the Adil Sejahtera Foundation (YAS) to improve the quality of the OSS services, it is a foundation that aims to evaluate and also form of transparency in the OSS office in improving the quality of licensing services” (Interview).

The results of YAS's evaluation in 2014 revealed that for licensing arrangements, the majority of licensing service users were directly assembled in the OSS office (91.1%) and some others did not manage it through the OSS office (8.9%). The evaluation results indicate that service users who manage permits at the OSS office have reached the target. Some interesting phenomenon is the form of permit management by service users with self-managed indicators (81.1%), assisted by employees (4.2%), using brokers (14%) (YAS, 2014). The data show a high level of community participation in handling their licenses directly in the OSS office. This situation indicates that the level of socialization is optimal and the level of public awareness is getting better, the management of permits in the OSS office for certain types of permits is free because the government has overcome some licenses through non-retribution in OSS. From the aspect of licensing readiness in the OSS office, as stated by the community, that there is no problem because all licensing officers are ready to provide excellent service to the community. Likewise, the readiness of infrastructure in the OSS office to serve the community has also been sufficient. Furthermore, it is necessary to appreciate what was stated by Ms. Mirawati Sudjono, who said that the Ministry of Administrative Reform would establish cooperation with other parties such as community organizations and businesses to help achieve the OSS, especially regarding licensing (www.menpan.go.id).

The statement put forward by the minister of state apparatus shows that one of the fundamental things that need to be given particular attention from all interested parties is to provide a clear understanding of the entire community, especially service users about the government's seriousness in providing excellent services regarding licensing, both nondistribution and retribution through the OSS office. For this reason, socialization must continue to be promoted while perfecting the implementation of OSS, where there are still some deficiencies in its implementation. In its scheme, the socialization model that has been carried out by OSS and its entire staff is still considered ineffective, because there is no unity in socializing this OSS program to the public.

For instance, as stated by the informant (OC) revealed that:

I live in the village, I do not know well how to manage permits in the OSS office, moreover, the form of management has applied an online system, so sometimes I have to use the services of brokers in the management, because I do not know the requirements and procedures that must be met in the permit arrangement” (Interview).

This must be considered as one of the weaknesses that still occur in the implementation of OSS. The following is the flow of socialization that has been carried out by OSS to introduce the program to the community. In 2016, OSS targeted socialization in seven districts in Bone Regency, while the seven sub-districts were Amali sub-district, Ulaweng, Ponre, Lappariaja, Bengo, Barebbo, and Patimpeng where the socialization team was accompanied by YAS and technical team from the OSS office (YAS, 2016).

The socialization carried out by the OSS to the sub-district level so far has not affected the achievement of OSS. The constraints faced were not the lack of readiness of OSS employees in providing socialization, but rather on the behaviour of the people who still consider licensing matters not a priority, even though the licensing officers visited the districts, but there were still many people who did not attend the socialization event. The district person categorized as the transitional society (prismatic society) that sits between traditional and modern societies are fundamentally aware of the payment but is paid licensing rules standard, exceeds a predetermined criterion. So that the community acts that influence bureaucratic reform which in this paper is defined as “heresy regulation” (Yusriadi, 2017). This is in line with the evaluation of YAS (2016) after visiting several sub-districts in Bone Regency; apparently, the community's interest in attending the sub-district was still low. Of course it is very sad to see this condition if it continues to be allowed to continue. There needs to be a breakthrough for that, where the community needs to be moved to realize the importance of managing their own licenses in the OSS office.

The ineffectiveness of OSS socialization does not only occur in Bone District. Although this OSS program is on target, it is still not optimally socialized. As a result, in some areas including Jakarta, there are still many people who do not fully understand the OSS program. Based on the survey results, there were two phenomena; “First, OSS services have satisfied the community with community satisfaction rates reaching 78%; Secondly, the socialization of useful programs from OSS has not been known to the public at the lowest level”. The socialization model that will be carried out is involving mayors, sub-district heads, and village heads. They will do door-to-door socialization and not with conventional methods. The socialization model that will be applied is the door to door (Berita Satu.com).

Another factor that supports the effective implementation of OSS is soft skills training organized by the OSS of Bone Regency. In order to improve soft skills training, the main thing that must be is the commitment. Herein lays the importance of a policy breakthrough to be able to enhance human resources which are the main obstacle in the OSS. The intensity of activities such as the results of interviews with the informant (CC) participating in soft skills training revealed that:

The form of training carried out is very useful for the implementation of OSS, because the training is taught about the operation of modern technology, how to use services with an online system, how to store data in a computer properly” (Interview).

The supporting factor for the success of OSS is the readiness of existing human resources. The condition of human resources, in general, is still being improved on resources, as revealed by the informant (SH) that:

“At the OSS office, we always participate in every training held by the government to maximize the implementation of OSS by using modern technology, so that each employee has the opportunity to participate in training” (Interview).

Several things were achieved after attending the training; OSS employees have been able to build teamwork in doing a job. The importance of making motivation for employees so they can eliminate mentality that can hinder work have the right mindset to achieve good work, and later will have a new view that work makes their lives happier and more meaningful.

In supporting the implementation of the OSS program to achieve the desired goal of quality service, a program implementation model is needed that can bring all stakeholders into full force to answer these challenges. The program implementation model in question is a model built on the ability and potential of the resources possessed based on the local wisdom of Bone Regency in the form of “Assimellereng” culture, which means emphasizing the sense of brotherhood in developing trustworthiness to provide the best service for the community as well as serving the own brother.

The meaning of the Assimellereng's principle in the development of the OSS implementation model in Bone Regency is that all bureaucratic officials must mobilize all institutional capacities that are owned and synergized by striving to achieve the program objectives in the form of excellent service. The results showed that the OSS program had been implemented well following the goals to be completed, namely the improvement of licensing services, such as the results of several interviews with informants.

In line with the results of the interview, the data obtained at the OSS office shows that licensing services have experienced an increase, this increase, one of them, is due to the existence of this culture in the OSS program. In each policy implementation, in addition to the successes that have been achieved, there are still problems encountered, as there are still some communities using brokers in handling permits. For this reason, efforts are needed to synergize with each other in institutions to handle this policy, through an institutional approach and supported by high human resources and imbued by the principles of local wisdom, namely Assimellereng.

Discussion

In implementing the policy, equality of perception must be well developed in the institutional structure and with the people who will feel the impact of the program performed. Many factors can affect the performance of the government bureaucracy, including the absence of meritocracy (caused the best talent), caused by, for example, the recruitment process which does not target all segments of society, elections and the progress of civil servants are not based on the capacity, knowledge, and skills, in fair competition and open (Yusriadi, 2018a).

The same perception in the institutional structure that carries out this OSS program can be achieved through the spirit contained in the Assimellereng principle. Likewise, the similarity of desire between the OSS implementing agencies and the community must also be based on this principle. Assimelellereng's principle animates the OSS program implementation model in integrating institutional and human resource approaches in carrying out this program. It is very relevant to the principle of Assimellereng, where all the problems to be resolved with regard to the interests of the wider community are based on a sense of brotherhood with high commitment so that service delivery can proceed well with the human resources owned by the bureaucratic apparatus that places its position as a subject and places the community as the object of the program to be implemented.

The OSS implementation model as an alternative model is proposed as an effort to improve the implementation of programs that have been implemented so far as follows.

The Figure 2 shows an institutional approach combined with a human resource approach based on Assimellereng principles in the implementation of the OSS program which contains the following meanings (Said, 2013).

Figure 2.Oss Implementation Model

Sianrasa-Rasenge Nasiammase-Maseie (The Principle of Brotherhood)

The principle of brotherhood means that the implementation of this OSS is based on a sense of camaraderie among fellow citizens so that the implementation of the policy will not discriminate against one another. The government as the organizer of the system will provide the same service for the citizens who use this OSS, without any different treatment for those who need it.

The implementation of programs involving several government agencies must unite the same perception in providing services to the community. It is essential because it often happens between one institution and other institutions lacking coordination in implementing policies that have the same goals. If this happens, then the program objectives cannot be achieved.

Sipakario-rio (The principle of respecting and maintaining a sense of belonging)

Mutual respect, both among fellow communities in the operation of OSS is necessary. It is crucial because this OSS is not only the responsibility of the regional government alone. For this reason, cooperation between providers at the same level needs to be created in the context of mutual respect, so that no one feels that there is a greater bureaucratic apparatus and others are merely complementary. Likewise, among fellow citizens, mutual respect must be the basis for getting service. This does not mean that those who come from the community with a better socioeconomic level will get priority compared to the people who come from weak socioeconomic groups.

Tessicirinnaiannge ri sitinajae (The principle of one fate and one dependent)

This principle shows that there is the concern for others; the program that is carried out based on the principle of mutual-cooperation will create a program that can serve all parties. Thus all the people who need this program will be helped according to their needs and not see a person's social background.

Sipakainge ri gau patujue (Principle of togetherness)

Realizing the OSS goal to carry out excellent service for service users is not an easy task. This goal can be accomplished if all stakeholders have the same vision to achieve it. This principle of togetherness must be a strong foundation, both regarding institutional roles and in terms of the role of human resources as program implementers. The existence of a form of balance in a program will make it easier to make it happen. It is appropriate if the two approaches synergize in the same vision to realize the targeted program goals.

Siaddappengeng pulanae (Family principle)

The principle of kinship is a rooted principle for the lives of people in Indonesia. Laying the principle of relationship in every policy setting or the implementation of the program is something that cannot be denied. By considering the principle into practice in the OSS, all interested parties, both from the government as the organizer and the community as beneficiaries, will be in a family atmosphere in implementing the program. This will be strong glue between all parties to achieve common goals.

Through this new model, it is expected that the OSS program can be integrated into one activity that synergizes so that the achievement of the desired goals of the government is providing the excellent service.

What remains an obstacle in the implementation of OSS are the limited human resources. Ideally, OSS has the technical staff, but the number of staff is generally located in the original agency and not in the OSS office. The problem of the various institutional status of the OSS is in the form of agencies and offices with different authority implications. If it is in the kind of service and the body is usually easy to coordinate with other agencies because the level is equal. If in the form of an office, it will be difficult to organize because of different levels. Even worse, if the OSS office is still a “unit” attached to other institutions (kompas.com).

Regarding the labour, the number of employees is 16 staffs; this is also one of the obstacles to human resources in providing services to the community. This will be a problem that affects efforts to achieve the best service goals. This is what encourages researchers to propose a model for the implementation of the OSS program that will synergize the entire human resources and institutions involved in the OSS program by prioritizing efforts to realize the goals of the OSS.

Conclusion

Several agencies that must also be directly involved in supporting the successful implementation of OSS, namely District agencies, these institutions play an essential role because they are institutions that are at the forefront in direct contact with the community. In introducing the community to every program and activity organized by the government, this institution must be involved, especially in socialization to the citizen. By realizing the functions and roles of each institution and agency that involved in the OSS program, directly and indirectly, what is needed next is how it can be woven together in a single step based on a government regulation that will bind all stakeholders in carrying out their duties so that the objectives of bureaucratic reform in service improvement contained in the OSS program can be realized as expected.

Based on Assimellereng's principle, both human and institutional resource approaches can be juxtaposed in guarding the implementation of the OSS program to achieve the desired goals. The meaning contained in this principle includes a sense of kinship and togetherness between institutions/government agencies and between the government and the community must continue to be nurtured so as not to weaken each other. It is the meaning that researchers put forward in this paper, as a model for implementing bureaucracy reform that can be performed by adjusting the situation, conditions, and the cultural background of the community to the program.

References