Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 21 Issue: 5

Organisational Justice as Correlate of Turnover Intentions among Academic Librarians in South -West Nigeria

Soyemi Opeyemi Deborah, Babcock University

Oloyede Oluwayemisi Eunice, Babcock University

Citation Information: Deborah, S.O., & Eunice, O.O. (2022). Organisational justice as correlate of turnover intentions among academic librarians in south -west Nigeria. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(S5), 1-12.

Abstract

The study investigated the influence of organizational justice on turnover intentions of librarians in universities in South-West, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. Four hundred and twelve librarians from fifty-three (53) universities in south-west Nigeria made up the study's population. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was employed in selecting a sample size of two hundred and three (203). Data was collected through the distribution of validated questionnaires. A 100% return rate was achieved, however 98.5% were found useable for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings from this study provided useful indications that organizational justice (F (2,196) =178.318, Adj.R2 =0.503 P≤0.05) significantly and positively influence librarians' turnover intentions in South-west Nigeria, accounting for up to 50.3% (R2=0.503) variance in influence on librarians' turnover intentions. However, despite the high degree of organizational justice across university libraries in South-west Nigeria, there exists a high level of turnover intentions (xÌ?=3.43, SD=1.10) on a 5-point scale. It is therefore expedient for university management and library administrators to maintain and improve all dimensions of organizational justice while further study is suggested to find out other determinants of the high turnover intentions among librarians in South-west Nigeria.

Keywords

Librarians, Nigeria, Organizational Justice, South-west, Turnover Intentions, Universities.

Introduction

Employee turnover intention has been a major concern for organizations around the world, regardless of location, size, or nature of business. Academic institutions, and, sadly, academic libraries, are no exception. An academic library is a service-oriented unit at the heart of all academic activities at a university. They offer a wide range of professional services to their user community. In addition to the acquisition, organization, and provision of access to information resources across different disciplines, academic libraries also store knowledge, provide reference services, provide information literacy training, promote, and market library services. Consequently, competent, and efficient librarians are critical to the delivery of effective services and the achievement of the library's overall goals. Hence, librarian retention and turnover intentions are regarded as an urgent issue that must be addressed.

Various studies have shown that turnover intention among librarians is high (Nyamubarwa, 2013; Aiyebelehin et al., 2020). According to the study of Hamzat et al. (2020), turnover intentions of library and information science professionals are high, as 66% intend to leave their job if opportune to get a new job. Turnover intentions among librarians can lead to reduced morale and productivity, while actual turnover results to a shortage of qualified and competent library personnel, knowledge loss, recruitment and training costs, and reduced morale and productivity. To survive in today's competitive environment, academic institutions and library management must pay close attention to the issue of turnover intentions, which is a key indicator of actual turnover. Based on the foregoing, one of the strategies for increasing academic institutions' and libraries' competitiveness is the retention of capable human resources. This is because human resources are regarded as an organization's most valuable asset (Edeh et al., 2021).

The concept of organizational justice which is described as employee's perception of fairness within an organization has grown in popularity among human resource professionals and scholars. According to Greenberg (1987), organizational justice is an employee’s assessment of managerial ethical and moral behavior. Organizational justice has many positive and significant implications for the success of any organization. Various studies have shown that organizational justice influences employees’ behavioral outcomes and employee retention (Suifan et al., 2016; Waribo et al., 2020; Edeh et al., 2021). Additionally, the importance of organizational justice in minimizing turnover intention among librarians is noted in the literature (Masenya, 2019).

Organizational justice has been identified as a factor influencing turnover intentions. Employees' attitudes and behaviors in the workplace are generally influenced by the organization's fairness-related behavior, decisions, and actions. According to Mayowa-Adebara (2018), perceived unfairness in the library environment leads to careless behavior and a lack of dedication from library personnel, as well as plans to leave. Librarians, on the other hand, perform well when the organization is thought to be fair. This means that employees' perceptions of the organization's justice have a direct impact on their overall happiness, commitment, and turnover intention.

Although several empirical studies have investigated the influence of organizational justice on a variety of organizational outcomes, such as commitment, job satisfaction, employee retention, employee engagement and turnover in various organizations especially the health sector (Mayowa-Adebara, 2018; Ohiorenoya & Eguavoen; 2019). No study has examined the role of organizational justice on librarian’s turnover intention in Nigerian universities. It is against this premise that this study intends to examine the influence of organizational justice on turnover intentions among librarians in South-west Nigeria. This study is therefore sectioned into literature review which covers review of related literature, research methodology, analysis and results, discussion of findings, conclusion, and recommendations.

Objectives

1. Determine the level of the turnover intention among librarians in university libraries in South-west Nigeria
2. Examine the degree of organizational justice in university libraries in South-west Nigeria

Research Questions

1. What is the level of the turnover intention of librarians in university libraries in South-west Nigeria?
2. What is the degree of organizational justice in university libraries in South-west Nigeria?

Hypothesis

H01: Organizational justice has no significant influence on turnover intentions of librarians in universities in South-West Nigeria.

Literature Review

Turnover Intentions

The concept of turnover intention is defined as an employee’s conscious and premeditated choice to quit the employment of an organization. According to Tett & Meyer (1993) Turnover intention is defined as a conscious and purposeful desire of an employee to resign from an organization. Turnover intention is identified as the final in the sequence of withdrawal cognitions, which includes evaluation of job satisfaction, thoughts of quitting, cost of quitting, probability of finding a new job, search for alternative job, evaluation of alternative job, turnover intentions (Mobley,1982). Turnover intention is a concern for many organizations, and it has been studied by several scholars owing to its high costs and adverse implications for any organization (Bhagwandeen, 2021).

Turnover intention is what leads to employee turnover in organizations such as libraries and information centers. The study of turnover intention and its possible antecedents is therefore justified, as it may serve as a useful proactive method for identifying and addressing anticipated turnover-related issues in organizations, as turnover intentions have consistently been identified as a predictor of actual turnover. Although turnover intentions do not always lead to actual turnover, studies by Emmanuel Chidiadi (2020); Albaqami (2016) has shown that turnover intention is commonly a precursor to actual turnover. This implies that in organizations, turnover intentions come before actual turnover.

However, when turnover intention does not result in actual turnover, high levels of turnover intention among employees have been proven to have negative effects on organizational outcomes, employee engagement and overall organizational success. Behavioral pattern such as lateness, absenteeism, job withdrawal, declining performance, bad organizational citizenship behavior, low commitment, and poor work engagement, have been connected to employee turnover intention (Xiong & Wen 2020). It has therefore become expedient to nib turnover intentions in the bud and not aggravates it among employees.

Belete (2018) identified job satisfaction, organizational culture, organizational commitment, salary, organizational justice, reward system, demographic variables, leadership styles, job stress and organizational Climate, as contributory factors to employee turnover intentions. In the same vein, a variety of factors that have been identified to influence librarian’s turnover intentions are reward system, organizational justice, work-life balance, organizational culture, leadership, and library infrastructure (Ergado & Gojeh 2015; Emmanuel Chidiadi , 2020; Masenya et al., 2020).

Organizational Justice and Turnover Intentions of Librarians

The Cambridge English dictionary defines justice as “the state of being morally fair or equitable ” Justice is frequently thought of in terms of religion, ethics, equity, fairness, or the law (Pekurinen et al., 2017). As a result, it is considered one of humans' most fundamental and natural needs. Employee perceptions of fairness in an organization are referred to as “organization justice” (Greenberg, 1987). Emeji (2018) defined organizational justice as an employee's perception of fairness in workplace outcomes, procedures, and interactions. Individual employee evaluations of fairness in terms of processes, resource distribution, and interactions in an organization are referred to as organizational justice (Olowookere et al., 2020).

According to the definitions above, organizational justice is a subjective assessment of how fairly or unfairly an employee is treated by their organization. The concept of organizational justice has piqued the interest and concern of both employees and employers in recent years because of its implications on organizational outcomes. Several outcomes such as job satisfaction, commitment, performance, withdrawal, and turnover have been related with organizational justice (Yean & Yusof, 2018). Employees' perceptions of unfair treatment are likely to generate negative attitudes toward management (Yean & Yusof, 2018) such as such as poor job performance, disregard for instructions, theft, vandalism, withdrawal, negligence, resistance, and consistent absence from work, which can adversely affect organizational goals. On the other hand, studies also show a correlation between organizational justice and positive organizational behavior (Pan et al., 2018). This means that employees will do their best if the organization's perceived treatment is fair. Consequently, organizational justice significantly influences organizations, especially when it comes to balancing employer-employee relationships.

Organizational justice consists of four dimensions namely, distributive, procedural, interpersonal justice, and informative justice (Colquitt, 2001; Colquitt et al., 2013; Gupta & Kumar, 2012). Prior to 1975, the study of justice was primarily focused on distributive justice, much of which stems from study conducted by Adams, which appraised fairness using the social exchange theory framework (Colquitt et al., 2001) and equity theory. Distributive justice is the perception of fairness with regards to decision outcomes and allocation of resources (Emeji, 2018; Olowookere et al., 2020). This outcome may be tangible, in form of monetary rewards, tasks allocation or intangible, in form of recognition and promotion. According to Adams employees are more concerned about the fairness of an outcome than the outcome itself.

Early study on organizational justice expanded to include Thibaut & Walker's (1975) introduction of procedural justice which underlined the need to consider justice in terms of the outcome and the processes involved in reaching the outcomes. Their emphasis, however, was on fairness in judicial proceedings and the legal sector in general. Leventhal (1980) expanded the notion of procedural justice to include organizational contexts. Greenberg (1990) defines procedural justice as “an individual's judgments of fairness in the process of making result allocation decisions.” Procedural justice is defined as an employee's view of fairness about procedures and processes that lead to outcomes. This comprises policies for implementing outcomes such as a reward system, policies for assigning tasks, and decision making in respect to all outcomes. The tendency to produce a fair outcome arises from fairness in procedures. Emeji (2018) asserts that procedural justice is enhanced when processes, procedures, and policies are consistent, accurate, ethical, and free of bias.

Bies (1986) proposed the third dimension of organizational justice; interactional justice. Their study focused on the importance and quality of interpersonal relationships between employees and employers when decisions are made, and procedures are followed. Interactional justice, according to Olowookere et al. (2020), is described as perceived fairness in the treatment employees receive from employers when it comes to interaction. The perceived fairness in the interpersonal relationship between employees and the employer is known as interactional justice. Colquitt & Rodell (2015) place premium on respect, truthfulness, and justification in the presentation and communication of organizational procedures. Interactional justice is further separated into two, namely interpersonal justice and informational justice. While interpersonal justice is concerned with the treatment employees receive in relation to civility, dignity, and respect by superiors and other parties involved in implementing procedures, decision making or determining outcomes. Informational justice is concerned with the dissemination of information about procedures or the rationale for the distribution of outcomes in a particular way. Employers may, in essence, be courteous while conveying outcomes to employees.

Organizational justice appears to have a significant impact on turnover intentions, according to empirical findings (Chukwu, 2019). A study which examined organizational justice and its influence on turnover intention while determining the mediating role of job satisfaction among five hundred and fifty (550) IT professionals in Thailand, reported that through the mediating influence of job satisfaction, distributive and procedural justice which were the two dimensions of justice considered have a significant relationship with employee turnover intention (Phayoonpun & Mat, 2014). Similarly, carried out a study with the aim of determining how organizational justice affects non-academic staff retention in selected private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria, reported that organizational justice has a significant influence on the retention of employees. This study implies that turnover of employees is inevitable when there is the perception of unfairness in the organization. Also, employees' attitudes regarding their jobs are negatively affected when they are unsatisfied with their jobs.

Organizational justice, among several other factors, was found to have an adverse and significant link with turnover intentions in Belete (2018) empirical review. In furtherance, Chukwu (2019) reported that fairness in procedure, reward distribution, fairness in superiors' treatment of employees, and the establishment of justice in an organization have a major impact on employee turnover intentions in the Nigerian food and beverage industry. As a result, when organizational justice is established in an organization, employees’ intentions to quit are diminished.

According to Oluwafemi (2013), to increase employee performance and decrease employee turnover, important outcomes such as an impartial reward system, consistent pay reviews, timely promotions, local and international trainings, open, and fair appraisal system should be adopted. He examined the effect of three key characteristics of organizational justice, namely distributive, procedural, and interactional justice, on turnover intention among 750 Nigerian oil employees and reported that perceived inequity in terms of distribution, procedures, and interaction leads to disappointed expectations, which leads to job dissatisfaction and, as a result, turnover intentions. On the other hand, employees' intentions to quit will be considerably reduced when they believe rewards to be properly distributed, policies and procedures to be clear and consistently applied, and superior - subordinate relationship to be courteous, unbiased, and impartial.

According to Umar, who studied the influence of organizational justice on employee turnover intentions in Nigerian deposit banks, distributive justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice, had no significance on employee turnover intentions in the Nigerian banking business. Procedural justice, on the other hand, has a significant impact on turnover intentions. Inferring that in the Nigerian banking sector, procedural justice is a probable predictor of employee turnover intentions. Additionally, the findings suggest that employees pay close attention to procedures that impact the decisions that affect them, and that when the procedures that lead to decisions are viewed as unfair, the likelihood of leaving the organization increases. In contrast, a study on the impact of perceived organizational justice on healthcare worker turnover intentions in Ethiopia found a high turnover intention rate among healthcare personnel in both private and public hospitals, with distributive justice being the most important determinant of employee turnover intention among other dimensions of organizational justice (Mengstie, 2020).

Several studies have looked at the determinants and costs of organizational justice, as well as how it connects to other key employment factors (Suifan, 2015). Yaghoubi examined the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction among 229 employees of an Iranian furniture manufacturing business and reported a positive association between the two. In other words, employee job satisfaction is heavily affected and reliant on how they view the organization's fairness. The study of Addai et al. (2018) also revealed that organizational justice and job satisfaction associates negatively and accounts for 24.1% variance in turnover intentions. An analysis of the various studies on organizational justice and turnover intention above indicates that employees' perception of organizational justice significantly influences employee behavior towards work. It also brings dissatisfaction and eventually prompts the intention to leave.

In the context of the library, the effect of organizational justice on organizational commitment among librarians in universities in Iran. The study which adopted a correlation research design and collected data from one hundred and thirty-three (133) personnel through a field survey revealed a significant and positive relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment. The three components of organizational justice investigated in this study are distributive, procedural, and interactional justice, with interactional justice having the greatest impact on library staff's organizational commitment. Similarly, the study which examined the impact of organizational justice on job performance of library employees in (15) university libraries in Pakistan reported organizational justice have significant influence on job performance of librarians with interactional justice having a more significant influence on job performance. From the submissions above, librarians appreciate fairness in communicating procedure, respect, and the overall interpersonal interaction between superiors and staff.

In furtherance, the study of Mayowa-Adebara (2018) which examined the influence of leadership style, organizational justice, and human capital development on library personnel commitment in academic libraries in South-West Nigeria revealed that leadership style, organizational justice, and human capital development significantly influence employee commitment the university libraries. The library is an organization; hence, justice is significant and should be given utmost attention to improving job performance, commitment, job satisfaction, and ultimately, retention of librarians.

Methodology

The survey research design was adopted for this study. The population comprised of 412 librarians in 53 universities in South-West Nigeria. Using Yamane formula, 203 respondents were selected for this study. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was employed as it ensured that everyone in the population had an equal chance of being selected. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire. A total of 203 questionnaires were distributed among respondents, 203 responses were received and 199 representing 98.5% were considered useable for the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS package and data presented using tables and percentages.

Data Analysis and Results

Research Question One

What is the level of the turnover intention of librarians in university libraries in South-west Nigeria?

Table 1 shows that the level of turnover intentions among librarians in universities in South-west Nigeria is high (=3.43, SD=1.10) on a 5-point scale. There are also indications that many librarians believe their jobs do not adequately meet their personal needs (=3.57) and has a negative impact on their personal well-being(= 3.53). Although few librarians have contemplated leaving their present jobs (=2.32), majority have remained due to the fear of the unknown which has kept them from resigning(=3.53). However, many librarians in universities in South-west Nigeria are actively loo ing for other jobs (=3.27), while the majority aim to start a business (=4.18). Furthermore, librarians in the South-west agreed that additional academic libraries are being established at a very high level(= 4.57), which imply a higher chance of getting another job(=4.89) Additionally, to a somewhat high level (=3.27), many librarians indicated that if another job at the same pay level became available, they would accept it, and to a high level (=3.83), many of them compare the current reward system in their own workplaces to that of their counterparts in universities around the world. Although, the results suggest that few librarians plan to quit their jobs in the near future (=2.18), nonetheless, the overall finding, ith a mean score of (=3.43) and a standard deviation of (=1.10), indicates a high degree of librarian’s turnover intentions in universities in South-west Nigeria.

Table 1
Level Of Turnover Intentions Of Librarians In University Libraries
Items
The level to which
VHL
Freq.
(%)
HL
Freq.
(%)
SHL
Freq.
(%)
L
Freq.
(%)
VL
Freq.
(%)
Mean
()
Standard Deviation
(SD)
Job satisfaction 3.35 0.95
My job does not fulfil my personal needs 15
(7.6)
30
(15.0)
55
(27.6)
79
(39.8)
20
(10.0)
3.57 1.09
My current job has a negative effect on my personal well being - 11
(5.5)
71
(35.7)
107
(53.8)
10
(5.0)
2.53 1.07
Thoughts of quitting 1.00 1.01
I consider leaving my job 19
(9.5)
29
(14.6)
47
(23.6)
73
(36.7)
31
(15.6)
2.32 1.08
I do not look forward to another day at work -
-
-
-
21
(10.5)
85
(42.7)
93
(46.7)
1.27 1.13
Costs of quitting 3.23 1.09
Fear of the unknown prevents me from quitting 51
(25.6)
73
(36.7)
33
(16.6)
18
(9.0)
22
(11.0)
3.53 1.07
Benefits from my current job prevents me from quitting 29
(14.6)
44
(22.1)
39
(19.6)
70
(35.2)
8
(4.0)
3.43 1.11
Search for alternatives 3.57 1.15
I actively search for alternative jobs 11
(5.5)
41
(20.6)
77
(38.9)
70
(35.2)
-
-
3.27 1.13
I plan to start a business 55
(27.6)
71
(35.7)
13
(6.5)
39
(19.6)
21
10.5
4.18 1.18
Probability of finding another job 4.25 1.03
More university libraries are being established 73
(36.7)
81
(40.7)
40
(21.1)
5
(2.5)
- 4.57 1.09
I can possibly get another job 61
(30.6)
93
(46.3)
45
(22.6)
-
-
-
-
4.89 1.11
Evaluating alternatives 3.51 1.03
I will accept another job at the same compensation level should I be offered 11
(5.5)
44
(22.1)
53
(26.6)
70
(35.2)
21
(10.5)
3.27 1.13
I compare my present reward to that of other universities around me 58
(29.1)
51
(25.6)
49
(24.6)
-
-
41
(20.6)
3.83 1.07
Turnover intention 2.13 1.01
I will quit my job soon -
-
5
(2.5)
49
(24.6)
80
(40.2)
65
(32.7)
2.18 1.08
I plan to resign -
-
-
-
19
(9.5)
98
(49.2)
82
(41.2)
1.21 1.18
Average Overall Mean           3.43 1.10

These findings suggest that many librarians in universities in South-west Nigeria are dissatisfied with their current working conditions and are only staying on the job because they have no other options. The fact that librarians considered quitting their jobs at some point, albeit at a low level ( =2.32) implies that the high cost of quitting ( =3.53) must have held many back. However, it is only a matter of time and availability of alternative before they quit their present jobs.

Research Question Two

What is the degree of organizational justice in university libraries in southwest Nigeria?.

Table 2 shows the level of organizational justice in university libraries in South-West Nigeria. The results demonstrate that organizational justice exists to a high degree across university libraries in South-west Nigeria, with an average overall mean of (=3.51, SD=0.98) on a scale of 5-points. This perspective is supported by the findings of the grouped items in the table, Which shoW a high level of procedural justice (=3.57), distributive justice(=3.38), interpersonal justice (=3.69) and informational justice(=3.69).

Table 2
Degree Of Organizational Justice In University Libraries
Items
The degree to which
VHD
Freq.
(%)
HD
Freq.
(%)
SHD
Freq.
(%)
LD
Freq.
(%)
VLD
Freq.
(%)
Mean
()
Standard Deviation
(SD)
Procedural Justice 3.57 0.98
My organization ensures that officials do not allow personal biases to affect their decisions. 27
(13.6)
51
(25.6)
78
(39.2)
20
(10.0)
23
(11.5)
3.39 1.02
My organization's decision-making procedures are applied consistently 49
(26.6)
75
(37.7)
39
(19.6)
29
(14.6)
10
(5.0)
3.63 1.01
All employees are treated similarly by the decision-making procedures that exist in my organization. 44
(22.1)
73
(36.7)
47
(23.6)
31
(15.6)
4
(2.0)
3.67 0.98
Procedures ensure that decisions are made in an ethical and moral manner 45
(22.6)
77
(38.7)
37
(8.6)
29
(14.6)
11
(5.5)
3.66 1.10
Distributive Justice 3.38 1.03
My rewards accurately reflect my performance in the organization - 17
(8.5)
39
(19.6)
98
(49.2)
45
(22.6)
2.09 1.10
My work schedule is fair 31
(15.6)
69
(34.7)
73
(36.7)
20
(10.0)
6
(3.0)
3.99 1.11
I receive adequate rewards in comparison with other employees - 29
(14.6)
73
(36.7)
53
(26.6)
44
(22.1)
2.56 0.96
My rewards are consistent with those I could get from other organizations - 33
(16.6)
97
(48.7)
66
(33.1)
3
(1.5)
2.45 0.93
Interpersonal Justice 3.69 0.97
My supervisor deals with me politely 31
(15.6)
40
(20.1)
69
(34.7)
20
(10.0)
39
(19.6)
3.90 1.07
My supervisor's actions show that they respect me 51
(25.6)
40
(20.1)
41
(20.6)
67
(33.7)
-
-
4.56 0.99
My supervisor takes care to deal with me in a truthful manner 55
(27.6)
49
(24.6)
69
(34.7)
26
(13.1)
-
-
4.61 0.92
My supervisor takes cognizance of the impact of his/her actions on me 29
(14.6)
63
(31.6)
88
(44.2)
5
(2.5)
14
(7.0)
4.00 0.83
Information Justice 3.65 0.65
My organization has in place formal channels that allows me to express my views before decisions are made 31
(15.6)
55
(27.6)
43
(21.6)
45
(22.6)
35
(17.6)
3.25 0.97
My supervisor strives to be honest when communicating with me 44
(22.1)
61
(30.6)
49
(24.6)
45
(22.6)
-
-
4.41 0.98
My supervisor communicates details in a timely manner 31
(15.6)
49
(24.6)
83
(41.7)
36
(18.0)
-
-
4.35 1.10
My supervisor explains decision-making procedures thoroughly to me 43
(21.6)
51
(26.6)
97
(48.7)
8
(4.0)
-
-
4.17 1.03
Average Overall Mean           3.59 0.98

Hypothesis Testing

Table 3 shows that organizational justice (F (2, 196) =178.318, Adj.R2 =0. 0 P ≤0.05) has a significant positive influence on librarians' turnover intentions in South-west Nigeria, accounting for up to 50.3% (R2=0.503) variance in influence on librarians' turnover intentions. According to the coefficient table, procedural justice β 0. 1 , P ≤0.05) has a very significant influence on librarians' turnover intentions and can exert up to 41.4 % variance in influence. Similarly, distributive justice β 0. 01, P ≤ 0.05) showed a highly significant influence on librarians' turnover intentions and may therefore account for up to 60.1% variance in influence on it.

Table 3
Anova & Model Summary Testing Significant Influence Of Organizational Justice On Turnover Intentions Of University Librarians
ANOVA
  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Regression
Residual
Total
17985.450 2 5705.688 178.318 0.000b
9055.763 196 32.250    
27041.213 198      
R=0.491 R Square= 0.510 Adj. R Square= 0.503
Coefficients
Construct Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta(β)
(Constant)
Procedural Justice
Distributive Justice
Interpersonal Justice
Information Justice
17.250 2.626   10.186 0.000
0.333 0.033 0.414 2.133 0.013
0.665
0.451
0.711
0.042
0.097
0.401
0.601
0.513
0.201
2.311
4.401
1.341
0.000
0.000
0.000
Dependent Variable: Turnover intentions

Furthermore, the study found that both interpersonal justice β 0. 1 , P ≤0.05) and information justice β 0. 01, P ≤0.05) had a substantial significant effect (51.3%, 40.1%) on librarian turnover intentions in universities in South-west Nigeria. As a result of this evidence, the null hypothesis was rejected and restated as follows: Organizational justice will have a significant influence on the turnover intentions of librarians in South-West Nigeria.

Discussion of Findings

Finding from this study suggests that the degree of turnover intentions among librarians who participated in this survey is high, with a grand mean of 3.43 on a 5-point scale. Also, many librarians in universities in South-west Nigeria are dissatisfied with their current job and are only remaining on the job because they do not have a better option. The fact that librarians had thought of leaving their jobs at some time, albeit at a low-level means that the substantial cost of quitting may have kept them back. Also, the high level of active job search among librarians, as well as the level of evaluating alternatives, indicates that most librarians in the study area are only coping with their jobs, with the majority willing to change jobs or start a business. These findings agree with findings of Hamzat et al. (2020); Emmanuel Chidiadi (2020); Aiyebelehin et al. (2020); Masenya (2019) who reported a high rate of turnover intention among librarians. The observable high trend of turnover intentions among librarians in this study is an indication of low commitment level, reduced performance and exhibition of counterproductive behaviors among librarians. As librarians who have the intention to leave rarely offer their best on the job (Masenya et al., 2020; Chukwu, 2019; Xiong & Wen, 2020). Furthermore, a high rate of actual turnover in the nearest future is inevitable and according to this is likely to affect library sustainability and result in disruption of library activities, poor service delivery, high cost of recruitment and training.

Additionally, findings indicate that organizational justice exists to a large extent within university libraries in South-west Nigeria, with a high level of procedural justice (x=3.57), distributive justice (=3.38) interpersonal justice (=3.69) . and informational justice (=3.65) Furthermore, organizational justice (F (2, 196) =178.318, Adj.R2 =0. 0 P ≤0.05) has a significant impact on librarians' turnover intentions, accounting for up to 50.3% (R2 =0.503) of the variation in influence on librarians' turnover intentions, with distributive, procedural, informational and interaction justice all having significant influence on turnover intentions of librarians in this study. This however negates the findings of which suggested that although procedural justice significantly influenced employee turnover intentions, distributive and interactional justice have no significant influence on librarian’s turnover intentions. The findings of the present study are in tandem with the study of Chukwu (2019) that confirmed an influence of organizational justice on turnover intentions of employees.

From this study, it is observed that librarians place value on organizational justice, as it is regarded as a significant component in deciding whether to stay or leave an organization, therefore, the majority of university libraries in the study strived to maintain a high level of organizational justice within them as they are located in academic environments where integrity and justice are supposedly upheld in order to mirror and instill same in society.

Conclusion and Recommendation

This study concludes that organizational justice exists to a large extent, and it positively influences turnover intentions of librarians in university libraries in South-west Nigeria. However, many librarians in universities in South-west Nigeria experience low job satisfaction and have a high turnover intention. While the need for further studies to examine other job variables that may be responsible for low job satisfaction and high turnover intention is evident, university management and library administrators should also make deliberate efforts to improve all dimensions of organizational justice especially distributive justice which is concerned with outcomes such as reward and task allocation among librarians, in order to prevent employee turnover intentions which may be caused by a perception of injustice.

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Received: 28-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. ASMJ-22-11403; Editor assigned: 18-Mar-2022, PreQC No. ASMJ-22-11403(PQ); Reviewed: 03-Mar-2022, QC No. ASMJ-22-11403; Revised: 22-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. ASMJ-22-11403(R); Published: 29-Mar-2022

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