Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 6
Wajdee Mohammadkair Ebrheem Ajlouni, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology (Deemed University)
Gurvinder Kaur, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology (Deemed University)
Shehadehmofleh Al-Gharaibeh, Abbulrahman Bin Faisal University
Organizational Justice (OJ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), Government Universities, Academic Institution, Non-academic Staff, Performance, Jordan.
Research has recognized that Organizational Justice (OJ) is a factor that drives employees to demonstrate their involvement tasks as transcend duties (Colquitt et al., 2001). An OJ confirmed that organizations can make their employees feel that they are treated fairly and equally, OJ is classified mainly into four types: distributive, procedural, interactive, and informational (McDowall & Fletcher, 2004). Moreover, previous studies have shown that perceptions of workplace as justice is relate to a positive view of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB).Therefore, the decline in perceptions of OCB can be attributed to a lack of awareness of justice in organization (Abili et al., 2009).
The OCB has been developed as an essential field of study because of the growing importance of independent and team-based work in place of firm, usual hierarchies (Campbell & Joy, 2016). Also, the OCB has persisted in empirical focus because the researchers appreciate its practical implications for organizational success (Podsakoff et al., 2000). However, Organ (1988) defined the OCB as “Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”. In addition, OCB helps to enhance employees’ performance besides organizational performance and success (Podsakoff et al., 2000).While, OCB was highly influenced by organizational performance and commitment, which in turn can enhance customerequality of services and satisfaction, OCB can improve patient satisfaction service quality, but it does not significantly improve patient loyalty (Sutharjana et al., 2013). OCB has a great effect with organizational variables such as Job satisfaction, Job commitment and Turnover intentions which were held accountable for employees’ (Huak & Pivi, 2015). Finally, OCB has positive influence on overall performance in the workplace (Tanaka, 2013).
At university non-academic staff constitutes a significant number of the whole staff population and their contributions during academic support and facilitator role certainly has an impact on overall performance of the university. Since a number of non-academic staff members are huge their behavior can be probable to have a high level of impact of resultant OCB (Kandeepan, 2016). The OCB is taken into consideration from the point of non-academic staff members at universities. Demographic aspects of university non-academic staff and their relationship and differences with OCB level are researched and analyzed in this study. The reality of literatures and researchers in Jordan haven’t focused on the OJ and OCB at governmental universities, many of the Arab studies have demonstrated the presence of several concentrated on the other sectors such as schools and companies. For these reasons, this study was focusing on the government universities in the northern part of Jordan and aims to clarify the levels of OJ and OCB at government universities through non- academic employee’s perceptions and wanted to assess the relationships between these variables.
The Importance of Organizational Justice
The OJ has significant effects on the organization, employee and customer, OJ is one of the organizational principles that are applied to improve organizational professional performances (Marquis & Huston, 2009). This is congruent with Moazzezi et al. (2014) correlational study that examined the effect of OJ on Payamenoor University employees’ job performance in Ardabil province in Iran. The results showed that OJ positively affected employees’ job performance. The employee’s perceptions in educational institutes about procedural and interactional justice have a great effect on their job satisfaction in Pakistani context, while distributive justice did not have a significant impact on job satisfaction (Iqbal, 2013). Also, OJ was acceptable and positively improved their performance in Payamenoor university of Ardabil in Iran (Moazzezi et al., 2014) additionally; interactional justice increased the feeling of treating with respect that makes employee more innovative in Jordanian companies (Almansour & Minai, 2012). Haar & Spell (2009) proved that employees were satisfied due to being more autonomous as a result of high distributive justice, and so turnover intentions were low. As well as, procedural justice dimension was found to be stronger predictor of turnover behavior among nurses of Midwestern state (Posthuma et al., 2007).
In a more descriptive study for Gim & Desa (2014), reported that effective employee commitment was significantly and positively related to distributive and procedural justice; employee perceived that they were dialed fairly and compensations were fair too, they could be more committed to their organization so that they could not leave the organization. Additionally, this study showed that, it is important for both public and private organizations to deal with its employees fairly to make them more committed, and so far they could be more likely intent to stay on the organizations. While, OCB was slightly more prevalent among managers working in general hospitals than those working in single-specialty hospitals in Iran (Farzianpour et al., 2011).Yet, nurses had a high perception of OJ in specialty hospitals that significantly differ regarding to their demographic not regarding to type of hospital; nurses with diploma degree had a higher perception of organizational justice than nurses with Bachelors (Hatam et al., 2013).
The perceptions of unfairness led to negative reaction in the organization while managers dealing fairly and consistent rewards based on employees' performance and competencies, without personal bias can create a positive perception of distributive and procedural justice among employee (Heidari & Saeedi, 2012). Finally, Holtz (2013) provided that new model of reciprocal relationships between trust and OJ. This model showed that trust is antecedent for OJ, which is controversial among the majority of previous literature in which trust was a consequence of OJ.
The Importance of Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Previous studies clarified many antecedents for enhancing OCB among employees at organization. A comprehensive review of literature provided evidence that employees’ characteristics, job attitudes, task characteristics, and leader behaviors were the strongest antecedents of OCB, where as helping behavior was identified as an important form of OCB (Podsakoff et al., 2000). More specifically, employees’ demographics still under argument in the literature; Mahnaz et al. (2014) studied the effects of employees' demographics on OCB. Their study showed that OCB can be affected by demographic characteristics with the exception of ethnicity. Congruent with Farzianpour et al. (2011) found that OCB affected by sex of managers, education level, and the fields of their study. Later on, Altuntas & Baykal (2014) proved that employees' age, work position, and institutional experience, in addition to professional characteristics were significantly affected OCB. While, Uzonwanne (2014) studying OCB among oil workers in Nigeria found that gender, educational level, and marital status had not any effect in OCB. That supported by El-Badawy et al. (2017) who provided evidence that there was no significant association between employees' genders, age, years of experience, and educational levels and OCB in both Egypt and Mexico.
Additionally, the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and OCB is exchangeable; employees’ satisfaction in their job is positively affected their OCB (Intaraprasong et al., 2012).While practicing of OCBs can make employees more satisfied (Purnama, 2013). Contrary to study results of Budiman et al. (2014) reported that there was no significant relation between Job Satisfaction and OCB in Indonesian hotels, that calling for further studies. It is relevant to know that employee can move by some influences such as rewards, appraisal, even by or positive comment. Based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) in which the healthy psychological and behavioral functioning are connecting to motivational factors including autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2017). Rochea & Haarb (2013) showed the significance of SDT dimensions towards OCBs at work place that conducted by Researcher reported that SDT dimensions connected to OCB.
The OCB has benefits of both individuals and organizations are well identified in the literature. In their comprehensive literature review Podsakoff et al. (2000) proved that practices of OCB enhanced employees’ performance besides organizational performance and success. This in turn can enhance customer- equality of services and satisfaction. Sutharjana et al. (2013) a cross sectional survey in which they needed to observe the role of OCB in improving quality of service, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty in maternity hospitals in Indonesia. They reported that OCB can improve the quality of patient satisfaction service significantly, but it not significantly improved patient loyalty. In addition, quality of service and patient's satisfaction were found to mediate the effect of OCB on patient loyalty. Also, Practicing OCB was highly influenced organizational performance as proved by Purnama (2013), explanatory and correlational one. In this study, the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment, job Satisfaction and OCB on organizational performance was investigated. Supporting the previous discussions, Nooh (2013) proved that OCB significantly improved industrial companies' performance in Jordan, which supported by Al-Sukkar (2013) research among 172 mangers of Jordanian ministries. However, about 66% of the variation in OCB in the greater Amman municipality in Jordan related to career path development and its dimensions (Shawabkeh, 2017).
Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Levels in Jordan
Jordanian Industrial companies' employees expressed a high level of OCB (Abazee, 2010). However, Khasawneh (2011) descriptive study of the university faculty members' perceptions of OCB in Jordan stated that university faculty members had moderate level of OCB. One year later, Ajlouni (2011) found that OJ and OCB levels among health employees in public Jordanian hospitals were acceptable and within moderate levels, and there were significant associations between OJ and its dimensions and OCB and its dimensions. While, Abo taeah, (2012) found a moderate to this level of perception of OJ and high level of OCB among employees of Jordanian Government Ministries. Congruent to this Shury (2010), employees of Jordanian telecom companies expressed high level of OCB with statistically differences according to their gender, age, job title, and years of experience. Quraan & Kasawneh, (2017) shown that the level of OJ was medium while the OCB level was low. A significant association between OJ and OCB was proved too.
Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Relationships
Previous studies show that employee perceptions of fairness in the workplace are related with a positive view of OCB. Organ’s research proved that employee perceptions of justice are demonstrated by the increase or decrease of OCB. Therefore, decrease in the perceptions of the OCB can be attributed to a lack of perception of justice in organization (Abili et al., 2009). Among the justice dimensions’ procedural justice was significantly correlated to OCB (Devasagayam, 2013). Abo taeah (2012) explored the relationships between organizational support, role efficacy and OCB by examining the mediating effects of organizational justice. As well, employee’s feeling of OJ has been reported as a significant factor influencing OCB in Jordanian Government Ministries (Sjahruddin & Sudiro, 2013) and in Industry Company in Iran, found significant and positive associations between OJ and OCB Damirchi et al. (2013).
A descriptive cross-sectional, correlation research design was used to collect data.
Universe and Sampling
The statistical population included 3,052 employees of the government universities in Northern Jordan. The sample size was obtained equal to 300 participants using Cochran formula. Non-probability sampling method was used. Participants were chosen conveniently, that mean all employees who presented at the time of the data collection were included. Sampling inclusion criteria were set as all non-academic employee’s male and female. Finally, standard questionnaire was tool of data collection to assess employees' perceptions of OJ and OCB.
Tools for Data Collections
A questionnaire has been redesigned based on previous studies of Lee & Allen (2002), Niehoff & Moorman (1993), Shehree (2010), Ajlouni (2011), and Usmani & Jamal (2013). It consisted of three parts: the first part was related to demographic information that includes the type of university, gender, age, job title, education level, and years of experience. The second part contained 31 five-point Likert scale questions related to OJ and its dimensions (Distributive justice, Procedural justice, Evolutional justice and Interactional justice); rating from one (very less) to five (very high). Finally, third part contained 20 five-point Likert scale questions related to OCB and its dimensions (Altruism, Courtesy, Sportsmanship, Civic Virtue and Conscientiousness); rating from one (very less) to five (very high).The content validity was ensured based on experts’ judgment; 15 experts, including universities faculties and mangers, who reported that the instrument related items measured the level of OCB and its dimensions and OJ and its dimensions. The reliability of this instrument was assessed by computing according to Cranach's Alpha with a score of 0.89 for the total questions; instrument had acceptable internal consistency (Polit & Beck, 2010).
Self-administered questionnaires were distributed directly to all employees who were working at universities at the time of the data collection. The process of data collection took one month between 3rd July (2018) to 3rd August (2018). Letters provided a brief explanation of the purposes of the study were sent along with all questionnaires. Participants were told, in the invitation letters, that answering and returning back the questionnaire to the researcher is considered as voluntary consents to participate in the current study. About (390) questionnaires were distributed by researcher with direct brief explanation was given about the study purpose. (90) Questionnaires did not return and uncompleted answers of the questions. As a result, 300 employees were participated; some of the employees refused to participate due to work-overload.
Analysis Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is used; Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the sample’s demographics including the type of university, gender, age, job title, education level, and years of experience. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequencies were used to assess the levels of OJ and OCB among non- academic staff. Finally, Pearsons Correlation was used to analyze the relationships between OJ and its dimensions and OCB and its dimensions.
There is a High Level of Non-Academic Staff Members’ Perceptions of Organizational Justice at Government Universities in the North Jordan
Table 1 shows that the mean scores of the entire items of OJ are above 4.00 except Distributive justice is (3.90) and ranked a last. Evolutional justice receives the highest mean (4.20) regarding the degree of agreement followed by Procedural justice with a mean (4.08). While, overall total score mean was (4.04) that signalized for non-academic staff members’ perceptions of Organizational justice at government universities in the north of Jordan perceived a high level.
Means And Standard Deviations Of The Level Of Employee's Perceptions Of Organizational Justice
There is a High Level of Non-Academic Staff Members’ Perceptions of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors at Government Universities in the North Jordan
Table 2 shows that the mean scores of the entire study instrument items are above 4.00. This denoted that the non-academic staff’s perception of OCB is high. Courtesy recorded the highest mean (4.30) regarding the degree of agreement followed by Sportsmanship with a mean (4.20), while Conscientiousness and Loyalty in work was ranked last with a mean (4.00). This table also shows the overall total score mean at (4.10).The overall total score mean was 4.04 that signalized for non-academic staff members’ perceptions of OCB at government universities in the north Jordan perceived a high level.
Means And Standard Deviations Scores Of Employee's Perceptions Oforganizational Citizenship Behaviors
|5||5||Conscientiousness and Loyalty||4||0.924|
|Sum||Organizational citizenship behavior||4.1||0.531|
There is a Significant Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Perceptions of Non-Academic Staff in Government Universities in the North Jordan
Table 3 shows that there are statistically significant positive correlation between OJ and OCB in government universities in Jordan in all variable except for the correlations between Distributive justice with Civic Virtue, Procedural justice with Sportsmanship, Procedural justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, Evolutional justice with Altruism, Evolutional justice with Sportsmanship, Evolutional justice with Civic Virtue, Evolutional justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, Interactional justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, Organizational justice with Courtesy, and Organizational justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty.
Pearson Correlation Between Organizational Justice And Organizational Citizenship Behavior
|Distributive justice||Procedural justice||Evolutional justice||Interactional justice||Organizational justice|
|Altruism||Pearson r||0.142 (*)||0.160 (**)||0.093||0.331 (**)||0.203 (**)|
|Courtesy||Pearson r||0.111||0.248 (**)||0.190 (**)||0.259 (**)||0.234 (**)|
|Civic Virtue||Pearson r||0.254 (**)||0.225 (**)||0.105||0.287 (**)||0.250 (**)|
|Conscientiousness and Loyalty||Pearson r||0.333 (**)||0.036||0.009||0.028||0.112|
|Organizational citizenship behavior||Pearson r||0.286 (**)||0.211 (**)||0.120 (*)||0.290 (**)||0.262 (**)|
|Note: **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed); *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).|
A descriptive cross-sectional, correlation research design was used assess the OJ and OCB levels among non-academic Jordanian employees at north of Jordan. The results showed that the employees’ perception of OJ at government universities in the north Jordan is high levels with the total score mean 4.04 for four dimensions (Evolutional justice, Procedural justice and Interactional justice) except Distributive justice was 3.90 (Figure 1).This result go with Hatam et al. (2013) study in which nurses had a high perception of OJ in specialty hospitals in Iran. While different studies in Jordan found that OJ was at moderate levels included Ajlouni (2010), as well as, Abo taeah, (2012), who found a moderate level of OJ among Jordanian Government Ministries and recently Quraan & Kasawneh (2017).While, OCB in the current study is high in all dimensions with total score mean 4.04.This could be related to high OJ. This result agrees with study of Abazee (2010), Shury, (2010) and previously Abo taeah, (2012), who found a moderate level of OCB in Jordanian Government Ministries. Contrary to the current study results, Quraan & Kasawneh, (2017) found that OCB level among Jordan National Electric Power Company was low. Thus could be related to the differences in the organizations type.
However, this study showed that statistically significant positive correlation Between OJ and OCBand in all variable except for the correlations between Distributive justice with Civic Virtue, Procedural justice with Sportsmanship, Procedural justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, Evolutional justice with Altruism, Evolutional justice with Sportsmanship, Evolutional justice with Civic Virtue, Evolutional justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, Interactional justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, Organizational justice with Courtesy, and Organizational justice with Conscientiousness and Loyalty, this result is compatible with the studies of (Jafari & Bidarian, 2012), (Damirchi et al., 2013) (Sjahruddin & Sudiro,2013) and (Nastiezaie & Najafi, 2016),those indicated a significant positive relationship between OJ and OCB. Finally in Jordan Abo taeah, (2002), Ajlouni (2010), and Quraan & Kasawneh, (2017) Proved these relations too.
The current study showed that a high level of non-academic staff member perceptions of OJ and OCB at government universities in north of Jordan. However, feeling of treating fairly can encourage employee to adopt healthy extra roles behaviors that will enhance the organizational performance and growth. A statistically significant positive relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship was observed in the current study. Thus in turn could help mangers to develop more and new polices that ensuring employee feeling of justice at work area, which in turn could encourage more practicing of OCB in Jordanian companies.
With regard to the limitations of this study, several points were needed to deal with. The most significant limitation is the sample drawing from public universities only in north Jordan. Thus; these results may not be representative of whole universities. Another limitation is the cross-sectional design of this study. As well, the data used in this study were part of the questionnaire that investigated the relationship of organizational justice and organizational citizenship. Furthermore, Potential studies to incorporate personal intention and role in research model and its effects on OJ and OCB included a variety of groups of non-academic staff, especially research assistant. In addition, similar research can be conducted for private universities to give the chances to compare.
The author would like to thank Editor-in-Chief “Dr. Shawn Carraher” and anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions which have led to an improvement in both quality and clarity of the paper.
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