Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 3
Olga Kirillova, Chuvash State University
Tatyana Kirillova, The Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia
Natalya Pugacheva, Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering
Irina Gavrilova, Chuvash State University
Niyaz Safin, Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
Lilia Safina, Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
Timur Khalmetov, Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
The main function of the modern police is to ensure public order and security while respecting the rule of law and respect for human rights. The article goal is to develop practical recommendations for improving the training of police officers. The leading principles of the study were clarity and personalization, providing the interrelation of words, illustrations, demonstrations and the inclusion of cadets in the process of designing and organizing personal and professional development. The study involved 140 teachers, 410 cadets, who identified the criteria for the readiness of police officers to use the force provided for by national legislation. The main results of the study are to identify methods for training police officers on the use of force and to clarify the content of training modules. The significance of the obtained results is that the revealed methods of education allow forming capacities for the lawful use of power protection to ensure lawfulness and public safety, to directly suppress the physical resistance of the offender and self-defence without the use of weapons. The content of training modules provides a consistent study of the training material on the development of legitimate power protection complexes. Identified criteria contribute to the integration of educational programs; the formation of a sustainable focus on the use of force protection for the security of the individual, society and the state solely by lawful actions; development of basic physical qualities ensuring the success of single actions for self-defence and detention of a resisting offender.
Police Education, Training of Police Officers, Police Training, Use of Force by Policemen, Lawful Use of Force Protection, Police Resistance, Maintenance of Law and Order, Fighting Methods of Struggle
JEL Classification: K10, K15, K19
The relevance of the study is determined by the development of civil society and the rule of law, characterized not only by the recognition of individual freedom and the value of each individual, by fair and impartial legislation, but also by the duty of policemen to counteract criminality, to protect life, health, rights and freedoms of citizens; to ensure public safety, including legitimate use of combat methods of struggle (Bond, 2014; Quinet, Nunn & Kincaid, 2003). The main function of the modern police is to provide public order and security while respecting the rule of law and human rights (Karp & Stenmark, 2011). This causes the increasing demands of society for the quality of police education (Cao, Huang & Sun, 2016). In the Federal law "On Police" in force in the Russian Federation, it is noted that a police officer has the right to use physical force, including basic combat methods of struggle, to prevent crimes, detain persons who committed them, and defend themselves. However, only in case if not the power methods do not ensure the fulfilment of the duties assigned to the police. The same law emphasizes the personal responsibility of policemen for respecting the rights and freedoms of a person and citizen, the realization of the right of everyone to freedom and personal inviolability. Police officers also have a duty to undergo special training to carry out activities related to the use of physical force (Federal Law "On Police" of 07.02.2011, articles 5, 14, 18, 20). The provisions of the current federal law "On Police" stipulated the inclusion of training material on law enforcement and self-defence without the use of weapons in the content of physical training of police officers. Physical training is interconnected with operational, tactical-special, fire training. Together they are aimed at the formation of professionally-specialized competences of police officers. The inclusion of training material on the enforcement of law and order and self-defence in educational programs provides for the formation of several professionally-specialized competences.
Content of professional-specialized competences, three components can be distinguished: knowledge, activity and development. Each of these components is associated with combat methods of struggle. It was found out that as components of cadets combat training combat tactics are characterized by: dynamism and manifested in the fact that the fight does not last very long; urgency, providing for the possibility of knockout (a blow after which the opponent cannot continue the fight), as well as a painful hold, ensuring the early victory (Contemporary Fighting Arts, 2017). Characteristics of fighting methods of combat (dynamism and urgency) have led to special requirements for learning the training material: the training should not be aimed at demonstrating the combat technique on an unresisting partner, but on the formation of strong skills and their real application in typical situations of suppression of various offenses, including struggle of hand-to-hand type (Police Self-Defence Training, 2017). Thus, in Russia, according to the current national legislation, the training of police officers in the rules and procedures for the use of force provides combat techniques learning. The purpose of the article is to develop practical recommendations for improving the training of police officers in fighting combat techniques.
The main principles of the study were clarity and personalization. The principle of visibility provides for deliberate contemplation of combat methods of struggle with the aim of their reflection in the process of physical preparation, the formation of motor representations, and also the interrelation of words, illustrations, demonstrations, unity of concrete and abstract.
The motor representation, as an image of the impending motor action, serves as an indicative basis for combat technique and ensures the success of training (Levitsky et al., 2017).
The principle of personalization envisages the development of subject-subject relations in the process of training, with the aim of forming in cadets the individual techniques of combat methods of struggle. The development of subject-subject relations determines the inclusion of cadets in the design and organization of their personal and professional development, the value-semantic setting of life plans, and the construction of a program of their own development, based on educational and professional abilities (Terentyeva et al., 2017). Subjectivity determines the inclusion of cadets in the process of self-formation, including the development and improvement of professionally important physical abilities (speed, strength, coordination, motor, endurance, flexibility) and psychological characteristics (courage, determination, attention, self-control, emotional stability, etc.) (Askhadullina et al., 2017; Berking, Meier & Wupperman, 2010). For example, the motor skill, like the ability of a cadet to independently carry out movement based on knowledge of its technique and concentration on the reproduction of a given pattern of movements, develops and improves under the conditions: real muscular-motor sensations and imaginations from the practical implementation of the assimilated movement (combat technique); cognitive activity, the need for self-realization; value-semantic orientation on the lawful use of power protection to ensure law and order, the security of the individual, society and the state, as well as maintaining the proper level of physical readiness necessary to ensure full professional activity. The development of subject-subject relationships allows each cadet to select special exercises that allow him to "feel" the motor movement and form an adequate motor performance in him, proceeding from his educational and professional abilities. The inclusion of cadets in the process of constructing a program for the development of professionally important physical qualities and operational motor skills, including combat methods of fighting, ensures the effectiveness of repeated repetition of motor actions manifested in the automation and stabilization of movements, their inerrancy and accuracy, and the formation of motor skills. Thus, the development of subject-subject relations allows the cadets to form individual techniques of combat methods of struggle.
In the process of research, theoretical (generalization and systematization) and sociological (observation, interviews and questionnaires) methods were used. Experimental work to test the effectiveness of methods for training police officers in fighting techniques was conducted in three stages (ascertaining, forming, and control). In the experimental work, 550 police officers participated: 140 teachers, 410 cadets of the Federal State Higher Education Institute "Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation" (Kazan, Russia). Probabilistic samples of teachers and cadets were compiled. The sample of teachers included professors (middle age of 46 years) and associate professors (average age 35 years) who conduct physical training classes with cadets studying in the field of training "Law Enforcement Activities". The sample of students included students of 3-4 courses, trained in the direction of training "Law Enforcement Activities". Police officers trained in the direction of course "Law enforcement" should be able to solve such operational and official tasks as ensuring the rule of law, security of the individual, society and the state; protection of life and health of citizens, protection of public order; prevention, detection, suppression of criminal offenses and administrative offenses; the disclosure of crimes; the investigation of criminal cases; proceedings in cases of administrative offenses; enforcement of punishment; organization and implementation of the search for persons; protection of private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership; assistance to individuals and legal entities in the protection of their rights and legitimate interests. Effective implementation of these tasks includes knowledge of the rules and procedures for the use of force, possession of combat methods of struggle. None of the teachers and cadets refused to participate in the experimental work. At the ascertaining stage with the help of the questionnaire, the attitude of teachers and cadets to the process of training combat techniques was clarified, as well as the criteria for preparing cadets for the use of struggle combat methods were determined. The questionnaires included open and closed questions. The results of the survey were discussed in 11 focus groups of teachers, cadets, each of which included 9 people. The participants were not personally acquainted with each other in the focus group. At the formative stage, programs of consistently studied training modules have been developed and implemented. At the control stage, the levels of training cadets for the use of combat methods of struggle in the performance process are revealed.
The main results of the study were methods of training police officers in combat techniques: (1) familiarization, providing for preliminary acquaintance with specific methods of combat and hand-to-hand combat through a story about the technique of execution and demonstration on an unresisting partner, and the formation of an oriented basis for motor action among cadets; (2) reproductive, including detailed learning of specific methods of fighting or hand-to-hand combat for their actual use in typical situations through repeated reproduction of the technique of their implementation with the help of a partner and under the guidance of a teacher; (3) imitating, providing for fixing specific methods of fighting and hand-to-hand combat in the standard conditions of training sessions through their repeated execution on an unresisting partner or sack dummy; (4) productive, including the improvement of specific methods of fighting and hand-to-hand combat through their repeated execution in conditions of varying the resistance of the partner and training fights with various partners. Based on these methods, training material on combat techniques can be represented by three consecutively studied modules (Figure 1).
Within the learning module, the students will have to learn the specific methods of fighting and hand-to-hand combat. In order to determine the optimal list of combat methods of fighting, techniques were identified that are most often used in practice and ensure the reliability and effectiveness of detaining the offender and self-defence without the use of weapons. To this end, 550 police officers were offered a questionnaire, including closed questions about the number of 170 techniques used in the struggle during operational activity. The results of the survey showed that all the methods by the number of their use by each employee in their official activities can be divided into five groups: (1) A-element was used by the employee on average 10 times; (2) B-7 times; (3) C-3 times; (4) D-1 time; (5) E-0 (not used). Estimation of frequency (Q) of application of methods was determined by the formula:
The content of the learning module included receptions, the frequency of application (Q) of which was 1.3 or more points (Table 1).
THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF 550 POLICE OFFICERS CONDUCTED IN DECEMBER 2017 ON THE USE OF COMBAT METHODS OF FIGHTING (THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WHO USED THE METHOD)
|No.||TECHNIQUES NAME||TECHNIQUES GROUP||Q|
|1||Arm bend behind back by jerk||64||127||76||86||197||3.4|
|2||The bend of the hand behind the back by "lock"||62||98||96||166||128||3.2|
|3||The bend of the hand behind the back by "push"||67||103||91||67||222||3.1|
|4||The bend of the hand behind the back by "dive"||66||45||87||154||198||2.5|
|5||Bending arm behind back with lever outward||59||36||78||148||229||2.2|
|6||Bending the arm behind the back with the lever through the forearm||52||48||77||145||228||2.2|
|7||Arm bend behind back with lever inside||62||65||78||124||221||2.6|
|8||Protection from punching from the top to the head||74||66||108||106||196||3.0|
|9||Protection from a fist from the side in the body||54||84||87||205||120||2.9|
|10||Protection from a punch from below in the chin||56||67||85||190||152||2.7|
|11||Protection from punching from below in the abdomen||47||70||83||168||182||2.5|
|12||Protection from a fist to the side of the head||54||76||81||167||172||2.7|
|13||Protection from a punch in the trunk||32||82||67||174||195||2.3|
|14||Protection from a fist to the head||31||89||61||167||202||2.3|
|15||Protection against the kick by backhand in the neck||34||78||69||176||193||2.3|
|16||Protection from a direct fist in the trunk||35||76||67||173||199||2.3|
|17||Protection from a kick by raising the foot from below in the groin||43||75||76||164||192||2.4|
|18||Protection against direct kick of the plantar part of the foot in the abdomen||35||67||78||168||202||2.2|
|19||Protection from kick by lifting the foot sideways in the trunk||47||65||91||154||193||2.5|
|20||Protection from a knife strike right in the stomach||21||33||65||154||277||1.4|
|21||Protection from a knife kick directly in the neck||21||32||85||191||221||1.6|
|22||Protection from a knife strike in the side of the trunk||12||29||84||182||243||1.4|
|23||Protection from a knife in the side of the neck||16||35||86||154||259||1.5|
|24||Protection from a knife strike from below in the stomach||16||33||83||156||262||1.4|
|25||Protection from a knife from the top to the head||18||35||71||157||269||1.4|
|26||Protection from a knife kick in the neck by backhand||18||35||69||158||270||1.4|
|27||Protection from a knife kick by backhand in the trunk||16||34||77||173||250||1.5|
|28||Protection from a blow with a stick right in the stomach||18||56||86||121||269||1.7|
|29||Protection against strike by a stick from the side in the trunk||11||50||58||161||270||1.4|
|30||Protection from a blow from the side of the head||10||49||54||157||280||1.4|
|31||Protection from a blow with a stick on top of the head||9||42||61||168||270||1.3|
|32||Protection from a kick with a stick backhand in the trunk||13||49||70||143||275||1.5|
|33||Protection from a blow with a stick backhand||19||48||67||156||260||1.6|
|34||Release from hold by wrist in front||23||42||70||154||261||1.6|
|35||Release from the grip of the wrist in front with both hands||23||32||69||167||259||1.5|
|36||Release from seizure by clothes on the chest with both hands||23||46||72||170||239||1.7|
|37||Release from the capture of the throat with both hands in front||21||37||69||173||250||1.5|
|38||Release from the neck by the shoulder and forearm from behind with both hands||21||23||73||160||273||1.4|
|39||Protection from the threat of a gun in front point blank||15||28||67||164||276||1.3|
|40||Protection from the threat of a pistol from behind point blank||16||32||71||162||269||1.4|
|41||Suppression of enemy actions when trying to get weapons from a chest pocket||17||35||69||156||273||1.4|
|42||Protection against attempt of disarming by withdrawal at the approach from behind||21||33||71||162||263||1.5|
|44||Examination in the laying position||13||38||69||160||270||1.4|
|45||Putting on handcuffs standing||14||40||62||170||264||1.4|
|46||Handcuffing from the knee||15||34||69||163||269||1.4|
|47||Tying in standing position||15||33||70||165||267||1.4|
|48||Tying in laying position||12||40||63||159||276||1.4|
From Table 2 it can be seen that the training material can be divided into several blocks: (1) hand and foot strikes used to pre-empt aggressive offensives, distraction under disarming, retaliatory actions after protection from blows and release from captures and girths, and before carrying out the power detention; (2) protective actions against blows without a weapon (hand, foot, head) and strikes with a knife, another object (contact avoid, turns, supports, parry); (3) painful techniques standing, used during the detention, disarming the offender, retaliatory actions after protection from blows, release from seizures and girths and in the case of not having time to actively counter the enemy; (4) throws (takedown), used in close combat with the adversary, as a retaliatory action after being released from girths, captures, protection from blows, pre-emptive strikes against the enemy, for the purpose of moving the opponent to a prone position, inflicting final strikes, carrying out suffocating and painful methods leading to detention. Throws in two lines formation are learned. In this case, each pair of cadets is located in a checkerboard pattern or at distances that exclude the possibility of injuries when falling on each other; (5) asphyxiating techniques that are used against offenders who knowingly present an increased danger, or to assist a colleague (citizen) in an attack on him; (6) methods of release from captures and girths, which are used with subsequent execution of response actions-strikes, painful techniques, throws (takedown). It has been found out that detailed learning of concrete methods of fighting and hand-to-hand combat allows eliminating errors in their implementation, and also forms the ability to accurately regulate and determine spatial, temporal and dynamic parameters of movement, rational alternation of muscle strains and relaxation. It is established that the effectiveness of detailed learning of specific methods of combat and hand-to-hand combat is enhanced by the separate learning of blows and wrestling techniques.
The Dynamics Of Combat Methods Learning And Their Complexes By Cadets On Ascertaining And Control Stages Of Experimental Work (Average Score)
|CRITERIA AND FIGURES||STAGES|
|Competence criteria (Com)||2.06||4.24|
|1. Hands and feet kicks.||2.3||4.6|
|2. Release from grips and girths.||2.1||4.4|
|3. Takedown techniques and throws.||2.1||4.2|
|4. Smothering elements.||2.0||4.1|
|5. Protection from the threat of weapons.||1.8||3.9|
|Specialized criteria (Spec)||2.02||4.46|
|6. Methods of forceful detention and escort.||2.6||4.8|
|7. Methods of power neutralization of the offender.||2.8||4.3|
|8. Ways of disarming.||2.0||4.1|
|9. Ways of putting on handcuffs.||1.3||4.9|
|10. Ways of self-defence without the use of weapons.||1.4||4.2|
|Classification criteria (Class)||0.46||4.46|
|11. Perform single acts of self-defence without the use of weapons.||0.8||4.5|
|12. Have individual technique of struggle combat methods.||0.5||4.3|
|13. Have a tactic of power combat such as hand-to-hand combat.||0.5||4.5|
|14. Have the actions to detain a resisting offender without using a weapon.||0.3||4.6|
|15. Have an action to detain a group of offenders.||0.2||4.4|
The training module provides for the reinforcement of specific methods of fighting and hand-to-hand combat in the standard conditions of training sessions. In the framework of this module, cadets repeatedly perform combat and melee combat techniques on an unresisting partner or sack dummy, and also learn combinations of combat techniques with a partner's dosed resistance. For example, the methods of disarming, which are used after defensive actions and retaliatory strikes against knives (or other object), if the attacker did not fall and did not release the weapon from his hands. In this case, the necessary tricks are performed after one of the wrist grapples with the subsequent holding of the arm lever inside till disarming by the pain action and with the transition to the bend of the hand behind the back. It has been found out that it is necessary to train blows mainly for speed and precision, less often for force of execution, which is caused by the necessity of striking with the use of protective mechanisms (the presence of a bandage, protective shell, etc.) to avoid injuries. The training of pain techniques standing should be focused on their rapid and accurate implementation, the assimilation of the skills of "entering" into these elements: distractions, ways to move to pain action standing after release from captures, girths, defensive actions from gunshot (subject) kicks or without it, against the threat of using weapons at close range. Training of throws (takedown), asphyxiating techniques, methods of releasing from grips and girths should be carried out with a step-by-step increase in the speed of execution.
Training, combat & practical module provides for the improvement of specific methods of combat and hand-to-hand combat. To this end, cadets repeatedly perform methods of fighting and hand-to-hand fighting in conditions of varying the resistance of the partner, in the process of overcoming obstacle strips and training fights with various partners. In the classroom, various sparring exercises are used, situations are simulated for the immediate suppression of the physical resistance of the offender and self-defence without the use of weapons; the lawful use of force protection to ensure the rule of law and order, the security of the individual, society and the state; law enforcement in emergency situations. In the lessons of this module, special attention is paid to the prevention of traumatism of cadets. The experience of the authors shows that about 85% of all injuries are caused by bruises and abrasions, 5% are sprains, ligament and muscle ruptures, and knee joint injuries, 2% bruises in the groin area as a result of banned lower belt blows, 1% fractures metacarpals and wrists. To reduce the traumatism in classes on fighting methods is helpful next: (1) the small number of the engaged group, taking into account the age and physiological characteristics of the cadets, the training of the cadet's organism for the beginning of the session-warm-up including the fingers, ankles, knee, shoulder, elbow joints; (2) the accessibility of the study material, the execution of fighting techniques and hand-to-hand combat (as well as their cessation) only at the command of the instructor, strict adherence to the rules of self-insurance and partner insurance (moves and throws to make from the centre of the carpet to the edge, perform painful moves without jerks, release on the first signal of the partner); (3) the organization of classes in compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards, according to which the minimum area per student should be six square meters, admission to employment only on the permission of the doctor, the presence of a first aid kit for first aid; (4) serviceability of sports equipment (rings, helmets, knife models, pistols, etc.), the quality of the cadet's clothes and footwear (the presence of a bandage, a protective shell, the absence of wristwatches, chains, metal buckles, etc.).
Experimental work on testing the effectiveness of combat training methods was conducted in three stages (ascertaining, forming and control). At the ascertaining stage with the help of the questionnaire, the attitude of 140 teachers and 410 cadets to the process of training combat techniques was clarified. The questioning of teachers showed the following: (1) the purpose of training combat techniques should consist in developing the skills of using combat for effective implementation of standard and non-standard operational and service tasks (100%); (2) in the process of training combat techniques, as a result, not knowledge, but the relevant skills and skills in which they are represented should be fixed (96%); (3) in control classes, cadets must perform combat skills and their complexes for rating estimation (98%); (4) in the classroom it is necessary to pay attention to the formation of a sustainable focus on the exclusively legitimate use of combat skills, power protection complexes (92%). Questioning of cadets showed that (1) the majority prefers training forms of education, including variation types of training (98%); (2) consider it necessary to conduct variable instruction in the classroom on the implementation of combat methods of struggle (91%), (3) Training in a competitive environment (95%), (4) Modelling of various types of operational activities (100%).
From the teachers and cadets, 11 working groups were created (each comprised 5 teachers and 4 cadets), which determined the criteria for preparing cadets for the use of combat methods of struggle: (1) competence (the ability to carry out actions to force violations, detainees and escorts of the offenders, lawfully and effectively use personnel weapons, special means, ensure personal safety and security of citizens); (2) specialized (the ability to directly suppress the physical resistance of the offender and self-defence without the use of weapons, the lawful use of force to ensure law and order, the security of the individual, society and the state); (3) classification (the ability to engage in professional sports, have sports ranks and ranks in accordance with a single national sports classification).
At the control stage of experimental work, the levels of cadet's training for the use of combat methods of struggle (competence, specialized, classification) were revealed. The cadets were offered to carry out combat techniques and their complexes. Performance of tasks was estimated on 5 point system. The results are shown in Table 2.
From Table 2, it can be seen that the training of cadet's in combat techniques using the identified methods (familiarization, reproductive, imitative, productive) for training modules (learning; training; learning, training & practical) gives a positive dynamics. To determine the levels of training cadets for the use of combat methods at the ascertaining and control stages of the experimental work, we determined the value (W) as the sum of the values for each criteria:
Values for each criteria were calculated using the formula: V=Σqi/n, where qi is the average score obtained for the indicator, n is the number of criterion indicators. Values (W) from 0 to 5 we conditionally consider as a competence level of the formation of cadet's skills in the use of power combat. Values from 6 to 10-specialized level. Values from 11 to 15 are the classification level.
The characteristics of the levels are as follows: Competence level-cadets have special knowledge of biomechanics; formation of images of fighting methods; are psychologically stable and are capable of high mobilization in extreme situations; an ideal of the victorious fighter has been formed and a stable focus on tolerant behaviour; lawful use of power protection of systems of law and order; are capable for actions on the forceful suppression of offenses; detention and escort of offenders; as well as self-defence without the use of weapons. Specialized level-cadets unmistakable and accurately perform combat techniques, are resistant to various confounding factors, as well as skilful suppression of unlawful actions and reliable opposition to the attack actions of the offender and self-defence without the use of weapons. Classification level-cadets are confident in achieving the task, successfully carry out single actions for self-defence and detention of a resisting offender without the use of weapons, own individual combat techniques and tactics of power combat such as hand-to-hand combat.
The problem of improving police education attracts increasing attention of scientists (Carlan & Lewis, 2009; Gardiner, 2015 & 2017). The training of police officers is governed by international and national legislation (Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, 1979). This allows us to identify general and national trends. General trends, conditioned by international legislation, are aimed at optimizing the maintenance of public order and security while respecting the rule of law and respect for human rights (Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, 1990). General trends suggest that the decision-making process and daily activities of police officers are based on a system of fundamental values, a thorough assessment of the situation and a set of learned skills and knowledge (Declaration on the Police, 1979). General trends include: the study of the system of values and ethical norms that form the basis of democratic law enforcement; the formation of readiness for professional activity on the basis of fair and impartial treatment of all persons, respect for basic human rights, personal integrity and compliance with the code of conduct of a police officer; assimilation of professional skills allowing police officers to resist and confidently respond to typical challenges and situations, consistently applying proven methods, as well as optimally act in emergency situations; knowledge of the basic principles of the use of force while maintaining law and order (Good Practices in Basic Police, 2009).
The training of American police officers is conducted according to the standards established by the special commission for training police officers of each state. The main purpose of this commission is to improve the professional abilities of police officers through careful training in the field of law enforcement activities of a particular state. Academic training in the US is carried out at the federal, state and local levels, in accordance with the division of police departments. At the federal level, basic and special training is provided. The content of the training focuses on the psychological aspects of police activity, interpersonal relationships, the causes of juvenile delinquency, police ethics, patrolling tactics and the inspection of the scene, the role of citizens in crime prevention (Frej, 2014).
British and American tactics for training policemen are similar and focused mainly on practical activities. In the United Kingdom and the United States, there is no difference between the training of officers and civilian police officers. After graduation from the Academy, each student begins his work with a lower rank of constable. All employees have the same conditions and opportunities to advance through the career ladder. The British and American training tactics are characterized by a combination of traditional classroom training and the practical implementation of theoretical knowledge, which allows the training of qualified professionals in law enforcement (Dogutas, Dolu & Gul, 2007).
In Russia, police training is centralized and follows a single state educational standard. Police education is regulated by departmental and federal regulations (Lunev, Pugacheva & Stukolova, 2014) and constitutes a special subject of the state's educational policy (Terentyeva et al., 2016). As a result of training, a policeman should be ready for the following types of professional activity: law making; law enforcement; expert-consulting; operational; organizational and managerial; research; pedagogical. This variety of activities is due to both police functions and the development of educational services (Lunev, Pugachova & Stukolova, 2014a). The educational program provides for extensive use of active and interactive forms of conducting classes (business and role games, case studies, workshops, psychological and other trainings, exercises) (Pugacheva et al., 2016). The use of different forms of conducting classes contributes, first, to the acquisition of combat experience (assault, seizure of offenders, anti-terrorist operations) and operational (patrolling, harassment, detention, cordon, blocking, division, crowd control, displacement, search). Second, improving the quality of education (Lunev et al., 2016). And, thirdly, the positioning of police education in the market of educational services (Pugacheva et al., 2016). The use of different forms of conducting classes is included in one of the criteria for assessing the quality of professional educational services (Terentyeva et al., 2016). In the content of training, much attention is paid to combat methods of struggle. The training of such methods involves not only physical, but also general scientific training, including knowledge of the laws of mechanics, as the science of the movement of objects in space and the forces that cause this movement, of physiology as a science studying the functioning and regulation of the human body as a biological system. As component of the physical training of cadets combat techniques perform the following functions: (1) improvement of fighting skills and skills in order to create abilities to suppress the physical resistance of the offender and ensure self-defence without the use of weapons; the lawful use of force protection of law and order; (2) formation of the ideal of a victorious fighter, characterized by self-confidence, adequacy of actions in accordance with the situation, courage, determination, perseverance, disinterested performance of duty (Kozhanova et al., 2016).
First, the effectiveness of training of police officers will be enhanced on the basis of studying national trends in police education. This will allow to compare own programs and methods of training police officers with the experience of others and thereby assess their feasibility and implementation risks. Second, the effectiveness of police officers training increases on the condition that the readiness to use force provided for by national legislation is in the process of formation, to protect law and order, the security of the individual, society and the state. This will ensure the formation of the ability to directly suppress the physical resistance of the offender and self-defence without the use of weapons. Third, the importance of training police officers in the use of force is strengthened on the condition that a sustainable orientation is established to use the combat skills legally, as well as performing official duties in accordance with the norms of morality and professional ethics. This contributes to the conscious perception and memorization of the legal framework for law enforcement.