Review Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 5
Pichugin Vitaliy Grigoryevich, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
We will consider the essence of the concept of “personality” in this article; highlight the problems of socialization in the process of activity and communication. We will determine the significance of the living environment in the socialization of the individual and reveal the essence of social and psychological adaptation. Note that the study of social adaptation is possible at three structural levels-macro-environment (society), micro- environment (social group), intrapersonal adaptation (the individual himself).
Personality, Socialization, Living Environment, Macro-Environment, Micro-Environment, Intrapersonal Adaptation.
By assimilating social experience, a person transforms it into their own values. A man's personality is influenced by social roles. The development of the individual depends on its interaction with people who also play certain social roles. Social roles are complex and contradictory. Both natural factors and social conditions influence a person's acceptance of a particular social role. Personality, as we are guided by the “Soviet encyclopedia”, is represented by the following components: “1. A man, as a subject of relations and conscious activity. 2. A stable system of socially significant traits that characterize an individual as a member of society or community”. A personality – a separate person independent, a separate being or “disguise” - false face, kisser, mask, which was put on by the buffoon to play a certain role (Ananyev, 2001).
The equivalent meaning of the Latin word “person” (lat. Persona) – a person, an individual, a personality; an important person. Personality is an active subject of activity; personality is a social concept, it expresses everything that is natural and historical in a person. The authors of the social pedagogy textbook claim that the personality is not born but arises as a result of cultural and social development. Inclusion in social relations determines the degree of its socialization and social maturity.
Let's turn to the term “socialization”, which does not have an unambiguous interpretation. In the concepts of (Andreeva, 2007; Andreenkova, 1971; Petrovsky, 1996; Ananyev, 2001), what is common is the idea of the need to create conditions that ensure the socialization of the individual.
All concepts from the beginning of 1990 of the twentieth century were united by a common idea of the development of subjectivity of the individual in his social development. In the scientific literature, there are various approaches to the definition of “socialization”. Socialization, along with education, includes unintentional, spontaneous influences, through which the individual is introduced to culture and becomes a member of society (Grevtseva, 2013). Socialization is defined as the influence of the environment on human behavior. Special attention is paid by scientists (Gayazov, 2000; Grevtseva, 2013; Gabidullin, 2013 etc.) to the civil activity, civil socialization. “In activity, a person manifests and asserts himself as a subject, as a carrier of his social essence”.
The development of human civilization has led to a change in the growing youth and in general in the development of the student as a subject of culture and social practice. Social practice is becoming more and more important for the organization of human life, society in a clear form manifests itself as an active participant in socially significant cultural events. The development of the student as a subject of culture and social practice is based on humanistic ideas of cultural and historical development of the individual. The development of the student as a subject of culture and social practice faces the development of the most important problems in Russian society, namely: the cultural environment as a condition for human development; human adaptation in the socio-cultural environment; human socialization, its entry into the value system, etc., which allows us to see what an important place this problem occupies in the integration of other sciences. To unlock the potential of the student's development process as a subject of culture and social practice, it is important to consider such components as social culture and social practice. Ali et al. (2020); Andreev et al. (2021); Ali et al. (2021); Andreevich et al. (2021); Leonova et al. (2021); Murad et al. (2013); Nahar & Zayed (2019); Tumpa & Zayed (2016); Shil et al. (2020) examined personality and socialization under the context of management, motivation, salary etc.
The article considers this aspect as a dual concept based on the parity of culture and socialization as a result of social practice. Social culture in the plane of human development as a cultural subject manifests itself in expressive active forms and contains a deep meaning regarding human freedom, its civic position, and belonging to one's fatherland. That is why the determination of the main components of this process becomes clear, which is based on psycho-pedagogical, socio-cultural theory are as follows: socio-cultural potential of the person features of the functional culture, the social nature of human, social functions of technology, and others.
The first component includes the values of civic consolidation (position, orientation to civic values). This component regulates relations between the subjects of society and contributes to the development of a democratic civil culture. Respect for the rights of another person leads to the development of human society as a legal state. Norms-values are considered as behavioral patterns, value priorities in various spheres of students' life (political, cultural, intellectual, socio-economic, spiritual and moral), which does not contradict, but corresponds to the cultural standards of modern society (Andreeva, 2007). The component that reveals the features of functional culture is consistently revealed and goes through all its contents, actualizing such problems as the functions of socio-cultural education in the development of the student's personality; inculturation as a process of socio-cultural development, self-actualization, theoretical aspects of knowledge as a scientific basis for the study of socio-cultural practice, etc. It should be noted that an important component in this problem is the disclosure of the social essence of the individual, which is considered basing on methodological principles in the development of social activity of the individual (Andreenkova, 1971). Social essence is characterized through such concepts as social activity, social reality, socially significant activity, socialization, etc. What is embodied in social practice through the content of such a component as the socially significant functions of socio-cultural technologies in the socio-cultural environment and institutions of additional education? These objects are a platform for social practice of students in the presence of solutions to socially significant problems. The solution of socially significant tasks is provided by the appropriate socio-cultural technology, the functions of which are aimed at the interaction of the student with the environment. These types of activities are characterized as pedagogical, cognitive, and socio-cultural integration, which is considered as a social practice. The type of social practice is associated with scientific research, creative-transformative, civil-patriotic vectors and depends on the system of knowledge, formed competencies, assimilation of social experience and its transfer in creative activity. Participation of students in social practice characterizes the student as a person who has formed an emotional and value attitude to people, the world, and nature. The modern researcher of the psychology of personality by (Asmolov, 1993) classifies socio-psychological mechanisms of socialization (Ananyev, 2001): identification, imitation, suggestion, and social facilitation, comfort (Vassilkova, 1999). The living environment has a diverse impact on physical, mental and social health. It can change both structurally and substantively depending on age, profession, and man`s social status. The living environment that reveals the content of the process of socialization and is determined by the social, cultural and historical development of society, serves as an indicator of the foundations of human social life. Periods of socialization are associated with individual characteristics of social development, and social and mental development do not always coincide. The variety of forms of psychological adaptation that can be observed in everyday life reflects the individualized attitude of the subject to reality, which in some cases makes it difficult to develop criteria for successful adaptation. So, if we proceed from the understanding of adaptation as the process of forming individual strategies to overcome a stressful situation, then the productivity of adaptation should be determined by strategies of the level of regulation. The most common and most effective, from the point of view of adaptation, is the probability-combined type, based on a combination of “pure types” (Grevtseva, 2003).
When choosing a strategy, a person evaluates the requirements of the social environment (their strength, the degree of restriction of goals, etc.) and their potential. An important aspect of adaptation is the development of a social role by the individual. The effectiveness of adaptation depends largely on how well any individual perceives himself and his social connections in the process of communication. The development of social norms by a person is characterized by the concept of "adaptability". The process of social adaptation is based on active human activity. The study of this phenomenon is possible at three structural levels-macro-environment (society), micro-environment (social group) and intrapersonal adaptation (the individual himself). The focus of social education on the creation of humane, environmental conditions of life, indirectly affecting the development of the individual, can become a leading factor in socialization. The analysis of modern socio-pedagogical researches and others allowed us to distinguish three components of socialization: cognitive, value-oriented, and activity-oriented. In a broad sense, the socio-pedagogical process can be aimed at social formation throughout his life, in a narrow sense-the change (development) of a quality of personality. In this case, it is necessary to consider the individual characteristics of the socialization process, the significance of the dominant institutions and mechanisms for learning social experience. The formation of an optimal psychological adaptation system is based on motivational and volitional processes that allow the individual not only to achieve goals, but also to maintain a favorable psychophysiological and emotional state.
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