Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 3
Ekaterina Alexandrovna Vetrova, Russian State Social University
Elena Evgen'evna Kabanova, Russian State Social University
Evgeniya Evgenyevna Nakhratova, Russian State Social University
Maria Sergeyevna Baynova, Russian State Social University
Tatiana Anatolyevna Evstratova, Russian State Social University
Domestic Tourism, Cultural and Historical Heritage, Tourism, Tourist Attraction, Tourist Potential, Resource and Infrastructure Potential.
At present, tourism is an essential component of economy innovative development in Russia. Tourism serves as the indicator of population life quality, the opportunity to restore public health and improve its cultural level.
Russia has a huge potential for the development of domestic and inbound tourism. The tourist attractiveness of Russian Federation provides an opportunity to develop almost any kind of tourism, for example, ecological, active, extreme, cultural, educational, health, recreational, rural, event, gastronomic and others (Kabanova & Vetrova, 2017).
Tourism attractiveness refers to the territory characteristics, which reflect the level of demand for territorial tourist services and the corresponding level of tourist need satisfaction. The development of tourist attraction is determined by a number of interrelated factors that can be conditionally divided into the following groups: political-administrative, economic, sociocultural and natural-territorial ones (Frolova & Kabanova, 2017).
The analysis of the city of Taganrog tourist attractiveness development over the recent years allows us to conclude that there has been a significant increase of the tourist infrastructure objects. However, this determines the growth of the territory tourist potential, rather than the development of tourist attraction as such, which will allow to attract tourists and form a stable demand for the proposed tourist services.
Such municipality as the city of Taganrog has favorable natural and climatic conditions, has a rich historical and cultural heritage and century-old traditions of hospitality. Nevertheless, nowadays there is a significant preponderance of outbound tourism, which indicates a weak development of tourist attraction. With the rational use of the territory existing potential, the determination of tourist attractiveness development peculiarities and the creation of appropriate conditions for the development of tourist attraction, tourism will play an important role in the social and economic development of the municipality. Thus, the relevance of this topic is conditioned by the contradiction between the existing rich tourist potential of the city of Taganrog and the insufficient level of its tourist attraction development.
The aim of the study is to determine the main trends for the development of the city of Taganrog tourist appeal to implement the interests of its internal and external subjects, in whose attention the territory is interested within the framework of tourism development. The objectives of the article include the study of the existing tourist and recreational infrastructure, the cultural heritage of the city, the analysis of the available opportunity characteristics for the development of beach tourism attractiveness, an active recreation on the coast of the Taganrog Gulf of the Azov Sea.
The empirical basis was the results of a sociological survey conducted by the authors in the city of Taganrog. In the course of the survey, 126 people were interviewed. The leading method of research is a questionnaire survey. The carried out research has allowed allocating available tourist potential and also the basic directions of development of tourist appeal of the city of Taganrog.
The results of the research conducted by the author on the basis of the socio-economic development strategy of "Taganrog" municipality for the period until 2020 became the empirical basis.
Also, the empirical basis for the study was the analytical materials of a sectorial nature contained in periodicals and in the scientific papers of domestic publications and foreign authors. The issues of theoretical and methodological nature, as well as the conceptual apparatus on the problems of municipality tourist appeal development are reflected in the works of the following scientists: Bunakov (2015); Glebova (2010); Egorova & Kiseleva (2014); Klimanova & Telnova (2008); Makarenko (2013); Ryabinskaya & Kravtsova (2018); Slavin (2013); Gorshkova (2017); Mukhomorova et al. (2017); Agung (2018); Florea & Ciovica (2014); Khavi & Enu (2013); Sebastia et al. (2009); Robertico & Kelly (2013); Song & Li (2008); Elisabeth et al. (2013); Dellaert et al. (2014); Chen (2011); Deery et al. (2012); Harasarn & Chancharat (2014).
Tourism is a complex multifaceted socio-economic system characterized by a complex set of interrelations and interdependencies and including a large number of diverse components. One of the important components of tourism is the development of the tourist attractiveness among municipalities. Taking into account the abovementioned, it is necessary to consider this concept in more detail.
It is possible to give the following interpretation of the region tourist attractiveness-it is the combination of its objective and subjective characteristics, material and non-material factors that affect the results of tourism activity and determine the position of the region for tourists and tourism subjects, including the resource-infrastructure potential of tourism and socio-institutional risks of its implementation on this territory (Slavin, 2013). The resource-infrastructure potential of tourism includes two concepts: available tourist resources and tourist infrastructure, which includes organizations and public facilities that provide an opportunity for effective tourism activities. Tourism organizations can play a special role in the management of the city tourist attraction, as they are engaged in the development of new tourist products on the territory of a city or a region, create excursion programs and conduct promotional activities (Glebova, 2010).
First of all, we will consider the organizers of tourism-travel agencies. The types of travel agency activities include:
1. The organization of complex tourist services.
2. The provision with excursion tickets, the provision of accommodation and the provision with transport means.
3. The provision of tourist information services.
4. The provision of tourist excursion services.
30 travel agencies are registered in the city of Taganrog, which provide the services for the arrangement both inbound and outbound tourism. Within the boundaries of the city of Taganrog municipality, there is a certain resource-infrastructure potential, which includes 316 monuments of architecture, history and culture, including 167 regional and 14 federal ones. The tourist potential is only the prerequisites for the organization of tourism activities, which include such components, the objects of historical, social and cultural heritage, natural resources, while tourist attraction is the result of the corresponding activity for the development and the actualization of tourism potential and the development of the corresponding tourist infrastructure. Tourist attractiveness is the area characteristic, reflecting the level of demand for territorial tourist services and the corresponding level of tourist needs satisfaction.
The tourist potential of the city of Taganrog includes 9 museums, 4 cinemas, 7 health-improving complexes, climbing club, equestrian club, flying club, windsurfing club, yacht club, karting club, 2 fitness clubs, 9 billiard clubs, bowling center, 3 gyms, 2 aqua parks, 4 swimming pools, 3 tennis clubs, 3 paintball clubs, 1 ice rink (indoor), 6 bike rental points and 11 night entertainment complexes. In the modern world, cultural tourism plays the leading role among the main types of tourism, which is of great importance in socio-economic development (the preservation of historical and cultural heritage, the promotion of historical monument, architectural ensemble, museum and theater protection, etc.) (Frolova et al., 2016). According to different estimates, cultural tourism ranges from 10% to 35% and somewhere makes even 60% of the world tourist flow (Egorova & Kiseleva, 2014). The tourist image of Taganrog is developed primarily on a historical basis. Taganrog is a historical city in the full sense of the word with three major levels of historical image at least. The first level-Petrovsky, the second-Chekhov and the third-the Soviet one. An enormous trace in the history of the city of Taganrog was left by the classic of the world literature Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. The memorial museum was opened in 1920 in the small adobe house, in which the famous writer was born and which accepts visitors at the present time. The Taganrog State Literary, Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve also include "Chekhov's Shop" museum opened in the autumn of 1977. This is a two storey house, which was rented by the writer's father in 1869 from the famous Taganrog merchant I. Moiseyev. A shop was located on the ground floor (tea, sugar and coffee) and his family lived on the second floor.
A.P. Chekhov's Literary Museum located in the building of the former men's classical gymnasium, in which the writer studied, it was opened in 1980-85 and nowadays a lot of tourists from all over Russia and foreigners visit this museum. The above-mentioned sights of Taganrog are visited by many tourists and the holding of festivals and creative evenings open additional opportunities for the development of tourist attraction among the objects of the cultural heritage of the city. Cultural tourism is an important factor for traveler's aesthetic, moral and intellectual level development, the factor of material well-being increase for a hosting country, as well as the factor of the entire international civilization development. At the same time, cultural tourism has high value content since it has spiritual values in its core.
Taganrog has 41 collective accommodation facilities for the accommodation of guests. These are hotels, hotels, hostels and medical and health institutions. There are 907 rooms in them with 1729 places of one-time accommodation. Hotels in Taganrog are distributed according to the amount of stars: four 4-star hotels; four 3-star hotels; four 2-star hotels; twenty-nine hotels without stars. The tourist and recreational infrastructure also includes 72 catering facilities and 147 objects of population servicing.
The tourist attraction of the territory is usually a certain set of its visual, verbal and emotional characteristics, forming the attitude of tourists to it (Ryabinskaya & Kravtsov, 2018). One of the main trends of tourist attraction development at the city of Taganrog is the creation of conditions for an active recreation on the coast in the Taganrog bay of the Azov Sea. The water objects which are of interest for recreational activities include rivers, lakes, artificial ponds and springs. They are the important elements of the landscape and increase its recreational value significantly, because they affect the aesthetic appeal of the landscape, promote the development of water sports, fishing and the bathing in the fresh air (Makarenko, 2013).
There are five main beaches on the coast of the city of Taganrog: "Primorsky", "Central", "Medusa", "Sunny" and "Eliseevsky". Three beaches are municipal among these, the rest are leased to entrepreneurs and organizations. One should give a brief description of them to have an idea about them.
"Primorsky" municipal beach is located in the southern part of the city, to the right of the cape, on which the Taganrog Commercial Sea Port is located. The coastal zone is shallow, covered with sand and small shells. It is about 10 m wide and about 25 m long, which allows only a limited number of vacationers. The beach is landscaped, there is also a rescue station, a medical center, a shower room, two locker rooms, a toilet and water fountains. There is the windsurfing club "South Sails" not far from the beach. The beach area is clean, it is cleaned regularly and the janitors work in two shifts. The beach is free of charge. There is a picturesque seaside park above this beach with an abundance of coniferous trees. The park has the places for rest and food intake which are the cafe "Brigantine", "Breeze" and the tavern "Mill". A big disadvantage of the beach is the location of breakwaters; their appearance reduces the attractiveness of the beach for holidaymakers. Breakwaters protect the beach from tides, which are frequent phenomena ????. If you remove the breakwaters, then a lot of debris and stones will be thrown on the shore after the first tide and ebb from the beach will wash away the sand in the sea.
Another drawback of the "Primorsky" beach is the water color and transparency. The water is cloudy and has a greenish-yellow and sometimes brownish-yellow color approximately 10 meters from the shore and in summer it acquires a bright green color due to the rapid development of the smallest plant organisms in the upper layers of water, so that you can swim in clean water. One should overcome this unpleasant plot twice. The quality of water in a recreational water basin-the Taganrog Gulf of the Azov Sea-depends on a number of reasons: on the pollution processes caused by sewage from urban enterprises, on the intensity of the shoreline landslide processes, on the flow of sewage from agricultural lands into the bay, on the intensity of navigation, on the delivery of oil products as the result of their loading in the seaport, etc. (Ilchenko, 2015).
"Central" beach, the oldest municipal beach, which was built during the first half of the 20th century and which is located in the central part of the city, to the right of the seaport at the distance of about 1.5 km. In 2016 the beach in 2016 was handed over to the unlimited use of MPI "Blagoustroystvo". The coastal zone is sandy with small stones. The width of the beach is about 300 m and it is about 500 m long. The territory of the beach is fenced with a 1.5 m concrete fence, behind which there are hills and almost no trees. This is the biggest beach in the city of Taganrog. The coastal zone is separated by an asphalted path, along which tourists ride on bicycles and scooters. The beautification of the beach includes the presence of a medical center, 15 locker rooms, 5 shower cabins, drinking water fountains, 14 umbrellas and 4 bathrooms. The beach is cleaned regularly, but after a storm the janitors cannot cope with the cleaning.
The disadvantage of the beach is that the breakwaters do not cope with the waves because of its low altitude; the waves bring sediments, algae and debris to the coastal zone during a storm, which is reflected in the sanitary condition of the beach. Another drawback is that the beach has been improving for a long time; a lot was broken, as there was not enough budget money for its reconstruction.
"Sunny" municipal beach is located near the historical part of the city, to the right of Pushkin kaya embankment, on the eastern shore of the Taganrog Bay; it is separated by a two-meter concrete wall from the coastal zone. Taking into account its location, this beach can be called one of the most visited ones. The beach is covered with sand, which is always clean. Cleaning is carried out regularly. The coastal zone is located on a hill, its width is about 20 m, its length is about 50 m and it is covered with sand and small stones. There are stairs for water descent. The beach is paid; the services are also paid ones: sun loungers, deckchairs and a luggage room. The beach is landscaped, there is a rescue station, 4 showers, 2 dressing rooms, benches, drinking water fountains, a toilet, there is also a parking lot, a medical center and a sports complex located behind a sand zone with trees around. There is karting, billiards, a rollerdrome and many modern cafes on the beach. The disadvantage of this beach is its location on the hill, for the elderly people and the people with disabilities, there is no possibility of descent to the sea and the ascent to the beach and the beach is far from the sun beds.
"Eliseevsky" beach is leased to a local entrepreneur. The beach is located in the northern "corner" of the Admiral Kruis embankment, between the hotel complex "Lazurny" and the health-improving guest house "Zurbagan", about 2.5 km from the seaport. Due to its location, the water in the sea is much cleaner, the seabed is the deepest one in comparison with other beaches and it is covered with very large sand with small stones, without algae. The coastal zone is flat, long, covered with sand, about 10 m wide and fenced. The entrance to the beach is free and all other services are paid ones. The beach is well equipped; there is a rescue station, a medical center, 28 tents, deckchairs, cafes, snack bars and billiards, 14 toilets combined with showers, locker rooms, a pool and a volleyball court. The cleaning of sanitary facilities is carried out regularly, toilets, showers and locker rooms are very clean, if compared with other beaches. There is an asphalted ground in front of the entrance to the beach, where discos and concerts of famous bands are held. Trees grow along the coastal zone.
The disadvantage of this beach is a small number of janitors for beach cleaning, in the morning they do not have time to clean the whole territory, to clean and arrange sun beds, umbrellas, etc. The visual disadvantage of the beach is the location of concrete blocks in the sea; their appearance reduces the aesthetic appeal of the beach for holidaymakers.
The beach "Medusa", handed over to the management of MPI "Primorye" in 2016, is located in the northern part of the coast, between "Eliseevsky" and "Sunny" beaches. The coastal zone is sandy; the beach is about 150 m wide and about 500 m long. The coastal zone is inclined, with a smooth descent; the bottom is covered with sand, seashells, silt, rocks, algae, a lot of debris and broken glass. The beautification of the beach area includes a parking lot, a cafe and a shopping stall and there are no more facilities for improvement. The disadvantage of the beach "Medusa" is the dirty bottom of the sea and how the beach is cleaned poorly. Another shortcoming of the beach is the lack of umbrellas, sun beds, locker rooms, toilets, showers and other forms of improvement. The abovementioned characteristics of the beaches located in the city of Taganrog on the coast of the Taganrog Gulf of the Azov Sea show that municipal beaches have a number of shortcomings due to the lack of financing, in contrast to the beaches leased to entrepreneurs. In modern conditions infrastructure problems are the main reason for territorial competitiveness reduction in the tourism market (Frolova et al., 2017).
The human factor is the main one, which affects the cleanliness of the city beaches, the pollution on the beaches happen most often due to the fault of tourists, the second place is the tides that bring debris to the shore. One of the promising areas of the city of Taganrog economy development is domestic tourism. At present, an important social function is performed by tourism for children. In the coastal areas of Taganrog, the children from socially unprotected families rest most often from different regions of Russia. There are about 7,000 children at the age of 7-16 during the summer period. There are the camps for children named "Friendship" and "Peace" at 17 km from the Central District of Taganrog, in the village of "Red Landing" where children come from all over the country. Provided that favorable conditions are created, the tourism for children in Taganrog will be developing, taking into account the peculiarity of the Azov Sea, where the depth makes around one meter at a distance of 30 m from the shore, which is preferable for the bathing of children. Tourism and environment are closely interrelated, natural and artificial environments provide tourist attractions and tourism development can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment (Bunakov, 2015).
Beaches are important for the city, these are the most valuable objects of tourist destination and they also perform the coastal protection function. In this regard, it is necessary to release the coastal part of the city from a number of enterprises, to strengthen and beautify the seashore, to create new beaches and to develop the existing ones. In order to increase the coastal zone of the city, it is necessary to conduct sand washing, mainly in the north-eastern part of the coast, which should be increased to 270 hec, where the main resort and recreational area is supposed to be located with the servicing institutions. The perimeter of the central part, including the southern coast, also needs to be landscaped. It is necessary to create comfortable beaches, to perform landscaping, to build parks, boulevards and gardens. In this zone, it is necessary to place hotel complexes with a high level of resort services, boarding houses, seasonal holiday homes and the recreation centers for children, cafes, restaurants and the entire necessary infrastructure for cultural recreation.
In order to implement the plans for the development of the tourist attraction in the city of Taganrog, it is necessary to attract investors who want to invest their money in the development of tourism. Many objects that require financial investments need to be leased, with the condition of restoration. The development of interest among local population concerning the development of the municipality tourist attractiveness is facilitated by:
1. The development of entrepreneurship in the sphere of tourism among the local population of the municipality.
2. The creation of new jobs in the tourism industry and their provision to the local population, also within the multiplier effect.
3. The use of public-private partnership mechanism to involve local investors in the development of tourism infrastructure, as well as the use of such forms of public-private partnerships as infrastructure bonds, deposits and investment funds.
4. The increase of material interest through the creation of mutual investment funds focused on the development of the tourist destination industry.
Thus, a comprehensive assessment of natural, historical and cultural potential of the regions, including an integral assessment of the material historical and cultural and natural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, an aesthetic appeal of the territory, as well as the provision of cultural institutions, supplemented by the analysis of the tourist infrastructure state on the territory are the necessary elements for a favorable tourist image development on the territory. Its results allow to focus the attention on various aspects of the tourist development on the territory, to make a developed image more significant and, ultimately, more commercially successful (Klimanova & Telnova, 2008). The development of the municipality tourist appeal should be based on existing elements, the opportunities for development (its potential) and tourism demand. The tourist attraction can be expressed as the function of supply and demand interaction. The relationship between opportunities and existing elements, as well as demand is the form of tourist attraction measuring. In its turn, the segments of tourist potential are historical and cultural and recreational-ecological zones.
Currently, the servicing of tourists is performed taking into account the use of global computer network, modern computer management technology possibilities that allow creating a tourist product for a client in a short time, taking into account the encouragement systems of regular customers and various tariffs. A further development of tourism is impossible without the creation of new and the reconstruction of existing tourism facilities on the basis of advanced achievements in technology and science; the application of the latest technologies in the field of tourist servicing; an optimal use of available resources; the improvement of service and culture quality on the basis of tourism industry computerization, technology and industrialization. Based on all mentioned above, it can be concluded that the existing image of the city can be attributed to an organic type, formed, first of all, by such attractors as the Sea of Azov and Chekhov's sites. But the presence of these famous tourist resources will not make the city a tourist destination automatically attractive to tourists. One of the strategically important areas of the urban economy is to promote the development of domestic and inbound tourism, which should become one of the priorities of local government activities. The city of Taganrog still has all the prerequisites for the development of tourism: favorable natural and climatic conditions, good geographical position, rich natural resources, a great cultural and historical potential. In the process of the city of Taganrog tourist attraction development and a tourist destination creation, different communication technologies and means will be required, demonstrating the openness of the territory for external contacts and allowing the external subjects to know it better and to ascertain the materiality of its advantages.
The positioning of cities and regions largely determines their attractiveness and ultimately influences the development of the tourist infrastructure. Therefore, it is so important to form the tourist image of the territory purposefully and promote it among the population who are the potential tourists. In order to develop the tourist appeal of the city of Taganrog municipality, it is necessary to carry out the measures which improve the urban infrastructure, restore the order on the city streets and support it. Roads require a special attention, the covering of which requires the repair and in some areas require a complete replacement. It is also necessary to develop measures for an effective use of municipal lands, including beaches. Many activities for tourism attractiveness development do not require large expenditures, but rather increase the turnover of money in the city economy and ensure the creation of new jobs.
There are a large number of museums that have great potential for tourist attraction in the municipality of the city of Taganrog. In order to develop an eventful tourism in the city, it is necessary to hold the events with the city administration support: the traditional Chekhov Theater Festival, a book festival and sports competitions. The conduct of local events that are controlled at the local level and which are tied to specific events. The Football World Cup in 2018 can give additional opportunities for the city of Taganrog concerning tourist attraction development.
The development of the city of Taganrog tourist attraction is possible in several ways:
1. First of all, by the introduction of new tourism technologies to the existing historical and cultural infrastructure, including the prevailing stereotypes of the urban environment perception in the context of the historical past, the heroics of its inhabitants, the eventual saturation, etc.
2. Secondly, by the creation of new segments of tourism, focused on the possibilities of the city resource base, the characteristics of demand and a target group of potential tourists, finally, taking into account the current level of world tourism development.
The main trends of tourist appeal development in the city of Taganrog are the following ones:
1. The creation of the necessary conditions for an active recreation on the coast of the Taganrog Gulf of the Azov Sea.
2. The holding of events for the development of event tourism associated with the historical and cultural values of the city of Taganrog.
3. The popularization of the city tourist product and its promotion to the Russian and international tourist markets to create a positive image of the city of Taganrog.
In order to develop the tourist attraction of the city of Taganrog:
1. It is necessary to develop the existing beaches to the highest level.
2. To increase the number of luxury hotels with a full range of services.
3. To increase the number of public catering facilities and fast servicing in tourist recreation areas.
4. To build conference halls and exhibition centers.
5. To increase the number of organizations that carry out tour operator and travel agency activities, as well as the number of organizations providing tour guide services, the services of guides, interpreters and instructors.
After the implementation of the listed activities, the city of Taganrog can claim to tourist attraction increase.