Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 19 Issue: 2

Role of Training Strategies and Its Impact on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian Commercial Banks: An Empirical Study on a Sample of Jordanian Commercial Banks

Laith Abdullah AlQhaiwi, Zarqa University

Abstract

This study aimed to identify the role of training strategies and their impact on organizational excellence a case of the Jordanian commercial banks. The population consisted of all the Jordanian commercial banks. A stratified random sample was selected. Then, the questionnaire used on a sample study of 102 employees in the Jordanian commercial banks was selected randomly. A number of findings have been found include the following:

1. The evaluation of the adoption level of the staff for the training strategies in the banks which are top management support for the training activities, diversity of training programs, provide a database, and use of modern technology ranged between high and medium.

2. There is a statistically significant impact for training strategies (top management support for the training activities, diversity of training programs, provide a database, and use of modern technology) each separately at the level of significance of α =0.05 on organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

The researcher recommends having more attention to the Jordanian commercial banks in training strategies and a specific strategy which is use of modern technology, because of obtaining the fourth and final rank in the scale priorities of their employees.

Keywords

Training Strategies, Organizational Excellence, Commercial Banks, Database.

Introduction

The training strategies are considered as the most important entrances in the human resource development process in the organization’s business. They aim to provide sufficient numbers of the human manpower necessary for the implementation of action plans. The training strategies in management mean to enrich the knowledge of human resources and skills development. The majority of specialists and researchers have defined the training concept in several ways, all agree to clarify the importance of training programs as one of the main pillars in enhancing the performance level, and increase the productivity sufficiency and preparing the individuals of different functional levels to do the work entrusted to them in the fullest (Al-Heiti, 2002; Haddad & Joudeh, 2014).

The excellence is one important element to ensure continuity of the company development and its success whether this excellence is productive, marketing, administrative or services, due to its clear potential to develop new and innovative products that fit with the nature of our guiding markets these products (Al-Emian, 2005; Alnwaigah, 2014; Al-Zahrani, 2012).

To achieve the organizations excellence, we should engage all employees of temporary committees or permanent to search for excellence and creative ideas, in addition to that, they should hold training programs for youth categories of employees who possess signs of enthusiasm and rush towards free and creative thinking, which will create the innovative ideas they have and to ensure the material and moral support to them, and provide the administrative climate, which aims to help the innovators in practice fields they are interested (Rashwan, 2002).

Methodology

Problem and Questions

Due to the lack of Arab studies related to the subject of this study that addressed the training process of the strategic entrance to the reality of the Arab environment in general, including the Jordanian Environment Specifically, since the majority of these studies have addressed the training function as one of the traditional functions of the HR management which is not linked to the strategic entrance of the organizations life cycle, as though studies on training function of their strategic entrances did not clearly explain from the perspective of a researcher at the Jordanian business environment, particularly in the banking environment. The questions of this study are:

a) What is the adoption degree of Jordanian commercial banks to the training strategies from the employees’ perspective?

b) Is there a significant impact for the training strategies dimensions (senior management support to activities and programs of training, diversity of training programs, provide database about the training strategies, and the extent of using modern technology), on the organizational excellence of Jordanian commercial banks?

The Study Importance

The study acquires its importance as it:

1. Focuses on the role of the strategic elements of the training function in Jordanian commercial banks and their influence on the organizational excellence.

2. Interested and diagnosis the reality of training strategies applied in the commercial banking sector.

3. This study takes into account the creative, strategic entrance of the training process.

4. Helps to diagnose the impediments of adopting the strategic entrance to practice training activities within the excellence orientations.

The Study Objectives

The study aimed to:

1. Display the theoretical and conceptual of the training strategies and organizational excellence.

2. Identify the extent of implementing training strategies by the Jordanian commercial banks.

3. Measure the role of training strategies and its influence on organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

4. Provide several recommendations that the researcher believes need to be taken into account by the decision-makers in the Jordanian commercial banks. These recommendations shall enhance the organizational excellence of the mentioned banks.

The Study Model

A model has been developed in the aim of measuring the role of training strategies and the impact on the Organizational excellence of the Jordanian commercial banks. This model is presented in (Figure 1):

Figure 1 The Model of this Study

Hypotheses

Hypothesis and four sub-hypotheses are presented below:

H0: There is not any statistically significant impact -at the level of significance of α ≤ 0.05 for the Training Strategies in terms of their dimensions (Administrative Support, Training Programs, Data Base, and Modern Technology) on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

H01: There is not any statistically significant impact for the Administrative Support-at the level of significance of α ≤ 0.05 on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

H02: There is not any statistically significant impact for the Training Programs-at the level of significance of α ≤ 0.05 on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

H03: There is not any statistically significant impact for the Data Base-at the level of significance of α ≤ 0.05 on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

H04: There is not any statistically significant impact for Modern Technology at the level of significance of α ≤ 0.05) on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Theoretical Framework & Previous Studies

The Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework related to the training concept and excellence concepts, as follows:

The Training Concept

Most of the management scientists and professionals explained the concept of training, each according to his point of view although differed, all have agreed on the role of training in improving the worker's efficiency and the company alike. Hence, the concept of training has been defined as a human activity planned aims at providing the trainees with some of the knowledge, information, skills, and technical expertise required, trends, tendencies and outstanding performance levels (Ali, 1995).

And the training process is defined as a planned process based on the use of scientific methods in order to develop the skills and the potentials at individuals, taking into account the expansion of the level of their knowledge through learning, aimed at improving the level incompetence and thus improve the efficiency of the company in which they work as a team (Al-Oqaili, 2006).

The training process is also defined as the continuous process which aims to provide individuals with ideas, knowledge, abilities, and skills that enable them in perform particular tasks or meeting specific goals. The training process aims at increasing the workers’ performance efficiency in doing their jobs and thus increases the company efficiency in which they work to achieve the objectives in the frame service and achieve the community objectives (Assaf, 2010).

While Abdul Karim (2006) defined the training as a plan-based process that aims at developing individuals and groups in terms of providing them with technical skills. Training shall improve performance levels and working methods and trends, which make individuals and groups, have the ability to work efficiently and high productivity. Moreover, that training is the way under which to provide the employees with the knowledge and technical skills in a particular area are aimed at increasing the trainees’ effectiveness and their efficiency, and the training process help the company’s administrations managers using workforce they have and to invest their ability in the best way.

The Training Strategy

The training strategy is a process which aims at making long-term strategic decisions. It aims at developing employee performance in organizations. It also aims at developing their skills, competencies, knowledge, and capabilities. It shall participate in meeting the organizational vision and goals (Daft, 2001). In light of the above, the development of HR serves as an effective investment. It shall participate in meeting the purposes of strategic planning. The management should have a clear vision. It must recognize the interests of employees. There must be an effective strategy adopted by the HR management for meeting the long-term goals that shall participate in increasing the operational practices (Al-Magriby, 2005).

To prepare the training strategies and formulation has been identified by Al-Qatamin (2002), the number of stages that should be going through this process are:

1. Developing the organization's strategy and defining the tasks, objectives, programs and policies consistent with its mission.

2. Developing a strategy for training and identifying policies, programs and balancers in a way that is consistent with the organization vision.

3. Analyzing the Organizational external environment that should be done through emphasizing technological development, economic conditions, government regulations, and competition.

4. Analyzing the internal organizational environment that should be done through emphasizing the financial situation, the workforce efficient and the labor turnover rate

5. Reviewing the plans for the training strategies.

The Excellence Concept

It is intended to excellence that distinguishes the services offered by the organization to find something that realizes the level of the organization's work is something unique and qualitative. It takes this feature is achieved multiple forms as characteristic design or trademark that is, they are trying to find a perception among the beneficiaries that the organization concerned services different from those in the same sector, having this distinction also comes through the creation of famous trademark or use of a certain technique, and this organization will get on yields higher than average (Noe et al., 2000), and can use the feature by the following two methods:

1. Distinguish the organization's services about the competitors by adding quality properties that give it competitive attractiveness in the market.

2. Probability of providing an opportunity to use information technology.

Ibrahim (2001) defined the concept of excellence as meeting the objectives that shall add value to the human life, achieving excellence and assisting individuals to improve performance despite of the monotony of the work and its style, as the excellence requirement essential towards raising, developing skills and abilities, and showing the creative performance (Ibrahim, 2001). Based on that, personal excellence needs an internal motivation, while organizational excellence requires having a suitable climate and team spirit teamwork. Having these things shall motivate the employee to compete and cooperate with others.

While the excellence is defined as an activity planning process to achieve the innovation in the output compared to the alternatives in the market, thus achieving the uniqueness of the output with unique specifications elevate the other alternatives (Younis, 1994). Excellence refers to the capability of organizations to offer development opportunities. It also refers to the creation of suitable conditions and solving the employees’ problems effectively (Grote, 2002).

Moreover, the organizational excellence is of several kinds, among them the following (Al-Thalaien, 2010):

1. The Leadership Excellence: is the degree of the commander’s excellence on investing the organizational opportunities, and provide the development opportunities and accept the business that challenging way which helps the organization to face the troubled operations and multiple crises (Hesselbein & Johnston, 2002)

2. The Subordinates Excellence: is the degree of the employees’ excellence in the organization with enthusiasm distinct in performance of the organization tasks of possessing mentality abilities and creative possibilities distinct assist them in skip the obstacles they face, without murmuring and encourage others to participate effectively in decisions that contribute to meeting the goals of the organization (Burkhart, 1993)

3. The Structure Excellence: is the degree of the organizational structure excellence, which connects the organization’s parts and determines the relationships between business, center’s, departments, and the people, and the expected cooperation between regulation parts, and illustrates the paths of authority and responsibility form in which it helps to improve the performance of various activities to achieve the desired objectives (Bateman & Organ, 1983).

4. The Strategy Excellence: is the degree actions excellence that is taken by the organization to achieve its vision and mission, and their interaction as comprehensive and integrated plan linking the organization advantages in its strategic ability to confront the environmental challenges (Kandula, 2001).

5. The Culture Excellence: is the degree of the behavior that agrees and expresses the excellence of the individuals beliefs and values of the influence in the organization, and addresses a number of elements which are (openness, cooperation, trust, authenticity, tribal activity, independence, and confront problems), and contribute these elements in enhancing the effectiveness of the performance human and their competence (Gupta & Arya, 2003).

Previous Studies

Study of Kumar & Siddika (2017) entitled “Benefits of Training and Development Program on Employees’ Performance: A Study with Special Reference to Banking Sector in Bangladesh” identifies the advantages derived from developing and training programs. These programs are vital for making sure that the employees shall show effective performance at organizations. The sampled organizations realize that human capital is the most valuable asset they have.

Regarding this study, it aimed at exploring the importance of developing and training programs. It aimed to explore the positive impacts derived from such programs on organizations and employees.

This study aimed to identify the significance of training and development programs. It identifies the impacts of such programs on organizational success. To meet such goals, fifty bank employees have been interviewed. Questionnaire forms were distributed to them. These employees work at Agrani Bank Limited (ABL) at Kushtia and Jhenaidah district. Stratified random sampling was used. It was concluded that the training and development program should develop the employees’ skills, capabilities and intellectuality of the bank employees.

Study of Al-Zahrani (2012) entitled: “The training strategy and its impact on the behavioural competencies for employees in the Saudi commercial banks” aimed to identify the relevant practices with the training strategy in the Saudi commercial banks and their impact on the behavioural competencies level for their employees. The study population consisted of (12) commercial banks working in Saudi Arabia, chosen a stratified random sample of (108) managers of human resources management and the training in the first and second levels in all banks under study. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Ninety-two questionnaire forms were analyzed. The results are: a) the practice level of managers in the Saudi commercial banks for training activities and stages of the training process from a strategic entrance was relatively (moderate). Those banks use traditional technologies for applying their training strategies. b) There is a statistically significant (positive) relationship at the level of significance of (α = 0.05), between the extent of practicing (activities and steps to build the training strategy, and the training process stages from a strategic entrance, adopt and use the modern technology) by managers, and the level of the behavioural competencies for the employees.

In the research of Al-Mutairy (2012) entitled: “Impact of the Creative Orientation on Achieving the Competitive Advantage: An Applied Study on the Kuwaiti Commercial Banks” aimed to identify the impact of the creative orientation to achieve a competitive advantage. Thirty-item questionnaire forms were distributed to employees. The final sample consists of (102) employees. In light of this, the data was collected and analyzed using the statistical package (SPSS), where was testing hypotheses using simple and multiple linear regression method. The results are: there is a significant impact for the creative orientation with dimensions of (intentioned in creativity, infrastructure for innovation, the impact of innovation and the implementation of creativity) - at the significance level (α=0.05) on achieving a competitive advantage (excellence and responsiveness) in the Kuwaiti commercial banks.

Study of Kock & Ellström (2011) titled as follows: “Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs” aimed to identify the impact of the training programs-provided for employees – on the development of their competencies at small and medium-sized enterprises in Sweden. A questionnaire was used. Data were collected from 14 medium and small business organizations. The researchers add that there are not many studies about job training from a strategic entrance. They add that there are not many studies about the impact of this approach on competencies, especially on behavioural competencies. Thus, this study fills a gap in the literature. The results are: a) the training needs to improve the learning environment. b) There is a significant impact - at the level of significance of (α=0.05)-for the training programs for developing the employee's competencies in the medium and small-sized enterprises in Sweden.

Study of Elbadri (2001) titled as follows: “Training Practices of Poland Banks: An Appraisal and Agenda for Improvement” aimed at identifying the training practices at the Polish commercial banks. Thirty banks were targeted. A questionnaire was designed. This questionnaire sheds light on the training-related activities (i.e. identification of training needs, development of training programs, and assessment of the training programs effectiveness). The results are: a) many sampled banks do not seek to identify the training needs when setting plans for banking activities. b) The sampled banks don’t assess the training programs effectiveness.

Study of As-Samarrai (2010) titled: “Impact of the Training Strategies for the Development of Human Resources in the Public Sector: The Electricity Sector in Iraq as Model” aimed at exploring the influence of the training strategies on the development of human resources at the Iraqi Ministry of Electricity. The latter development was measured by the desire to change, motivation level, and achievement of the course objectives. The results are: a) A statistically significant relationship exists at the level of significance of (α = 0.05), between the training strategies and development of human resources at the Iraqi Ministry of Electricity. b) Raising the performance efficiency of employees requires holding educational seminars and training courses.

Study of Aldalaien (2010) entitled: “Impact of the Administrative Empowerment in the Organizational Excellence: An Empirical Study at the Jordanian Telecom Company” aimed to investigate the influence of the administrative empowerment on the achievement of excellence at Jordan Telecom Company. Questionnaire forms were distributed to 553 employees. The results are: a) the realization level of the employees in Jordanian Telecom Company for the administrative empowerment dimensions was (high), and that the level of their realization for the excellence of the business organization dimensions also was high. b) A significant relationship exists -at the level of significance of (α= 0.05) –between the administrative empowerment and achievement of excellence

Nawfa (2007) study titled: “Impact of the training strategy on the employee's performance in the Jordanian commercial banks” aimed to identify the practices related to the training strategy in the Jordanian commercial banks and their influence on the individuals working performance level. The population involves all the Jordanian commercial banks in which a competent department of the human resources management with 17 banks. This study was aimed at 10 managers of the human resources management at the head centre of the bank and 20 managers of the branches operating management at Irbid city. A questionnaire was used. The results are: a) A significant positive relationship exists - at the level of significance of (α=0.05) between practice degree of the human resources management at the Jordanian commercial banks for the training strategy and training process, and between the individuals working performance level. b) Significant differences exist - at the level of significance of (α=0.05)- in the practice of activities and steps to build the training strategy, as well as the practice of the training process stages from strategic entrance attributable for each of the (educational qualification, and the number of experience years).

Method and Procedures

Approach

A descriptive approach has been adopted for exploring the opinions of respondents and measure variables. In addition, an analytical approach has been adopted for exploring the influence of the training strategies on the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Population and Sample

The study population consists of all the Jordanian commercial banks it about 31 (the study just included Jordanian commercial banks). The researcher targeted all Jordanian
commercial banks. This study selected employees because there are some reasons. Firstly, it has been used in past studies. Secondly, the employees can give the correct information regarding the model such as Age and size of banks. Thirdly, employees inside banks in Jordan still have fresh memories to express their experiences of the Jordanian commercial banks.

Hence, the study sample consists of 110 employees, selected according to stratified random sample method. After that, the researcher distributed 110 questionnaires to the study sample (about eight questionnaires for each bank). 105 were retrieved. The response rate is 95.5%. Three forms were excluded due to having missing data. Thus, 102 forms were analyzed.

Instrument

To meet the goals of this study, an instrument was developed based on the relevant literature that concerns the training strategies and the literature that concerns the Organizational excellence. A questionnaire was used. The cut-off grade has been calculated as follows: (5-1/3 = 1.33}. The categories of mean classification are:

• Low: (1 to 2.33).

• Moderate: (2.34 to 3.67).

• High: (3.68 to 5).

The instrument validity and reliability were checked.

Validity

Face validity was checked bypassing the questionnaire to a panel of experts. Those experts are faculty members who have much knowledge and experience in the administrative sciences field. They were asked to assess the questionnaire in terms of language and relevancy. In light of the experts’ opinions, some language mistakes were corrected. The final version of the questionnaire includes 30 items. 20 items measure the training strategies. These strategies are independent variables. 10 items measure organizational excellence. This excellence is the dependent variable.

Reliability

To measure the reliability of the instrument, the values of Cronbach's Alpha coefficient were calculated. They are presented in Table 1. The total value of this coefficient is 0.821. Table 1 illustrates below:

Table 1 Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient
The Variables N Cronbach's Alpha Stability Ratio
Administrative Support 5 0.804 %80.4
Training Programs 5 0.798 %79.8
Database 5 0.839 %83.9
Modern Technology 5 0.845 %84.5
Organizational Excellence 10 0.819 %81.9
Total Tool 30 0.821 %82.1

The Cronbach's Alpha coefficients values are accepted statistically. That’s because they are greater than 0.60.

Data Collection Methods

The following data was used:

1. Primary data: It involves the data collected by the questionnaire. The questionnaire forms were distributed to several employees in the senior and middle management in the Jordanian commercial banks.

2. Secondary data: is the data that was obtained from the sources in the libraries of Jordanian universities, and literature review contained in the relevant studies, in order to accomplish the theoretical and intellectual framework for this study.

The Statistical Methods

The SPSS was used. Several statistical methods were used. Such methods include: Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient, STD, means, and multiple and simple linear regression.

Results and Discussion

Results Related to the Study Question

What is the adoption level of the training strategies in the Jordanian commercial banks from the perspective of the employees? For answering the question, means and Std. have been calculated to assess the employees for the adoption level of the training strategies in the Jordanian commercial banks, represented by administrative support for the training activities, training programs, database, and using modern technology. Table 2 displays the means related to the training strategies which are administrative support for the training activities, training programs, database, and using modern technology, equals to 4.12, 3.85, 3.74 and 3.56 respectively. All means are higher than the test of criteria’s 3 and 5 based on the Likert Scale. It was found that the employees in the Jordanian commercial banks have a clear view of the importance of these strategies. Moreover, the results show that the attitudes are positive. Thus, the sampled banks apply the targeted strategies much from the employees’ perspective.

Table 2 Standard Deviations & means for the Training Strategies in the Jordanian Commercial Banks
No. Training Strategies Mean Std. Rank level
1 Administrative Support 4.12 0.60 1 High
2 Training Programs 3.85 0.66 2 High
3 Database 3.74 0.84 3 High
4 Modern Technology 3.56 0.70 4 Medium

In light of the foregoing, it is clear that the strategy (administrative support for training activities) got ranked first in terms of the significance of the employees’ perspective in Jordanian commercial banks. The strategy (training programs) got on the (second) rank, while the strategy (database) got on the (third) rank. Finally, the strategy (modern technology) got ranked fourth and in terms of the priorities from the bankers’ perspective.

Results that concern main hypothesis

H0: There is not any statistically significant impact -at the level of (α ≤ 0.05) for the training strategies in terms of their dimensions (administrative support, training programs, database, and modern technology) on the Organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

For testing the study’s hypothesis, the stepwise regression analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are presented in Table 3:

Table 3 The Results Obtained Through the Analysis of Stepwise Regression for Measuring the Influence of the Training Strategies on Organizational Excellence
IDV (β) Std. Error (t) Sig
Constant (β0) 0.456 0.249 1.833 0.070
Training Programs 0.418 0.059 7.128 0.000
Administrative Support 0.293 0.063 4.652 0.000
Database 0.171 0.047 3.662 0.000
Adjusted (R2) = 0.691, (F) = 73.12, Sig. of (F) = 0.000

Based on Table 3,

1. The validity of the Stepwise regression model was proven. That’s because the value of the calculated (F) is 73.128. The Sig. value is 0.000. Thus, it’s less than the level of significance of α = 0.05.

2. The significant of (β) of3 strategies (i.e. training programs, administrative support, and database) is proven. Thus, a significant impact exists at the level of (α = 0.05) for the mentioned strategies on organizational excellence at the Jordanian commercial banks. The Sig. value is less than the significant level (α = 0.05). Thus, the null hypothesis (H0) got rejected, and (H1) got accepted.

3. While the strategy (modern technology) was excluded for not showing a significant impact in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks, the sig, value has 0.076 is higher than the level of significance of α = 0.05.

4. The value of the Adjusted Determination coefficient R2=0.691. That indicates that the strategies (training programs, administrative support, and database) in the regression model interpret 69.1% of the variations that happen in the (organizational excellence) for the Jordanian commercial banks.

A significant impact exists for three strategies (training programs, administrative support, and database) in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks. The influence of each strategy must be tested separately on organizational excellence:

Results that concern the 1st sub-hypothesis

H01: There is not any statistically significant impact -at the level of significance of (α ≤ 0.05)-for the administrative support in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

For testing the 1st sub-hypothesis, the analysis of the simple linear regression was conducted. The results in this regard are displayed in Table 4.

Table 4 The Results Obtained Through the Simple Linear Regression Analysis for Exploring the Influence of the Administrative Support in the Organizational Excellence
IDV (β) value Std. Error (t) Sig.
Constant (β0) 1.446 0.316 4.575 0.000
Administrative Support 0.599 0.076 7.885 0.000
R2 = 0.383, (F) value = 62.179, Sig. of (F) = 0.000

Based on Table 4,

1. The validity of the simple linear regression is proven. That’s supported through the calculated value (F) is 62.179. The significance value is 0.000. This value is lower than the level of significance of α=0.05.

2. The statistical significance of regression coefficients (β) for the strategy (administrative support) is proven. Thus, a significant impact exists at the level of significance of (α=0.05) for the strategy (administrative support) in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks. Depend upon the Sig., and the value less than the significant level (α = 0.05). Thus, the null hypothesis (H01) got rejected, and (H11) got accepted.

3. The (R2) is 0.383. Therefore, the strategy (administrative support) in the regression model can interpret (38.3%) of the changes that happened to the (organizational excellence) for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Results that concern 2nd sub-hypothesis

H02: There is not any statistically significant impact at the level (α ≤ 0.05) for the training programs in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

For testing the 2nd sub-hypothesis, the analysis of the simple linear regression was conducted. The results in this regard are displayed in Table 5:

Table 5 Results Obtained Through the Analysis of Simple Linear Regression for Exploring the Influence of the Training Programs in the Organizational Excellence
IDV (β) Std. Error (t) Sig.
Constant (β0) 1.452 0.233 6.220 0.000
Training Programs 0.640 0.060 10.692 0.000
R2 = 0.533 , (F) value = 114.324 , Sig. of (F) = 0.000

Based on Table 5,

1. The validity of the simple linear regression is proven. That’s supported through the calculated value (F) is 114.324. The significance value is 0.000. It’s considered less than the level of significance of α=0.05.

2. The statistical significance of regression coefficients (β) for the strategy (training programs) is proven. Thus, a significant impact exists at the level of significance of α=0.05 for the strategy (training programs) on the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks. (Sig.) value is less than the level of significance of α=0.05. Thus, the null hypothesis (H02) got rejected, and (H12) got accepted.

3. R2 is 0.533. Thus, the strategy (training programs) in the model of regression interprets 53.3% of the variations that happen to the (organizational excellence) for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Results that concern the 3rd sub-hypothesis

H03: There is not any statistically significant impact at the level of significance of (α ≤ 0.05), for the database in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

For testing the 3rd sub-hypothesis, the simple linear regression analysis was conducted. The results of such testing are displayed through Table 6.

Table 6 The Results Obtained Through the Analysis of Simple Regression for Exploring the Impact of the Database in the Organizational Excellence
IDV (β) Value Std. Error (t) Sig.
Constant (β0) 2.310 0.207 11.185 0.000
Database 0.428 0.054 7.953 0.000
R2 = 0.387, (F) value = 63.245, Sig. of (F) = 0.000

Based on Table 6,

1. The validity of simple linear regression is proven. That’s because the calculated value (F) is 63.245. The sig. value is 0.000. It’s considered less than the significance level (α = 0.05).

2. The statistical significance of regression coefficients (β) for the strategy (database) is proven. Thus, a statistically significant impact exists at the level of significance of α = 0.05 for the strategy (database) on the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks. Depend upon the Sig., and the value less than the significant level (α=0.05). Thus, the null hypothesis (H03) got rejected, and (H13) got accepted.

3. R2 is 0.387 indicates that the strategy (database) in the regression model interprets 38.7% of the variations that happen on the (organizational excellence) for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Test the 4th sub-hypothesis

H04: There is no statistically significant impact -at the level of significance of (α ≤ 0.05) for the modern technology on the Organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

For testing the 4th sub-hypothesis, the analysis of the simple linear regression was conducted. The results are displayed through Table 7

Table 7 The Results Obtained Through the Simple Regression Analysis for Measuring the Influence of Modern Technology on Organizational Excellence
Sig. Value of (t) Std. Error C (β) IDV
0.000 9.321 0.259 2.413 Constant (β0)
0.000 5.899 0.071 0.421 Modern Technology
R2 = 0.258, (F) value = 34.796, Sig. of (F) = 0.000

Based on Table 7,

1. The validity of simple linear regression is proven. That’s because of the calculated value (F) is 34.796. The significance value is 0.000. It’s considered the significance level is low (α=0.05).

2. The statistical significance of regression coefficients (β) for the strategy (modern technology) is proven. Thus, a statistically significant impact exists at the level of significance of α=0.05 for the strategy (modern technology) in the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks. Depend upon the Sig., and the value less than the significant level (α = 0.05). Thus, the null hypothesis (H04) got rejected, and (H14) got accepted.

3. R2 is (0.25.8) indicates that the strategy (modern technology) in the regression model interprets 25.8% of the variations that happen in the (organizational excellence) for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Conclusions

The following was concluded:

1. The adoption degree of the training strategies which are (administrative support for training activities, training programs, database, and modern technology) ranged between (high and medium) from the employees’ perspective.

2. The (modern technology) strategy obtained on the (fourth) rank and the last, from the perspective of employees in the Jordanian commercial banks.

3. A significant impact exists for the (administrative support for training activities) strategy - at the level of significance of α = 0.05 on the Organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

4. A significant impact exists for the (training programs) strategy- at the level of significance of α=0.05 on the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

5. A significant impact exists for (database) strategy at the level of significance of α = 0.05 on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

6. A significant impact exists for the (modern technology) strategy at the level of significance of α=0.05 on the Organizational Excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

Recommendations

The researcher recommends:

1. The necessity of having interest by the administrations of Jordanian commercial banks on the training strategies, specifically the (modern technology) strategy, because it obtained the last rank in the ladder of priorities.

2. Attention should be given professionally by the employees in Jordanian commercial banks in general, and the study sample of commercial banks especially, and motivate them financially for the advancement of the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks.

3. The necessity to design scientific standards to assess the training performance of the employees in Jordanian commercial banks based on encouraging them to have innovation and creativity to enhance the organizational excellence for the mentioned banks.

4. The study suggests the necessity of conducting studies and researches in the future that are similar to the current study, aimed to analyze the impact of other factors on the organizational excellence for the Jordanian commercial banks, with the recommendation of using other statistical methods.

5. e- The researcher proposes doing studies in the future to be used by another variable. This is different from the variables addressed in the current study, taking into account the application of other statistical methods of processing the data, which will be performed in the future.

Acknowledgements

This research has been supported by Zarqa University, Jordan.

References

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