Academy of Educational Leadership Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6328; Online ISSN: 1528-2643)

Editorials: 2022 Vol: 26 Issue: 6

Social Dynamics, Socioeconomic Status, and Spiritual Growth

Martin Luther, Fort Valley State University

Citation Information: Luther, M. (2022) The review designed to assess the maintenance of 20–30 year old representatives of Indian efforts in Delhi: A developing test that was examined by many groups around the world. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 26(6), 1-3.


Relationship Processes, Socioeconomic Status, Well-being.


The quality of parent-child interactions, the satisfaction and stability of romantic relationships, and a variety of developmental outcomes for adults and children are all correlated with social class or socioeconomic level, according to research conducted over the previous ten years. The evidence supporting potential explanations for these correlations is the main topic of this review. The interactionist model of the relationship between SES and family life, which combines assumptions from both the social causality and social selection viewpoints, is supported by research findings published over the past ten years. The study comes to a close with suggestions for future studies on SES, family dynamics, and individual growth in light of significant theoretical and methodological challenges that still need to be resolved. We evaluate the economic changes that families have gone through from 2000 to the current day as we start this study. Unfortunately, this assessment shows that the current economic crisis has caused serious financial issues for many families in today's society. After discussing the state of the economy, we move on to the evidence supporting the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and the following variables: 1) adult romantic relationships that are stable and satisfying, 2) parent-child relationships that are of high quality, and 3) the personal adjustment of both adults and children. Our search for information using Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO, and direct examination of important family and developmental periodicals like Journal of Marriage and Family used these and related keywords as a guide.


Learning System

Families frequently suffer in times of economic difficulty or low SES, according to research that dates back to the 1930s depression years. The mechanisms that could explain the connection between SES and family processes, as well as potential moderators of that connection, are a vital and ongoing problem. The theoretical advancements made in the last ten years that have helped us better grasp the nature of the connection between SES, family dynamics, and individual well-being are of special interest to us in this review. We evaluate significant new prospects for future theoretical breakthroughs in this field of study after analysing the evidence for many, sometimes conflicting, and theoretical approaches. We also talk about the methodological prerequisites for addressing these theoretical problems effectively. Prior to discussing these topics, we discuss economic trends over the previous ten years, analyse how to assess SES and social class, and go over the underlying presumptions of several theoretical methods (Avellar & Smock, 2005).

The New Millennium's Economic Climate

The new millennium's first ten years have been marked by unpredictability and volatility. Since 2000, economic growth has averaged little more than 2% annually, down from 3% during the previous two decades and 4% in the 1960s. After two decades of stability, house prices began to surge in the mid-1990s, rising by an average of about 50%. Since then, mortgage loan foreclosures have increased dramatically and the twelve-month change in nominal house prices has turned negative countrywide for the first time since the Great Depression, highlighting the severe economic misery in the U.S. as the decade comes to a conclusion. Several trends further highlight these unfavourable shifts in the economy. For instance, in the months of June and July 2009, the overall unemployment rate for people over the age of 16 increased from 4% to 9.7%. These data indicate the highest level of unemployment since the catastrophic recession of the early 1980s; by the end of 2009, the national unemployment rate was over 10%, and the underemployment rate was approximately 16%. Although unemployment rose for all racial and ethnic groups in the 2000s, African Americans and Hispanics were disproportionately affected by it. Income levels among families can be a sign of work issues. All families' median family income rose from $56,971 to $63,430 between 1995 and 2000, but decreased to $61,976 in 2005 and then again to $61,521 in 2008. However, these patterns have changed depending on ethnicity and family type. The median income for White families dropped from $70,317 in 2000 to $70,070 in 2008, while it fell for African American families from $42,105 to $39,879 during the same time period and for Hispanic families from $43,063 to $40,466 (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009).

Measurement of SES or Social Class

As previously said, the economic downturn of the past ten years has put a lot of pressure on many families, resulting in financial hardship, fewer career prospects, and a lack of resources to support family members in pursuing their educational ambitions. These aspects of economic, vocational, and educational experience serve as significant indicators of social class or socioeconomic status, as we explain in this section. As is customary in quantitative assessments of class impacts, we use the terms social class and socioeconomic status interchangeably in this research. SES is a concept that encapsulates different aspects of social standing, such as prestige, power, and financial security. The majority of modern researchers concur that three quantitative indicators—income, education, and occupational status—offer pretty adequate coverage of the relevant domains. Although there is a positive correlation between these social position indicators, Duncan and Magnuson hypothesised that each of these social position indicators has varying degrees of stability over time and predicts family processes and child adjustment differently. Given its impact on future earnings and employment, education is one of the SES indicators that is most frequently utilised and is frequently regarded as the foundational component of SES. As a result, indices of SES and families are commonly employed in conjunction with income, education, and employment status, and 26.8% of Hispanic households. Therefore, it seems that practically all families have experienced economic hardship over the first ten years of this century, but ethnic minority families have had the greatest hardship (Barnett, 2008).

A model of Romantic Relationships Termed the Family Stress Model (FSM)

Conger and Elder were the ones who first suggested the phrase "family stress model." According to the FSM, marital relationships will deteriorate and the likelihood of marital instability will rise as a result of economic issues. The FSM focuses on economic factors, but we believe it also adequately accounts for the impact of poor educational or professional accomplishment. For instance, income is strongly positively correlated with occupational reputation and education is a significant predictor of income across the life course. Given these known connections, it is logical to assume that a large portion of the influence of one's educational or employment status on marital functioning will be mediated by differences in one's financial situation (Behnke, 2008).

Parenting and Child Development and SES as a Predictor

Randomized experiments including intervention programmes for low income families have been one of the exciting advances in the study of SES and children during the past ten years. In these studies, families are assigned at random to either an intervention or a control group, and following the intervention, comparisons are performed between the groups. The strongest support for a connection between money and child development may be found in these experimental studies. The findings of this research have demonstrated that these programmes can positively affect both the well-being of parents and the developmental results for kids and teenagers. An increasing body of research suggests that increases in family income may be advantageous for parents and kids, even though the results are complicated and frequently dependent on other elements, such as the child's age or gender. In line with these conclusions, Costello and her colleagues published the findings of a quasi-experimental study showing that after a casino opened in a low-income neighbourhood, improvements in parental employment and family income were linked to decreases in behavioural issues for the study's children.

The Development of Children with the Investment Model (IM)

The benefits that accrue to the developing child as a result of family wealth and financial prosperity are the main focus of the IM. The IM contends that while more economically disadvantaged families are required to make investments in more immediate family needs, more affluent families can make large investments in the development of their children (Berkowitz, 1989).


This review shows that over the past ten years, both conceptually and practically, the research of SES and family life has evolved. Theoretical advancements have evolved beyond earlier hypotheses addressing the single direction of effects to a new perspective regarding the interaction between individual characteristics, SES, and family interactions. Additionally, over the past ten years, empirical research has offered significant evidence in favour of these theoretical developments. Given this development, the question at hand right now is what theoretical and scientific focuses will similarly enhance this work over the next ten years. The following remarks make numerous encouraging suggestions for the field's next ten years based on the research we just studied. These suggestions concern.


Avellar, S., & Smock, P.J. (2005). The economic consequences of the dissolution of cohabiting unions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(2), 315-327.

Indexed at,Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Aytaç, I.A., & Rankin, B.H. (2009). Economic crisis and marital problems in Turkey: Testing the family stress model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(3), 756-767.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Barnett, M.A. (2008). Economic disadvantage in complex family systems: Expansion of family stress models. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 145-161.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Behnke, A.O., MacDermid, S.M., Coltrane, S.L., Parke, R.D., Duffy, S., & Widaman, K.F. (2008). Family cohesion in the lives of Mexican American and European American parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 1045-1059.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106 (1), 59.

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Received: 01-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. AELJ-22-12858; Editor assigned: 04-Nov-2022, PreQC No. AELJ-22-12858 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Nov-2022, QC No. AELJ-22-12858; Revised: 19-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. AELJ-22-12858; Published: 26-Nov-2022 

Get the App