Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

Social Networking Sites Involvement in Hate Speech Transmission According to Zarqa University's Faculty of Journalism and Media Students Perspective

Dr. Othman Mansour At-Tahat, Zarqa University

Abstract

The study aims to examine the influence of social networking sites "Facebook" hate speech transmission according to Zarqa University's Faculty of Journalism & Media students' perspective. The descriptive analytical method was used in the study, and a questionnaire was used to collect information from a random sample of 100 individuals who represented 50% of the study population as a whole, which consisted of 200 male and female students from Zarqa University's Faculty of Journalism and Media. The study came to the main conclusion that social networking sites such as "Facebook" play an intermediate role in the transmission of hate speech.

Keywords

Hate Speech, Social Networking Sites

Introduction

Social networking sites, particularly Facebook, have seen significant changes in recent years, as they have featured a large amount of information, news, and expressions that encourage the practice of hate speech, which has become a serious threat to Jordanian societal stability (Al Rahamneh, 2018).

The phenomenon of hate speech on social networking sites, particularly Facebook, has grown in Jordan in recent years, with an Islamic preacher arrested over a social media post, as well as the killing of Jordanian journalist writer Nahed Hattar over a Facebook post that was interpreted as a direct insult to God. In addition, several publications were published on social networking sites that promote hate speech and almost create conflict, hatred, and division among Jordanian society's many sections (Abdullah, Zayoud, 2020)

Social networking sites, particularly Facebook, have become a fertile ground for the spread of hate speech, as it has exceeded the expression of opinion and has become a speech advocating for the practice of hatred, intolerance, aggressiveness, slander, and destroying people's reputations (Al-Rubaie, 2019).

That is why this study, supported by Zarqa University's Deanship of Scientific Research, aims to examine the influence of social networking sites "Facebook" hate speech transmission according to Zarqa University's Faculty of Journalism and Media students' perspective.

Study Problem & Questions

In recent years, extreme and hostile beliefs and behaviors on the Jordanian local scene have jeopardized national unity and civic peace. A number of social networking sites visitors, particularly Facebook, exploited the instrument as the most prominent among communication platforms to propagate extremist views and convictions, particularly hate speech, among Jordanians. The study's problem appears here in the form of a main question:

What is the role of social networking sites in spreading hate speech? This raises several sub-questions: Are media students at Zarqa University exposed to social networking sites? Are media students at Zarqa University exposed to Facebook? What is the role of Facebook in spreading hate speech among students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University according to the specialization variable? What is the role of Facebook in spreading hate speech among students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University according to the gender variable.

Objectives of the Study

The researcher's primary objective with this study is to identify: the role of social networking sites, particularly "Facebook," in spreading hate speech among students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University based on the gender variable, and the role of social networking sites, particularly "Facebook," in spreading hate speech among college students Media at Zarqa University based on the gender variable.

Study Importance

The importance of the study is derived from the subject of the study itself, because what the region is witnessing from the spread of extremist, exclusionary and hostile ideology and the strengthening of non-acceptance of the others in light of the use of social networking sites represented by Facebook in spreading hate speech among members of society, the importance of the study increases because it is one of the few studies- as far as the researcher knows- that trying to identify the role of social networking sites, especially Facebook, in spreading hate speech. The study can help provide essential information to Jordanian state decision-makers in order to eliminate this issue, which has become a threat to societal peace and is spreading division within society. It may also help to educate young people about the significance of published content on social networking sites, particularly Facebook, which cause hatred among others.

Theoretical framework

Cultivation Theory

Emotional needs in sports, hunting, dancing and other transformative activities. (Silvia, 2005)

Terminology of Study

Hate Speech

It is a type of communication that offends a group or individual because of certain characteristics of the person or group or even because of their religion, ideology, ethnic or class affiliation, where this phenomenon began to spread with the use of the Internet through social networking sites (Al-Mansour, 2012). It can be said that hate speech is any “verbal, graphic or textual” speech that spreads false news, exaggerates problems and encourages violence, gives an opportunity to confront the other with his flaws and reveals them, plays the role of incitement and intolerance, helps spread violence and murder, and helps increase tension between. It also helps in increasing hostility between societies and contributes to spreading of violence, and killings and increases the level of tension between individuals and helps with increasing aggressiveness between communities. It contributes to spreading the culture of defamation and increases the level of sectarian incitement.

Social Networking Sites

Social networking is a term given to a group of sites on the Internet that appeared with the second generation of the Web or what is known as Web 2.0 that allows communication between its users in a virtual community environment that brings them together according to their interests or religious, intellectual, social or economic affiliations, so that this is done Through direct communication services, such as sending messages, video or audio clips, or even pictures, viewing the personal files of others, and knowing their news and information that they make available for display (Beer, 2008). The definitions of social networks have varied from one researcher to another, as some have known them as websites that allow Individuals to create their own page in which they present a glimpse of their personality in front of a broad or specific audience according to a system that shows a list of users with whom they share their communication with, with the ability to view their own pages as well and the available information, bearing in mind that the nature and naming of these links varies from one site to another. (Boyd. Ellison) and some know it as a group of sites that allow individuals to communicate in a virtual community in which they know themselves and engage. They pay attention, and through these sites individuals publish a number of topics, photos, videos and other activities that they receive comments on by users who belong to these networks and have common links, (Numan, 2011). These sites provide many services that vary from one site to another. Another we summarize in the following:

Personal Files

They are personal files to which the individual provides basic information such as name, age, birth date, interests, and personal images, and which serve as a portal to the individual's world.

Friends or Relationships

A service that enables an individual to contact friends he knows in real life, or who share the same interest in a virtual community. The person's relationship extends not only with friends, but social networks also provide an opportunity to get acquainted with friends of friends after the consent of both parties.

Sending Messages

This service allows sending messages, whether to friends who are in the person's list, or who are not in the list.

Photo Albums

This service allows users to create albums, upload hundreds of photos and allow sharing of these photos to view and convert it as well.

Groups

Social networking sites provide opportunities to form groups for specific goals, and the networking site provides the founder of the group or creators with an area of freedom similar to a mini-dialogue forum, and also provides the opportunity for coordination between members.

Pages

This service has been effectively used at the commercial level, as this service allows the

creation of targeted advertising campaigns that allow owners of commercial products to display goods or products for the categories they specify.

Some have defined it as systems associated with one or more types of interdependence that include values and visions, shared ideas, social contact, kinship, conflict, financial and commercial exchanges, joint membership in organizations, groups participating in a particular event, and many other aspects of human relations (Serrat, 2009).

Some defined it as a system of electronic networks that allow the subscriber to create his own website, and then link it through an electronic social system with other members who have the same interests and identities, or a group with university or high school friends (Al-Shehri, 2008).

Some also know it as those modern technical means that people use among themselves to achieve common social communication via the Internet, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube (Al-Mahmoud, 2013).

Some defined it as a system of electronic networks that allow the subscriber to create his own website, and then link it through an electronic social system with other members who have the same interests and hobbies (Radi, 2003).

The Most Popular Social Networking Sites

Social networks are a lot and always upcoming, and we will summarize it all to the most famous one, which had a special importance in Arab societies and had a very wide prestige and influence among young people, to the extent that they became the first sites almost undisputedly in most Arab countries. This sites is:

Facebook

Facebook is a platform designed for people to share and communicate. In order to use the site, users sign up for it, create a profile, add other users as friends, exchange messages, and join groups or pages that they like and are of interest to them. Facebook started as a simple idea for a Harvard student, "Mark Zuckerberg", who later became the youngest billionaire in the world. Zuckerberg's idea was to create a simple website through which Harvard students gather in the form of an acquaintance network in order to enhance communication between students and maintain links between them after graduation. Social networking sites and the most used at all, (Numan, 2011).

Previous Studies

Al-Rahamneh, Nasser (2018) Hate speech in the Facebook network in Jordan; a survey study, that aimed to determine the effects of hate speech in Jordanian society.

The study, which used the descriptive approach, showed that social networks play a key role in stirring up strife among the components of Jordanian society.

Al-Wahsh, Manal (2012) Hate speech on Jordanian websites: a content analysis; where the study showed that most hate speech was concentrated in local affairs.

Abdullah, Raina and Al-Zayoud, Barakat (2020) Hate speech on social media in Jordan.

The study aimed to identify the extent of the commitment of the public and the media to the ethics of publishing on social media, taking into account social responsibility and combating hate speech. The importance of the study was to shed light on erroneous practices on social networking sites, such as publishing content that carries hate speech and provokes strife and resentment among members of the same society.

Al-Rubaie, Bayrak (2019) The role of social networking sites in building hate speech, and the study aimed to identify the features of hate speech circulating on social networking sites.

The study showed that social networking sites "Facebook" play an important role in building hate speech.

Limits of the Study

Spatial Limits

Users of social networking sites, especially "Facebook", are students of the Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication at Zarqa University.

Time Limits

The academic year 2020-2021, the second semester.

Objective Limits

The role of social networking sites, especially Facebook, in spreading hate speech, and does not address other social networks.

Study Methodology

The study was based on the use of the descriptive approach to suit the purposes of the current study, which looks at social networking sites "Facebook" and its role in spreading hate speech from the point of view of students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University.

Study Population & Sample

The study population consisted of all students of the Faculty of Mass Communication at Zarqa University, who numbered (200) male and female students, according to the statistics of the Admission and Registration Department at Zarqa University for the academic year (2020-2021). The study sample was chosen randomly and at a rate of (50%) of the study population, which reached their number (100) male and female students, and the study sample consisted of (52) females, with a percentage of (52%) of the study sample members, while the number of males was (48) and a percentage amounted to (48%) of the general distribution of the study sample members. The students' specializations varied between journalism and digital media, and radio and television. The proportion of (54%) of the students majored in journalism and digital media, and (46%) in the major of radio and television.

Study Tool

The study tool was built by the researcher, who works as a professor at the College of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University, and the study tool was relied on to collect data for the study, which looks at social networking sites “Facebook” and its role in spreading hate speech from the point of view of the students at the College of Journalism And the media at Zarqa University. The scale of the study may consist of three parts:

The First Part

Includes demographic information, consisting of: gender, & section.

The Second Part

which includes exposure to social networking sites "Facebook", and this part is answered through a quadruple Likert scale (always, take the degree 4, often, and take the degree 3, sometimes, and take the degree 2, rarely, and take the degree 1), The Quadrilateral Likert scale was corrected to three levels, the degree between (1.00 - less than 2.00) expressing the low degree of exposure to social networking sites "Facebook", and between (2.00 - less than 3.00) the medium degree of exposure For social networking sites "Facebook", the high degree of exposure was measured in values between (3.00 - 4.00).

The Third Part

Social networking sites "Facebook" and their role in spreading hate speech from the point of view of the students of the College of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University, where this part is measured through (12) paragraphs, which are answered through the five-point Likert scale (strongly agree, and take the degree 5, agree, score 4, neutral, score 3, disagree, score 2, strongly disagree, score 1).

Validity of the Study Tool

The study tool was presented to (5) arbitrators from the faculty members at Zarqa University, and experts in the media field, in order to express their opinions on the validity of the content and the affiliation of the phrases to the scale and their suitability to measure what they were designed to measure, and the degree of clarity, and then appropriate modifications were suggested, and based on The opinions of the arbitrators were modified some of the paragraphs, and the arbitrators expressed their desire to interact with the paragraphs of the tool, which consists of (12) paragraphs, which indicates the apparent honesty of the tool.

Stability of the Study Tool

Cronbach's alpha test was used to identify the internal consistency of the study tool items. After conducting the test, the study concluded that the coefficient of Cronbach's alpha stability reached (94.8), which is an acceptable value for the purposes of this study.

Study Procedures

The study process went through some necessary procedures to reach the results of the study, as the previous theoretical literature related to the subject of the study was reviewed, and the study benefited from some measurement tools applied in some previous studies. Students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University), after that, the questionnaires were collected and sorted for the purposes of statistical analysis, and the results were extracted in the light of the responses. The data collection process took (14) days.

Study Variables

The study included the independent variables related to social networking sites, gender, and department. As for the dependent variable, it was represented in the dissemination of hate.

Statistical Methods Used

The statistical package SPSS-Version 22 was used to extract the results, and the study relied on extracting frequencies and percentages to describe the study sample members according to their demographic characteristics, and using Cronbach's alpha test to verify the stability of the tool, as well as using arithmetic averages and standard deviations to identify, and using a test The independent sample One Sample T-test to identify exposure to social networking sites and follow up on Facebook, and the role of social networking sites “Facebook” in spreading hate speech. Social media in spreading hate speech is attributed to gender and oath.

Results

Results related to the first question: To what extent do students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media follow up on Facebook?

To answer the first question, and to verify the extent to which the students of the Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication follow up on Facebook, frequencies and percentages were extracted, in addition to extracting arithmetic averages and standard deviations, and Table (1) illustrates this:

Table 1
Frequencies, Percentages, Mean and Standard Deviation to Identify the Follow-Up of Students of the Faculty of Journalism and Communication at Zarqa University to Social Networking Sites "Facebook
Answer Repetition Percentage SMA S.D. Level
Always 85 0.85 3.84 0.39 High
Frequently 14 0.14
Sometimes 1 0.1
Rarely - -
Total 100 100.0

Table (1) shows that (85%) of the study sample members follow the social networking sites "Facebook" always, and it turns out that (14%) of the study sample follow Facebook a lot, and sometimes (1%) of the the study sample members, and it is clear from the table that the arithmetic mean of the extent of Facebook follow-up by students of the Faculty of Information at Zarqa University reached (3.84) with a standard deviation of (0.39), which is of the high level.

Results related to the second question: What is the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech from the point of view of students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University?

Arithmetic averages and standard deviations were calculated to identify the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech, and Table (2) illustrates this:

Table 2
Arithmetic Averages and Standard Deviations to Identify The Role of Social Networking Sites "Facebook" in Spreading Hate Speech, Arranged in Descending Order
No. Statement SMA SD Order Level
1 Exaggerates problems and provokes violence. 3.62 1.18 1 mid
2 Gives an opportunity to confront the other with his flaws and reveal them. 3.42 1.22 2 mid
3 Plays the role of incitement and intolerance. 3.42 1.19 2 mid
4 Social networking sites "Facebook" play a role in spreading hate speech. 3.40 1.20 4 mid
5 Helps spread verbal and visual violence. 3.34 1.19 5 mid
6 Helps spread violence and murder. 3.31 1.21 6 mid
7 Contribute to spreading the culture of slander and defamation. 3.31 1.21 6 mid
8 Contribute to the increase of sectarian incitement. 3.30 1.29 8 mid
9 Helps increase interpersonal tension. 3.28 1.17 9 mid
10 Helps in increasing hostility between societies. 3.28 1.23 9 mid
11 Social networking sites "Facebook" provide entertainment topics that contribute to the dissemination of false news. 3.21 1.07 11 mid
12 "Facebook" social networking networks promote dialogue and embrace opposing viewpoints. 3.11 1.14 12 mid
13 Arithmetic general average 3.33 0.95 mid

It is clear from Table (2) that the arithmetic averages for (the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech), ranged between (3.62 & 3.11), where the role received a total arithmetic average of (3.33), which is of the average level, Paragraph No. (4) had the highest arithmetic average of (3.62), with a standard deviation of (1.18), which is of the average level. The paragraph stated (inflating problems and encouraging violence), and in the second place Paragraph No. (5) came with an average of (3.42) with a standard deviation of (1.22), which is of the average level, where the paragraph stated (it gives an opportunity to confront the other with his flaws and reveal them), and in the third place came the paragraph that stipulated (plays the role of incitement and intolerance) with an arithmetic mean (3.42) and a standard deviation (1.19) which is of medium level, in the last place, paragraph No. (3) came with an arithmetic mean (3.11) and a standard deviation (1.14), which is of the average level, where the paragraph stated (social networking sites “Facebook” encourage dialogue and accept the other opinion).

To verify that Facebook has a role in spreading hate speech from the point of view of the students of the College of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University, the One Sample T-test was used, the results of which appear in the following table (3):

Table 3
One Sample T-Test to Identify the Role of Social Networking Sites "Facebook" in Spreading Hate Speech.
SMA S.D. t- value T table value df Sig.
3.33 0.95 3.495 1.96 99 0.001*

Function at the level (0.05) value of T=3.00, degrees of freedom=sample - 1 and it indicates the level of confidence in the work

It is clear from Table (3) that the arithmetic mean on the scale items (the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech) was (3.33), with a standard deviation of (0.95), and the calculated (T) values were (3.495), which is a value higher than Its tabular value is (1.96), and the results show that there are statistically significant differences at the level (0.05) between the arithmetic mean of the scale and the default arithmetic mean (3.00), and accordingly it is actually clear that there is a role for social networking sites “Facebook” in spreading hate speech from the point of view of A view of the students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University.

The results related to the third question: Are there statistically significant differences (α 0.05) for the role of social networking sites “Facebook” in spreading hate speech attributable to gender and department among students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University?

To answer the third question, an Independent Sample T-test was used to identify the significance of the differences in the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech attributable to gender, and the department among students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University, and the following are the results:

First, Gender

Table 4
An Independent Sample T-Test to Identify the Significance of the Differences in the Role of Social Networking Sites "Facebook" in Spreading Hate Speech Attributable to Gender
Gender quantity SMA S.D. df t- value Sig.
male 52 3.52 0.96 98 2.099 0.038*
female 48 3.13 0.92

It is clear from the results shown in Table (4) that there are statistically significant differences at the significance level (0.05) in the role of social networking sites “Facebook” in spreading hate speech attributable to gender, where the statistical value (t) reached (2.099), which is a significant value At the significance level (0.05) or less, it was found that the differences were in favor of the male students, with the arithmetic mean of them being higher than the arithmetic mean of females.

Second: Section

Table 5
Independent Sample T-Test to Identify the Significance of the Differences in the Role of Social Networking Sites “Facebook” in Spreading Hate Speech Attributed to the Section
Section Quantity Sma S.D. df t-Value Sig.
Digital media 54 3.44 0.90 98 1.266 0.208
T.V 46 3.20 1.01

It is clear from the results shown in Table (5) that there are no statistically significant differences at the significance level (0.05) in the role of social networking sites “Facebook” in spreading hate speech attributed to the department, where the value of the statistic (t) was (1.266), which is unchanged. A function at the significance level (0.05) or less, and the differences between the arithmetic averages, if any, did not reach the level of statistical significance.

Findings & Recommendations

The special study “Social media and its role in spreading hate speech from the point of view of the students of the Faculty of Journalism and Media at Zarqa University” concluded with a set of results and recommendations that came to answer the questions of the study, as follows:

Results

First

The study showed that (85%) of the study sample members follow the social networking site “Facebook” always, and it was found that (14%) of the study sample follow Facebook a lot, and sometimes (1%) of the individuals sample of the study, and this means that college students are fully aware of what is published on social networking sites, especially Facebook, and therefore they have the ability to evaluate what is published on communication sites, whether it incites the dissemination of hate speech or not in Jordanian society.

Second

The study showed that social networking sites "Facebook" play an average role in spreading hate speech.

Third

The study showed that there are statistically significant differences at the significance level (0.05) in the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech attributable to gender, where the statistical value (t) reached (2.099), which is a significant value at the significance level ( 0.05) or less, and it was found that the differences were in favor of the male students, as their arithmetic mean was higher than the arithmetic mean for females.

Fourth

The study showed that there are no statistically significant differences at the significance level (0.05) in the role of social networking sites "Facebook" in spreading hate speech attributed to the department, where the statistical value (t) reached (1.266), which is a non-significant value at the level of The significance (0.05) or less, and the differences between the arithmetic averages, if any, did not reach the level of statistical significance.

Recommendations

First

States and governments should make greater efforts to confront the phenomenon of hate speech, which has recently become widespread in the societies of the world.

Second

Civil society institutions must also work seriously to confront hate speech and limit its spread, because it has endangered societal peace.

Third

The mass and digital media institutions should adopt initiatives aimed at curbing the spread of hate speech and raising awareness of its danger to societies and countries.

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