Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 3

Strategy of Governance in Transportation Policy Implementation: Case Study of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Program in Makassar City

Dahyar Daraba, Institut Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri (IPDN) Jatinangor


Andi Cahaya, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Administrasi (STIA) Prima Bone

Muhammad Guntur, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Aslinda, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Haedar Akib, Universitas Negeri Makassar


Strategy of Governance, Public Policy, Land Transportation, BRT Program.


Contemporary literature in the field of public administration views the implementation of public policy as a delivery system (Akib, 2012; Parsons, 1995; Smith & Akib, 2015), the policy delivery system. Public policy is treated as an instrument rationally designed by government authorities to solve public problems, but there are still few policy implementation studies (Akib, 2012; Smith & Akib, 2015) discussing the role of public policy in democratic and political capacity-building. Robichau & Lynn (2009) states, public policy studies tend to focus on the implementation performance of government and ignore what is emphasized in governance models. Not many empirical studies of public policy implementation are derived from the governance model, whereas the model provides a different explanation of the dimensions of actors, processes and policy implementation outcomes.

Based on these ideas, an analysis of public sector policy governance strategies needs to be done. The significance of this analysis is supported by Pierre & Peters (2005) which states that, for the present condition of modern society many aspects are associated with effective governance. The view is also in line with the assertion Bell & Hindmoor (2009) that, the governance order created and launched by the state to help lead the community. Despite many alternative ways, the state remains a very important actor in shaping and operating governance strategies.

This research article presents about the implementation of policy, especially Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program, in land transportation service, or in this paper called urban transportation (Bell & Hindmoor, 2009; Ibrahim, 2017; Kalsum & Jinca, 2017), using the Governance strategy (Alexander & Weiner, 1998; Bell & Hindmoor, 2009; Zaheer & Venkatraman, 1995) in Makassar City. The Government of Makassar City, by its authority to adopt the policy of BRT program as city transportation directed to realize security, safety, order and smooth transportation (Kalsum & Jinca, 2017). This city transport policy is a policy of transportation service at the local transportation level (Tatralok). Policies on Tatralok are in principle an integral part of the transportation system at the regional transportation level (Tatrawil) and the national transportation level (Tatranas). Overall, the urban transport policy at Tatralok level, including in Makassar City, is directed to achieve security, safety, order and smoothness of traffic and road transport to support economic development and regional development (Pemerintah republik Indonesia, 2009).

The city transportation policy adopted by the city government of Makassar has not been able to create security, safety, order and smoothness of traffic. The dimensions of urban public transportation policy problem in Makassar City are evident in the route network configuration, road condition, condition of facilities and infrastructure and vehicle condition. From the aspect of the route network configuration, the Decree of the Director General of Land Transportation No. 274/1996 affirms that for Kota Raya (with population above 1 million people), the ideal route arrangement is: the main route is served by train or large bus, route of twigs by medium bus/angkot and direct route by big bus (Dirjen Perhubungan Darat, 1996). Based on the observation result, the configuration of the route network of public transport passengers in Makassar City has not complied with the above regulation.

Regarding road conditions, Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) data of Makassar City in 2009 mentioned that about 34.2 percent of urban roads are in poor condition. Regarding traffic and road transport infrastructure, that of 3,754 units of traffic signs required, only 3,352 units are installed and 509 of them are in damaged condition; from 106 units of the need for shelters, only 70 units are built. In some road segments, road equipment is not visible in the form of road markings, street lighting, road user control and safety equipment, road monitoring and security equipment and facilities for bicycles, pedestrians and people with disabilities. Regarding the availability of the city transport fleet, the 2008 Makassar BPS data recorded 4,117 units to serve 17 routes. No data were obtained on the general condition of the city transport fleet, but from observations seen some city transport fleet was damaged and dirty, not equipped with honking sound, speed pointing accuracy, as well as transmits power and direction of main light.

The general condition of urban public transportation in Makassar is currently marked by unstructured route network, fleet dominated by medium bus/angkot, poor road conditions, inadequate road infrastructure and facilities. These conditions resemble description of the general condition of transportation in Indonesia (Ibrahim, 2017; Kalsum & Jinca, 2017; Munawar, 2007) which includes capacity weaknesses, lack of quality and choice, traffic congestion, extortion at bus stops, insufficient funds to renew and repair vehicles, the complexity and rigor of the regulatory framework and the ineffectiveness of law and administrative structures. The reality of public transport in Makassar City to date (research conducted, 20016-2017) does not yet reflect the security, safety, order and smoothness of traffic that is the goal of development policy of road transport.

The problems of public transportation (inland transportation) in Makassar City and around (to and from Sungguminasa as the capital of Gowa Regency and to and from Batang Ase, continue to Marusu as the capital of Maros Regency) can be overcome if the implementation of public transport policy, in particular the BRT program is carried out accordingly model of governance. In this context, the government of Makassar City is in a central position in determining the objectives and direction of public service in the field of land transportation, while in its implementation is supported by institutional relationships between government and private actors and civil society. In this way, the implementation outcomes of transport policy will contain the power of civil society character that includes participation, proportional representation, inclusion and transparency.

Research on transportation policy that refers to the model of governance has not been done, including in Makassar. Previous studies, among others, conducted by Butar-Butar (2007); Kalsum & Jinca (2017); Munawar (2007) still based on the instrumental rational idea and positioned the government as a single actor. This study is important in the context of public administration studies because governance is the latest development stage of public administration (United Nations, 2007). In this stage of development, the public manages its economic, social and political affairs through interaction within and between the sectors of the state, civil society and private (Cheema, 2005). On the other hand, public administration is concerned with the provision of public services and public regulation, because in the public service lies the spirit of public administration (Rosenbloom & Goldman, 1989). Based on transportation phenomenon, this research aims to analyze and explain the implementation of governance strategy in the implementation of transportation policy through Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program in Makassar City.

Literature Review

Governance Strategy, Löffler (2003) states, governance is not a new term, because the term governance was used first in France in the 14th century with the meaning seat of government. According to Bell & Hindmoor (2009), the word governance comes from the classical Greek (Greek), kybernan, which means to drive, drive or direct. The term is governing, according to Bell & Hindmoor, can be defined as shaping, regulating, or trying to control human behavior to achieve collective goals. Thus, effective governance always requires states to establish strategic relationships with a wide range of non-state actors.

Accordingly, Farazmand (2004); Bevir (2007) argue that the key characteristic of the concept of governance is a claim to reject traditional forms of authority, bureaucratic governance with unilateral decision-making and implementation. The model or concept of governance (Alexander & Weiner, 1998; Zaheer & Venkatraman, 1995), according to Farazmand (2004), presents new ways of thinking, new direction, new administration, with new philosophies and new approaches to engaging wider citizens with bait-behind them, as well as bringing into the game arena civil society and non-governmental organizations.

According to Bevir (2007), governance expresses a widespread belief that states are gradually dependent on other organizations to secure their intentions, carry out their policies and establish a pattern of rules. Bevir further explains that, by analogy governance can be used to describe an emerging pattern of rules, whether the state is dependent on other organizations, even when the state plays little or no role. Also, governance can be used to show the whole pattern of rules, including the form of a hierarchical state that is often assumed to exist before public sector reforms of the 1980s and 1990s.

Rhodes (1986) states that governance is a central concept in contemporary social science. The definition of governance according to UNDP (1997) in Zaheer & Venkatraman (1995) is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage national affairs. Governance extends beyond the state; governance includes civil society organizations and the private sector, all of whom are involved in a large number of activities promoting sustainable human development.

The use of the concept of governance has at least six different meanings: the minimal state, corporate governance, new public management, good governance, social-cybernetic systems and self-organized networks. In principle, there are five constitutive aspects of governance, namely:

1. Complex institutions and actors involved, including a small circle of institutions outside which direct policy.

2. The degree of private sector involvement (agencies, third sector nonprofit organizations and more generally, the socio-economic sector).

3. Form of interrelation and coordination (horizontal and vertical) among institutions involved in policy.

4. Form of local cooperation between the public and private sectors, formal and informal subjects, actor networks, etc., which contribute to the creation of new forms of local governance.

5. Forms of direction and planning that transcend government, emerging from direct intervention in the economy and society and from policy management, provided by a new form of enabling government i.e. support and incentives to other actors in achieving public policy effectively (Bell & Hindmoor, 2009; Goodwin, 1998; Graham, Amos, & Plumptre, 2003).

Thus, it is understood that governance is a way of exercising political, economic and administrative authority in managing the affairs of the nation, in which the government collaborates with non-governmental organizations. This definition includes three key components, namely the state and its institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector.

Governance is the government affairs in the dimensions of the process. Pierre & Peters (2005) identifies activities in governance, i.e. priority articulation for society, coherence, steering and goals. Essential of governance is to articulate a set of priorities and common goals (goals) for communities that can be approved by the community. This general-purpose tool, in turn, provides the principal space for government in governance. This is because there is no institution in society capable of articulating collective priorities, especially in a democratic way. In that context, governance refers to some mechanisms or processes through which consensus or majority decisions can arise about social priorities and objectives. The process should logically encompass a mediation role run by a legitimate institution.

City transport policy, urban transport is a major component of the urban social system. The complexity of urban transport problems is higher than rural transport, largely because of the urban transport problem in combination with the ever-increasing variable population, the number of motor vehicles growing beyond the capacity of roads and the behavior of people who ignore traffic rules on the highways. Albalate & Bel (2010) state that urban mobility is higher than rural communities. This occurs as a consequence of more rapid social, economic and demographic progress in urban areas than in rural areas and because the majority of urban societies consider mobility a right.

The definition of urban transportation according to Setijowarno & Dan Frazila (2001) is the transportation from one place to another within the territory of a city using public bus and public passenger cars bound to fixed and regular routes. Urban transportation in addition to covering the problem of structure also includes the process and value. This resulted in the problem of urban transport very complex, thus requiring public policy intervention, namely the policy of urban transport.

Countries/regions have an important role in the implementation of urban transport, especially in developing countries; the administration of urban transport cannot rely on the private sector. Such responsibility exists in the state through the role of public administration (Tikson, 2011). This implies that the state should be at a central position in the delivery of public services. The strength required of the state is primarily the capability to design, adopt and implement good public policy, including policies in the field of transportation.

The policy of urban transportation in Indonesia is contained in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 22 the Year 2009 on Traffic and Road Transportation (Pemerintah republik Indonesia, 2009). This law is a revision of Law Number 14 of 1992 concerning Traffic and Road Transport. The old law is deemed to be no longer appropriate to the conditions, changes in the strategic environment and the need for traffic and road transport. In Law Number 22 the Year 2009 emphasized on the principle and purpose of the implementation of traffic and road transport. The principles of implementation include: transparent principle; accountable principles; sustainable principles; participatory principles; beneficial principle; efficient and effective principles; balanced principle; unified principle; and an independent principle. The aims of the implementation of traffic and road transport are:

1. The realization of safe, safe, orderly, smooth and unified Road Traffic and Transportation services with other modes of transport to encourage the national economy, promote the common good, strengthen the unity and unity of the nation and able to uphold the dignity of the nation.

2. The realization of ethical traffic and culture of the nation.

3. Realization of law enforcement and legal certainty for the community.

It is understood that urban transport policy in principle has an economic mission, welfare, nation building and law enforcement. This reinforces the researcher's argument that public transport policy is organized based on a governance model, which includes state relations with private and civil society, but the highest responsibility still exists with the state/government. State/local governments should be at the core of the planning, regulatory, control and control authority of urban transport, while in the exercise of that authority the state must interact with the interests of the community.

Research Methods

This research uses case study approach (Tellis, 1997), with descriptive-qualitative-interpretative analysis design. Yin (2011) states, now qualitative research is a form of mainstream research in many academic and professional fields. The choice of qualitative design is tailored to the nature of the research problem, namely the land transport governance strategy, or often called "urban transport." The location of this research is in Makassar City of South Sulawesi Province. The reasons for choosing the location are:

1. The phenomenon of urban transport service in Makassar City and its surroundings (from Sungguminasa as the capital of Gowa Regency and to and from Batangase to Marusu as the capital of Maros Regency), as the research locus as well as the form of “triangle axis of traffic jam”. Similarly, the service of land transportation mode on the axis of traffic congestion cannot yet reflect safety, safety, order and smoothness of traffic which is the objective of development policy of road transportation.

2. There is no research that reveals the problem by using the perspective of governance.

Data and information are collected from three sources, namely:

1. Archives and program documents.

2. Interviews with participants (representatives of implementers, passengers/users of BRT, motorists and bikers) were selected purposively-incidentally.

3. Direct observation of the research team/writers around the acreage of the three axes of this traffic congestion.

The use of different/varied data sources is used as a form of triangulation as a means to improve the validity of the findings of the study results (Miles, Huberman & Saldana, 2014; Yin, 2011). The data analysis follows the interactive model step (Miles, Huberman & Saldana, 2014) and adjusted to Yin's recommendation (2011) on four stages of case study:

1. Case study design.

2. Conducting case study.

3. Analyzing case study evidence.

4. Develop conclusions, recommendations and implications.

The interactive model data analysis emphasizes the analytical process before the data collection phase, during the preliminary data collection process and preliminary analysis and after the final data collection phase. The research process and the validity of the research product produced to illustrate the quality of the research.

Research Result And Discussion

This section presents the real condition of applying the concept of governance as a strategy in the implementation of transportation policy through the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program in Makassar. The focus of this analysis is based on the views of Pierre & Peters (2005) on the identification of activities in governance, i.e. priority articulation for society, coherence, steering and goals. Essential of governance is to articulate a set of priorities and common goals (goals) for communities that can be approved by the community. However, in reality, the condition seen at this time is the "seizure" of passengers and the use of roads by all modes of transportation around the city of Makassar, namely Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), "pete-pete", ojek, becak and motor rickshaw (bentor). Although the government has been acknowledging the need to re-arrange urban transport routes, it has not yet been fully discussed with the government of Makassar and Organda (regional transportation organizations).

Viewed from the aspect of effectiveness, the operation of BRT seems to have a long downstream effect. Transportation objectives relating to efficiency are not yet apparent. The number of BRT enthusiasts is still relatively small compared to the number of land transportation users. According to informants (both the BRT transport service providers, as well as the community members of BRT users, this is because many people are not aware of the presence of these public vehicles. The BRT is only regarded as the government program of Makassar City, "not owned by citizens" communities are available and prefer to use "pete-pete" cars, bentor (motorbikes), or motorbikes and grab cars. BRT views every day around the protocol road in Makassar City, then to and from Sungguminasa Regency Gowa and to and from Batang Ase continue to Marusu/Maros the capital of Maros Regency, BRT is only around the city in an empty condition. Because of this condition, seen from the aspect of efficiency and economics of operation of BRT also not yet realized or not yet reached.

The general characteristic of urban transport is to serve the community with mobility and access to jobs, health centers, educational centers and recreational and other places. Thus, urban transport serves the function of public services. City transport provides basic mobility services especially for people who do not own private vehicles. Alwi & Suratman (2010); Heath et al. (2006); Ibrahim (2017) argues that policies, projects and transport practices have an impact on land use, air quality, income and use of travel time, access to services and the overall quality of life in the City. If implemented properly, transport policies and projects can play a major role in improving/upgrading the human development index (health, education and economy), equity and overall urban quality (Niswaty, Johanna & Haedar, 2015). Conversely, if implemented poorly, transport policies and projects can intensively damage urban land and space, especially for the poor and contribute to poverty, violence and terror behavior in urban living.

According to informants, both from the Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as informants from the government of Makassar City, Sungguminasa and Maros, stated that the development of transportation, including the provision of land transportation through BRT program has a significant influence on national and regional economic development. Transportation is one of the strategic components that support the equitable distribution of economic growth, the movement of people and goods, the flow of information and financial flows that need to be managed quickly, accurately (effectively) and accurately (efficiently, economically) to meet the demands of punctuality. Transportation is also a tool of political development, socio-culture and defense of security (Litman & Burwell, 2006; Setijowarno & Dan Frazila, 2001). The role of transportation even as a bridge that facilitates all national and regional economic and logistical activities, as well as providing socio-economic value-added. The growth of the transportation sector reflects direct economic growth, so transportation has an important and strategic role, both macro and micro. Therefore, the provision of facilities/modes of land transportation, as well as the BRT program as the transportation of this city, is a demand of the people of Makassar.

Based on the results of the research, it is found that the Makassar City government has provided many land transportation services to the public, but the service has not been able to encourage mobility and accessibility, as well as the optimal security of the land transportation users in general, including the users of transportation facilities through BRT. Transportation development makes it easy for the public (Albalate & Bel, 2010; Heath et al., 2006; Litman & Burwell, 2006), but the convenience is not in line with public aspirations, because BRT must "compete" with the land transportation mode that has been operating on all roads that are also traversed by BRT. On the other hand, it has been seen that the condition of the transport fleet is poor and not in accordance with the standards, thus creating inconvenience for passengers, long travel time (congestion everywhere, as an expression of informants), queues and accumulation of passengers at each station and unofficial "alternative" shelters, lack of supporting aspects and facilities, such as security or strict action of the authorities and a host of other transportation service issues, as a sight that can be witnessed at some point of the road. Thus, the current problem of land transportation development in Makassar and its surrounding areas is the imbalance between the needs of facilities, infrastructure and land transportation facilities, including the presence of BRT, as well as the growth of the population which has increased annually, but not or has not been directly proportional to the quality transportation governance developed by the local government, both by the government of Makassar City, as well as the Gowa Regency government and the Maros Regency government. Among the classic problems, in this aspect of urban transportation, the most extreme problems are traffic jams (interviews and observations by three researchers at three traffic congestion nodes, Makassar, Gowa and Batangase/Maros).

In Makassar City, although a number of policies have been pursued by the local government in this case the transportation and police department has been trying to control traffic congestion, such as: Parking ban on roads, especially on main roads, fly over, pass at the crossroads, adjusting hours of work entry and school entrance hours and improving the quality and quantity of traffic infrastructure, but the various attempts have not been able to control the frequent traffic congestion, even the opposite of traffic congestion seems to be getting worse. Furthermore, transportation problems in Makassar City are more "severe" than those described above, as transport is also related to other sectors of economic development. Transportation issues are also concerned with regulation and law enforcement on inconsistent roads as well as with the legal institutions themselves. Transportation problems are also associated with structures and systems of politics that are often unstable and not conducive. Thus, land transportation problems are also humanitarian, social justice and environmental issues. The problem of transportation is a matter of sustainability of civilization. The entire problem area interacts in creating complex and difficult urban transport problems, making it difficult to handle efficiently, effectively and economically (abbreviated as 3-E problems).

Based on the analysis and interpretation of the writer can be understood that the implementation of governance strategy in the implementation of land transportation policy through BRT program is the right managerial instrument to handle complex transportation problems. The implementation of the governance strategy in the transportation sector is not only at the level of managerial action, but also at the administrative (policy) level. At the administrative level, the governance strategy in the field of land transportation through the BRT program includes the provision of synchronized and systematized policy and regulatory instruments, ranging from national legislation, national and long-term plans, strategic plans, vision and mission, the priorities and direction and objectives of simplified (simplified) programs and policies. The administrative context of the development of transport, through the BRT program attributes the broad public interest, namely government, civil society and private.

The development of multi-dimensional and complex urban transport requires precise prioritization. With priority, the city government of Makassar can "walk calmly" in the right direction in implementing the BRT program, doing fewer things but with full power. Based on the informants' overview and based on the researcher's observation, there seems to be a "mistake" of local government in the development of transportation so far, even in other development areas as follows.

First, local governments have not or do not think seriously and are conscious when making priorities, so do work that is not desirable. For example, establishing a rule that prohibits bumps (motor tricycles) operating on specified protocol roads, but not accompanied by coordination and synchronization of duties with the police (Traffic Police) officers governing motorized and non-motorized traffic (pedicabs, pedestrians). The local government also does not coordinate with the Satpol PP (civil service police unit) which regulates "five-legged traders" (three wheeled carts plus two pushers' legs) that many turn into "non-legged traders", the maxim of traders residing selling in wagons which is deliberately parked on the sidewalk/pedestrian or on the roadside, thus disrupting the smoothness of traffic. Similarly, there are many cases where the local government (Makassar City, Gowa Regency, Maros Regency) does not coordinate with the local Department of Transportation, although fellow government agencies, in managing the use of markers or traffic signs effectively and appropriately, so motorcyclists and cars are often parked around the forbidden places, on the sidewalks, in the halls, near the turnpike/the traffic lights. There is even a new phenomenon of the people of Makassar City, which in many cases, casually parks vehicles (motorcycles, cars, bumps, rickshaws, carts, trailer trucks) on the highway in front of the house or in front of the office, which is very disturbing the smoothness of traffic. Likewise, the arrogance of a handful of official car drivers (police, soldiers, officials of "red flats") who casually park their vehicles at a forbidden place.

Another fact that is found is the "negative image" of citizens who consider that if there is a market then vehicle traffic, including BRT rate must be obstructed or stalled. Such an understanding, according to some informants (the sellers in the market and riders) we just enjoy the jam. In short, in many cases it has been found that local governments (Makassar City, Gowa Regency, Maros Regency) are still more trapped in undesirable public works, rather than designing desirable and urgent work required by their citizens.

Secondly, the Makassar City government is impressed by making the land transportation problem even more complex, including the presence/implementation of the BRT program, as it places so many priority numbers into confusion over priority programs which must take precedence, whereas the government can only handle one or two priorities in a certain time; when the government sets many priorities it becomes less realistic, including the implementation of the BRT program that is not able to change the image of the community to want to use this BRT.

Thirdly, the provision of ground transport services through the BRT program in Makassar does not revive its actual priority, i.e. laying down priorities, but providing little time and resources to turn it on, where priorities are seen on paper rather than in systematic (systemic) systemic and sustainable. According to the informants' opinion, that in Makassar City, to reduce congestion, the government held BRT program. However, in the procurement of BRT, the local government (Makassar City government, Gowa regency, Maros regency) has no involvement, either in the Bus procurement process or its management, nor is the community and non-government (private) involved in the BRT program in Makassar. BRT program is not even listed in the list of regional priority programs in 2008-2013 and published in Regional Regulation of South Sulawesi Province Number 12 the Year 2008 About Regional Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province Year 2008-2013 (RPJMD). In the RPJMD there are seven development agendas, namely:

1. Improving the quality of education and public health.

2. Improvement and equity of community welfare.

3. Realization of local advantage to trigger economic growth rate.

4. To realize south Sulawesi as a socio-economic entity with justice, sustainable and sustainable.

5. The creation of an environment conducive to innovative life.

6. Strengthening community institutions.

7. Strengthening of government institutions.

Although initially not a priority program of the Makassar City government and not listed in the RPJMD 2008-2013, especially in the transportation development agenda, but the city of Makassar, in this case Danny, greeting familiar Mayor, welcomed the existence of the BRT program. The following is the revelation of the mayor in the ceremony of the launch of this mass transit in front of BRT Shelter Losari Bus Stop at the Losari Beach Pier of Makassar on March 11, 2014 that: I am very grateful and proud of the new public transportation mode known as Busway Makassar., Monday, March 21, 2016). Furthermore, the mayor said that: The indicator of a modern city, one of which is seen from its efficient, effective and economical transportation services According to Dani that, Of course as the Mayor of Makassar, we are very proud of the idea of this governor, (ANTARA Sulsel, Wednesday, 1/7/2015).

The objective of BRT program in Makassar City and BRT program in other big cities in Indonesia is to refer to the direction of transportation development policy mentioned in item 2 letter e, namely the development of mass-based mass public transportation in urban areas in the framework of increasing the role of public transport urban (Conclusions of interviews, 2016-2017). Subsequently stated by the informants that, given the general policy of development is an elaboration of South Sulawesi's medium-term development strategy, the policy is a manifestation of efforts to fulfill the basic rights of the community, including the availability and accessibility of health, education and food service facilities; opening up opportunities for decent work; the creation of a conducive environment, both physically (housing, sanitation and clean water), socially (safe and secure), as well as ecologically (sustainability of natural and environmental resources); as well as secure land rights and participation in socio-political life.

Although the regulations, regulators and loci (around Makassar and its transport network in the three traffic congestion nodes Sungguminasa, Batangase & Maros) BRT program are clear, the effectiveness and efficiency of BRT transportation are still difficult to ascertain its current relevance, (until this research report is made). The objectives of the BRT program regarding effectiveness are accessibility, capacity optimization and service quality (Cheema, 2005; Heath et al., 2006; Ibrahim, 2017) has not been reached. Although the government acknowledges the need for re-arrangement of urban transport routes, it has not yet been fully discussed with the municipalities of Makassar and Organda. From the aspect of effectiveness, the operation of BRT has a long downstream effect. Transportation objectives relating to efficiency seem to have not been achieved. The number of BRT enthusiasts is still relatively small (less than 5 percent of the total number of public transport users), as many are not aware of the presence of public transport (BRT).

Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the governance strategy in the implementation of land transportation policy through the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program in Makassar has not been successful or effective yet. In other words, none of the six meanings of implementing the governance strategy have yet to be achieved, whereas in fact these six aspects are ideal destinations for implementing governance strategies as stated by experts (Alexander & Weiner, 1998; Graham, Amos & Plumptre, 2003; Löffler, 2003; Pierre & Peters, 2005; Zaheer & Venkatraman, 1995) whose categories of focus include: the minimal state, corporate governance, new public management, good governance, social-cybernetic systems and self-organized networks. The ineffectiveness of the governance strategy in implementing the land transportation policy through BRT program is due to the direction and objectives not yet understood together by the program implementer, as well as the target group that is the user of the land transportation mode. The ineffectiveness of the BRT program is also not based on communication, coordination and synchronization of intensive activities between local governments as regulators and program operators (implementers) of the program, as well as the understanding of experts (Bell & Hindmoor, 2009; Goodwin, 1998; Graham, Amos & Plumptre, 2003) the degree of private sector involvement, the form of interrelation and coordination (horizontal and vertical) among the institutions involved in the policy, form of local cooperation between the public and private sectors, formal and informal subjects, actor networks, etc., which contribute to the creation of new forms of local governance, forms of direction and planning that transcend government, emerging from direct intervention in the economy and society and from policy management, provided by a new form of enabling government i.e. support and incentives to other actors in achieving public policy effectively.

Based on the above analysis, it can be interpreted that the 3-E principle, that is economic, efficiency and effectiveness, as the basic values and also the orientation of governance strategy value in the implementation of land transportation policy through BRT program is not or has not been fully realized as expected in the program objectives. Similarly, the output and impact of its positive externalities on program implementers and the public as users of BRT services have not been achieved.

Conclusions And Recommendations

The application of governance strategy in the implementation of transportation policy through the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program in Makassar City has not been successful. This lack of success is because the direction and objectives are not yet shared by the program implementers and target groups. Similarly, the factor of socialization, coordination, synchronization and control of government apparatuses across agencies and with communities as a core dimension of BRT's governance strategy has not been effective, although local governments as regulators and implementers hold a central position in program implementation, thus the 3-E principle, which is economical, efficiency and effectiveness, as the basic value and also the orientation of the value of the governance strategy, the implementation of the BRT program has not been achieved. Similarly, the expected output, outcomes and impacts of positive externalities have not been achieved. Therefore, it is suggested that the government apparatus of Makassar City synergically coordinate, socialize, synchronize and simplify tasks based on management information system (KISS-MIS) in realizing the purpose of BRT program. Likewise, the security forces together with the traffic police need to control technology-based communications and modern information as strengthening in the application of governance strategy and together the community realizes the importance of succeeding the BRT program as an effort to provide efficient, effective and economical modes of land transportation providing convenience, generosity, security and convenience of transportation in Makassar as a smart city.


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