Academy of Educational Leadership Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6328; Online ISSN: 1528-2643)

Short communication: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 4

Student Final Course Grade in an Undergraduate Business Statistics Class

Ghasem Lenhart, Purdue University Calumet


The use of an activity-based learning conditions as part of a blended learning course has become popular over the last few years. Many studies suggest that an activity-based learning conditions, which may require more active engagement and added/more effort by students, existing the same everywhere leads to positive student learning results. However, since not all students may actively engage or put in the needed/demanded added/more effort, it may be that some students in fact complete more poorly in an activity-based learning conditions. Yet, little research has based on actual evidence studied this important thing/big event. This article examines three research questions: i) does an activity-based learning conditions directly and positively hit/affect final course grade, ii) does entering grade point average positively hit/effect final course grade, and iii) does grade point average reduce the/control the effect of an activity-based learning conditions on final course grade. These questions are talked to/looked at using data from undergraduate business statistics courses at a large Midwestern public university. Results point to/show that grade point average reduces the/controls the relationship between an activity-based learning conditions and student learning results. Specifically, students with high grade point averages respond differently than students with low grade point averages to an activity-based learning conditions. Students with high grade point averages perform better in activity-based sets of learning conditions, while students with low grade point averages perform better in lecture-based sets of learning conditions.


Approaches to Studying, Approaches to Learning, Deep Approach, Strategic Approach, Student.


The undergraduate business statistics (UBS) course provides students with an important business foundation. An understanding of basic related to studying numbers ideas can be very important to graduates' success (Lohr, 2009). While we, the authors, would like to think that we prepare our students to figure out the worth, amount, or quality of, carefully study, and apply what they learn in UBS to real-world business problems, we in a slow way, full of doubt admit/recognize/respond to that many of them do not accomplish or gain with effort these higher-order learning results (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). One reason is that for many, statistics is a very hard having to do with measuring things with numbers subject in which one must learn many ways of doing things. Often, the use of these ways of doing things needs/demands that students manually crunch numbers often using only hand-held calculators. Students' fear and stress over these expected computations often interferes with their ability to understand the relationship between related to studying numbers ways of doing things and the goals of connected analyses (Rynearson & Kerr, 2005) More than that, instructors often introduce related to studying numbers ideas in an abstract form that draws attention to explanation of why something works or happens the way it does rather than application. As a result, students do not learn how to apply these ideas. Many studies have suggested that using an activity-based approach may existing the same everywhere improve learning results. However, two recent studies (i.e., Fort & Vaughn, 2008; Strayer, 2012) have probably true suggested the benefits may be more limited because activity based approaches may require added/more student effort, they could reduce learning results for students, who are less gave a reason to do something to put in the added/more effort. In an explanation/statement of opinions book-related stream, Whittingham (2006) and Noftle & Robins (2007) suggest that GPA is related not only to learning results, but also to careful kindness that is, to the habit/desire for a student to put in effort. Students with higher GPAs are more careful kindness and so may put in more effort than those with lower GPAs. Taken together these two combining in a way to make something better literatures suggest that students with above-average GPAs may tend to put in more effort than students with belowaverage GPAs, and as a result have better learning results. In other words, the relationship between the learning conditions and learning results may be influenced or regulated/ruled over by the student's entering GPA, this way suggesting that an activity-based learning conditions may not be existing the same everywhere helpful. However, this two-headed problem has not been based on actual evidence examined something closely so the truth can be found


  1. Garrison, D.R., & Vaughan, N.D. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: framework, principles, and guidelines. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  2. Lohr, S. (2009). For today’s graduate, just one word: Statistics. The New York Times. August 5, A1.
  3. Noftle, E.E., & Robins, R.W. (2007). Personality predictors of academic outcomes: Big five correlates of GPA and SAT scores. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 93(1), 116-130.
  4. Rynearson, K., & Kerr, M.S. (2005). Teaching statistics online in a blended learning environment. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 17(1), 71-94.
  5. Strayer, J.F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation, and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 171-193.
  6. Whittingham, K.L. (2006). Impact of personality on academic performance of MBA students: qualitative versus quantitative courses. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 4(2), 175-190.
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