Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Review Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 6S

Teaching methods are a study of their importance and types in educational institutions

Suaad Hadi Hassan Al-Taai, University of Baghdad


Teaching is a science that has its origins and rules, and it can be observed, measured, evaluated and then trained on its skills. And raising the efficiency of the teacher using teaching methods and methods leads to raising the efficiency of public education, including the research aspects in it. The study of modern trends and teaching methods is one of the important studies that has received the attention of researchers and scholars due to its educational importance in the field of teaching and education. Teaching methods have varied and varied, and each method has its own rules, advantages, and steps. The research covered the most prominent teaching methods such as the lecture, the hot chair, brainstorming, exploration, and investigation. The research shed light on the most prominent reasons for choosing the appropriate method of teaching, taking into account the individual differences and the topic of the lesson and its importance.


Methods, Teaching, Knowledge, Student, Skill, Innovation, Theories, Problems


Teaching is a science that has its origins and rules, and it can be observed, measured, evaluated and then its skills trained on. Raising the teacher’s efficiency using teaching methods leads to raising the efficiency of public education, including its research aspects. The educational preparation for the teacher would deepen the human aspects of the teaching process, and develop the relationship between the faculty member and the student. Moreover, the frequent change in human knowledge, in terms of quantity and quality, made it very difficult, as the teacher is familiar with all its details and developments. Therefore, it is no longer possible to consider the volume of knowledge provided to the student as a single and adequate educational goal, but rather to emphasize providing the student with the skill to learn new things continuously with his own efforts. What is important is for the student to learn how to think in scientific, logical, independent and critical ways distinctive for his personality. Therefore, many researchers were alerted to this situation. As for teaching methods, there is no embarrassment to the efforts and monotony in delivering lectures within the four walls of an increasing number of students. These methods are negative because they do not follow the field to refer to the sources and the library, and they do not encourage self-education and the adoption of creation and innovation. In addition to the fact that the teacher is limited to just dictating the student and reading the brief notes, and that includes selecting the entire teaching position (Al-Nuaimi, 2012). It was mentioned that teaching is a mini-process of education linked to activities and instructions that facilitate the learning process (Al-Ghamdi, 2018). Therefore, teaching is an interactive process of relationships, the environment and the response of the learner, in which he has a partial role, and it must be judged in the final analysis by its results, which is the learner’s learning (Ahmed, 2005).

Teaching Methods

Klafki defined teaching methods as the methods and procedures for the planned and organized formation of the processes of science, and therefore methods of organizing and implementing teaching and learning (Ahmed, 2005). While Danilov defined teaching methods as a system of conscious and purposeful actions in order to regulate the cognitive and practical activity of the student, and secure his own acquisition of the educational content. In other words, teaching methods require continuous mutual influence between teacher and student. That is, the teacher organizes the student’s activity with the subject of learning. Through this activity, the student acquires the educational content (Ahmed, 2005). Knuchel defined the methods and procedures that help in achieving the interaction of teachers and learners with the content of the lesson and achieving its objectives (Ahmed, 2005).

The teaching method is defined as the set of performances that the teacher uses to achieve expected behavior among learners. Teaching methods are one of the components of the curriculum. The prevailing thinking in the field of teaching is the trend towards selection, that is, choosing what appears to be the best of various methods and methods. Selection requires an effort from the teacher, because teaching includes more than knowledge of methods, as the teacher's knowledge of psychological and linguistic theories. Teaching methods alone are neither sufficient nor guarantee success. One of the foundations of good learning is the teacher's attitudes towards his work and his students. It seems that the modern view on teaching methods considers them a means of organizing the external world that surrounds the learner in order to activate and change his behavior. Education occurs as a result of the interaction between the learner and the external circumstances, and the teacher's role is to create these conditions so that the learner responds to them and interacts with them (Al-Qaisi, 2015).

These new visions in teaching, along with the technological revolution, contributed to the multiplicity of teaching methods and their gradual departure from the traditional method of lecturing. Among the most famous classifications of these methods are the following (Al-Nuaimi, 2012):

First: Classification of teaching methods according to the type of education obtained: This classification is based on the three areas of development: the cognitive domain, the emotional domain, and the psychomotor domain. Accordingly, teaching methods can be divided into three main sections:

A. Methods for teaching facts and concepts by extrapolation, deduction, investigation, or exploration. The use of such methods was emphasized by Piaget, Brunner, Ausubel and other supporters of the school of cognitive learning.

B. Methods for teaching desired values and trends.

C. Methods for teaching skills and capacity development.

Second: Classification of Teaching Methods based on the Nature of Knowledge

The proponents of this classification believe that each field of knowledge has a special nature that requires the use of research and thinking methods that differ from others. In light of this understanding, teaching methods are divided into three main categories as follows (Al-Nuaimi, 2012):

A. Teaching methods for the natural sciences: The scientific methods such as the method of solving problems and the method of investigation are among the most important methods used in this field.

B. Teaching methods for the humanities and social sciences: These methods are concerned with focusing on the human relationships that prevail between people. Examples include the method of discussion and the method of role playing (acting).

C. Teaching methods for applied sciences: These methods mean interest in the scientific and applied aspect, and an example is the project method.

Third. Classification of teaching methods on the basis of the role of the teacher and the learner: as this classification is the most common among educators in the world, and it is based on dividing all teaching methods into two main parts (Al-Nuaimi, 2012):

A. Traditional teaching methods, which are, in short, methods of presentation, presentation, and indoctrination, and the principal role in it is for the teacher, and the learner's role is passive or secondary. These methods represent the old school of teaching, which viewed the acquisition of knowledge as an end in itself, unlike the modern school which recognizes the necessity of acquiring knowledge, but not for its own sake, but as a means to achieve a specific goal. In light of this old traditional school, teachers used various forms of punishment to motivate learners to search and save information without paying attention to their needs and interests.

B. Modern teaching methods: in which the learner plays the main role, while the teacher's role is limited to guidance, supervision and counseling. The truth is that the emergence of such methods did not merely come as a revolution against the old methods, but rather as a fruit of the development of educational and social philosophical thought on the one hand, and in response to the emergence of many theories of modern educational psychology on the other hand. If the traditional teaching methods neglected the role of the learner in the teaching process, the modern methods have paid great attention to the nature of the learner, his needs and interests, and were keen to take into account the learning theories, laws and principles. Examples of modern teaching methods that can be employed through Arabic language subjects include project method, investigation, problem-solving, discussion, units, role play (acting), and assignments. The one who examines these methods finds that they take into account many of the modern educational principles that contribute to the preparation and refinement of a balanced and integrated personality of the learner, and these principles include:

1) Taking into account the individual differences between the learners in their abilities, interests and previous experiences.

2) Development of both mental and physical abilities and skills.

3) Achieving a balance between the freedom of the learner and the teacher's guidance to him.

4) Exploiting the opportunities afforded to learners in order to allow their level to grow to the maximum extent permitted by their abilities and personal aptitudes.

5) Providing opportunities for learners to make their own decisions and take responsibility for those decisions.

6) Linking the educational content to the life of the learner. 8. Encouraging the learner to express his opinion and accustom him to listening to and respecting the other opinion.

The Basic Rules upon which Teaching Methods are Based

Teaching methods have several important rules, the most prominent of which are (Ahmad, 2005):

1) Graduation from the known to the unknown: If the new information is related to the previous information that the students know, then it is understood. In the Arabic language lessons, we can benefit from this principle by starting to train pupils in reading on the image that he knows (the image of the father and mother), and then gradually introduce the student to the symbol indicating it, which is the unknown.

2) Graduation from easy to difficult: what is easy and difficult means what the student sees easy or difficult, not what we see. Examples of this rule in the Arabic language include starting to teach pupils vocabulary or sentences that consist of cut-off letters such as: house, head, turn, and then gradual to words, or connected sentences such as: Samir, Saeed, house, and others.

3) Graduation from the whole to the part: This principle is consistent with the nature of the mind in perceiving things. The one who looks at a tree sees it as a whole and then begins to look at its parts, which are the stem, branches, leaves and fruit. An example of this rule in the Arabic language is to read the sentence or word and then analyze it into syllables and letters.

4) Graduation from the tangible to the semi-tangible, the abstract: The child perceives the things around him in this way, so he knows the animals of the environment by seeing them at the beginning, then at a later stage he knows them through the image and finally he can perceive things abstractly when he hears or mentioned them.

Teachers rely on several methods and methods to convey experiences, skills and information to their students, provoke thinking and follow them. Each method, or style, has its advantages, controls and provisions. The teacher plans for the material he studies, organizes and presents it in ready for his students. There are methods in which class pupils participate with their teacher in acquiring a certain skill and in understanding the material, such as the method of presentation and the method of discussion. These methods help in developing the pupils' tendencies and interest in their desires, and the teacher remains in this method responsible for managing the debate and discussions. Education has developed its methods after the educational spokespeople entered their field, and the introduction of technology has changed traditional frameworks. Among the modern teaching methods are team learning, programmed learning, zeroed education, education by correspondence, self-education, creative learning, and others (Al-Qaisi, 2015).

In order for teaching methods to be effective in achieving learning objectives, they must be selected according to appropriate criteria, which are as follows (Ahmad, 2005):

1) The extent of its relevance to educational goals.

2) Its ability to urge students to think well and reach results.

3) Taking into account the logical and psychological aspects when presenting the educational material.

4) Its association with the students' social life.

5) Helping the students to explain the results they reach in their studies.

6) Its contribution to the link between the theoretical and practical sides of the academic subject.

7) Exploitation of students' activities towards education.

8) Taking into consideration students ’abilities, aptitudes, tendencies and attitudes related to the educational subject.

The teaching methods have varied as they can be classified on the basis of their interest in the activity of the learner to (Ahmad, 2005):

1) Methods that do not focus on the learner's activity, such as the method of lecturing or recitation.

2) Methods that partly focus on the learner’s activity and his verbal interaction with learning in teaching, such as the method of discussion and dialogue, the Socratic method, and the methods of recitation and interrogation.

3) Methods concerned with thinking about presenting educational content, such as the inductive method, the deductive method, and the method that mixes induction, deduction and measurement.

4) Teaching methods concerned with educational problems and subject them to scientific research and methods of thinking, such as the extrapolation method, the method of learning by discovery, the method of problem-solving, and the project method.

5) Teaching methods concerned with the use of social drama techniques, such as the method of role-playing, the method of story, simulation, imitation and modeling.

6) Methods that depend mainly on the learner’s own activity, such as the distance learning method and the programmed learning method.

Teaching Methods

Among the most important teaching methods used in educational institutions are the following:

Lecture method: One of the methods in which the role of the teacher is more than that of the learner is the reporting, presentation or lecture method. The name of the lecture prevailed over it because it was used in the education of students at the secondary level and at the university. A good number of schools in the Arab world still use them at these two levels, and the flaw is not inherent in their use in principle, but the disadvantage is that it is the most used method in these two stages without adopting other methods in which all students participate in teaching themselves on their own. Although the major burden in the lecturing method, with regard to preparing and delivering the material, falls on the teacher, it remains necessary in some of our schools with large numbers of students in the class. In this method, the teacher prepares the material that he will give to his students well prepared, and prepares the necessary tools: a projector, a video tape, a recording device, or other educational aids that help in the delivery of the information prepared by the teacher. Given that the duration of the class is between 45-50 minutes, he prepares his lecture material to suit this time, and arranges the material that he will teach in the class on a written memorandum commits to arranging its content in a gradual and logical order so that the material is linked organically to achieve the purpose or purposes planned (Ahmed, 2005).

It can be defined as the method of teaching that depends on the teacher merely presenting the information verbally to the learners without allowing them to ask during the delivery, but after completing it, and they are satisfied with merely receiving the information in one go and recording summaries of the material and its ideas so the teacher considers this method the focus of the educational process (Noor Center , 2011).

This method is centered around the teacher, who is the main axis, and the teacher's style in this method is called diction, meaning that he gives information on the subject matter continuously and without interruption for more than 5 minutes. As for the lecture, it means that the teacher delivers information and knowledge to the learners in a loud voice, that is, it is called the news method. This method requires the teacher to have a high skill in planning the lesson and implementing the lesson by using verbal fluency and supporting it with non-verbal signals, facial expressions, eyes gaze and the harmony of tone of voice with the subjects, as well as the use of illustrations and examples to draw students' attention to the lesson. There are a number of axioms on which the lecture method depends, including that the learner is like an empty vessel, that the teacher is a storehouse of knowledge, and that the teaching process is the process of filling this vessel and filling it with knowledge. We find the learner here a passive receiver and that he was born like a white page, and that the task of teaching here is to prepare him for life by providing him with knowledge, information and experiences that help him in his future, and that the teacher is the positive sender who is keen to deliver his message to the future, that is, the learner, and that the lecture is a means that the teacher uses in his mission (Aziz, Khaled, 2012).

As for the most important forms that the lecture method can be in, they are as follows (Aziz & Khaled, 2012; Noon Center, 2011):

1) The lecture: It is suitable for adults as it does not lead to discussions and is not affected by questions except at the end of the lecture.

2) Explanation: It is an explanation and interpretation of what the students have ambiguous to understand. This includes good language and expressions, moving from easy to difficult, from the known to the unknown, and from the whole to the part.

3) Description: It is one of the most important means of verbal explanation and clarification.

4) Stories: It is one of the forms of the lecture method used in teaching to attract students' attention and stimulate them through the transfer of information and experiences to them.

5) Simulation: It is the teacher's doing some actions or activities and the learners repeat them after him or imitate what he does.

It is good for you to use at the end of the lecture some methods that measure the extent of what the listeners have learned from the material through specific questions or guidance to return to one or more references in order to expand on the topic in which the teacher lectured, so that the learners answer the questions or search for the sources that he guides them to. The method of the lecture may be useful in other areas, such as the lectures on raising citizens’ awareness of health education, accident prevention, religious and cultural awareness, and other topics that need to convey information to the largest number of listeners (Ahmad, 2005).

The lecture method has several shortcomings, the most important of which are (Ahmad, 2005):

1) The lecturer exerts a great effort in defining the goals and educational content, choosing the activities, procedures and means necessary to deliver the content to the learners, and evaluating the goals of his lecture, even if we count that the teacher's quorum of lessons is equivalent to five classroom classes, we will see the extent of fatigue and stress that will befall him.

2) Verbal and intellectual communication is almost limited to the teacher alone, and thus the means of communication in these two areas related to the recipient are almost nonexistent, and it has been proven that communication has an effect on learning events and achieving the goals of education where the role of using educational aids such as models, figures and drawings is neglected in the learning process.

3) Likewise, the role of the learner in the lecture style is limited to listening, as he does not participate in any part of the learning process, and it is known that education will have a far-reaching effect if the learner participates in teaching himself and others by himself.

4) The method of the lecture is not suitable for implementing some of the objectives and content of the curriculum that includes the performance or kinetic field, as it focuses on the cognitive aspect at its lowest levels and neglects performance and emotional learning.

5) It also does not take into account individual differences in the level of learners’ ability to acquire knowledge in differentiated ways according to their abilities.

Among its defects also (Noon Center, 2011):

1) It is difficult for all learners to continue paying attention to the teacher, because the degree of learners’ attention depends on the teacher's skill in recitation, the way he organizes and presents the material, his personality, his use of the means, and his dependence on the element of suspense.

2) Diction often requires more time than reading the material.

3) The effect of diction is minimal in modifying the behavior of learners and forming the habit of sound logical thinking.

4) The method of recitation is fatiguing for the teacher with its weak scientific return. There is no doubt that discussing the answers of the learners and the participation of the whole class in the discussion will stimulate movement and activity.

As for the most important advantages of the lecture method:

1) Economy from the time of teaching: In view of the length of the curricula in most of our Arab curricula, the teacher's use of this method ensures that the parts of the course are covered in a specific time, thus providing students with a reasonable level of desired knowledge.

2) Economy is one of the special equipment, as it provides the method of lecturing in the use of equipment and tools as well as reduces the number of laboratories needed and relied upon in teaching in the seasons of the year.

3) Teaching a large number of learners from a limited time. Large groups of learners can be taught through lectures, and this is often compatible with teaching in universities.

Among its other advantages (Noon Center, 2011):

1) Easy to apply and approves for all levels of education except for elementary level.

2) The breadth of knowledge and the introduction of new information from here and there, which helps enrich the information of the attendees.

3) It is useful in clarifying ambiguities and confirming ideas in the mind.

4) It allows learners to receive information easily without making much effort to collect it.

5) It is useful for addressing large numbers of learners.

6) Inexpensive from an economic point of view because it requires many educational materials or means.

7) Availability of time for the two poles of the educational process (teacher and learner).

Brainstorming Method: There are many names for brainstorming in studies and literature, and they have the same meaning and essence. It is a common term for specific methods of innovative thinking in developing new ideas that includes individual activity or small group activity in which a deliberate attempt is made to innovative thinking. Brainstorming leads to freedom from the constraints imposed by thought or imposed by traditional methods. Therefore, this method is considered an individual and group method, although it was originally prepared for group work, and it is directed towards small groups activity. Therefore, this method can move in two tracks of organization that can be applied to the individual or to the entire organization (Al-Mandalawi, 2019).

He mentioned that it is a position that provides students with a set of rules for generating ideas in an atmosphere that must be free of judging others and their suggestions, revolve around a problem, be cooperative and open to accept the ideas of each student. At the same time encouraging creative thinking directed towards solving problems and at the same time not encouraging sarcastic remarks on others or on their ideas (Jaber, 2005).

The method of brainstorming has several benefits, including (Al-Mandalawi, 2019):

1) It helps to create a lively and cooperative environment.

2) It builds confidence and encourages open-mindedness and readiness for imagination and creativity.

3) It shows many different viewpoints based on emotional and mental reactions to a specific problem, thus increasing the number of suitable alternatives to solve each problem.

4) It provides a means to focus on the sense of the issue of the problem, which speeds up access to appropriate solutions.

5) Eliminates barriers to creativity, which helps learners to think.

6) Contributes to the democratization of the educational and training process and generates enthusiasm for the learners and their sense of themselves and the value of their ideas.

The method of brainstorming has several rules, the most important of which are (Al-Mandalawi, 2019):

1) The necessity of avoiding criticism: It means rejecting the prejudice, criticism or evaluation used during brainstorming sessions, and the responsibility for implementing this rule rests with the teacher, who in turn alerts any learner who issues a judgment or comment on the ideas of others.

2) This means that the greater the number of ideas proposed by the group members, the greater the probability of a greater number of original or specific ideas for an innovative solution to a problem. In this regard, many researchers point out that fluency is the bank of innovation.

3) Launching the freedom of thinking and welcoming ideas of any kind: This principle is intended to be free from what hinders innovative thinking and to welcome all ideas in order to reach a state of relaxation.

4) Building on the ideas of others and developing them: It is intended by this principle that the proposed ideas belong to everyone, and this means that the proposed ideas are not exclusive to their owner, and thus the teacher encourages the participants to arouse enthusiasm in order to increase the ideas of others, and to present what represents improvement, development or crystallization It has the right, as any participant has the right to quote, modify and modify it by deleting and adding.

The elements of brainstorming success are as follows (Al-Mandalawi, 2019):

1) Clarity of work principles and rules in the method of brainstorming.

2) The experience and seriousness of the activity leader or teacher, and his conviction of the value of the brainstorming method.

3) That the lesson prevail in an atmosphere of lightness and fun and not be gloomy.

4) It is important to prepare for the lesson and prepare the participants and inform them in advance of its topic.

5) Accept and encourage unfamiliar ideas.

6) The different stages of reformulation must be followed by asking the following questions: How can the idea be developed? How many ways can an idea develop? and others.

7) It is very important for the person in charge of the session to ascertain the feasibility of this method in reaching innovative solutions to problems or in various fields.

8) That the person responsible for the lesson separates between generating ideas, highlighting them, and evaluating them, and that he is willing to contribute to reviving the lesson with his personal thoughts.

9) The lesson should be objective, away from personal opinions and defenses of some ideas related to the problem subject of the lesson.

10) Write down the ideas emanating from the lesson and number them so that all participants can see them.

11) Great care is taken to exclude the presence of observers for the lesson. All attendees should participate in the dialogue because the presence of an observer sitting in a far place during the session, especially if he is one of the important people in the institution or school in which the sessions are held will stand in the way of creativity, and innovation.

12) The person in charge of the session should realize that the process of brainstorming is not 100% guaranteed to get new ideas. In addition, the use of brainstorming is not just a way to encourage the introduction of new ideas, but rather a method for the learners to understand the scientific material, and to solve the complexities of the lesson.

As for the most important stages of implementing the brainstorming method, some of them see that the process of generating ideas passes through three stages (Al-Mandalawi, 2019):

1) The stage of clarifying the problem and analyzing it into the primary elements that it involves, then classifying these elements in order to present them to the learners.

2) The stage of clarifying how to work, and taking into account the rules of brainstorming.

3) The stage of evaluating ideas, selecting them and calculating them in practice.

The method of brainstorming has several steps, the most important of which are (Ahmed, 2005):

1) Divide the participants into groups.

2) The size of the group is between 5-8 individuals, and monitoring all groups to ensure that they all apply the above-mentioned rules.

3) State the problem under discussion and clarify it carefully.

Here are some examples of brainstorming questions:

a) What to do about noise in the school library?

b) How do you keep the school yard clean?

4) Ensure that every student understands the problem in question.

5) Encouraging every student to participate with his opinion to solve the problem.

6) Make it clear that no one should follow the suggestions of others.

7) Assign two students to take notes.

8) Determine the time and give a signal to start and finish.

9) Asking learners to answer the questions that follow the activity.

When the time limit for the activity is over, the students are asked to return to their groups and submit an oral report on the activity and procedures.

Hot chair method: It is similar to what has become known as the confessional, which is a method based on asking questions to a specific trainee in order to develop several skills, the most important of which is building questions, exchanging ideas and reading. It can be used in the group system by dividing the trainees into small groups. This method is adopted to discuss a general issue or a form, prompting the trainees to think about a specific topic from its various aspects, and then discuss different points of view (Al-Mandalawi, 2019).

As for its most important steps (Al-Mandalawi, 2019):

1) Putting chairs or tables in a circular motion and placing the hot chair in the center of the lesson hall.

2) The stage of asking questions related to the topic of the lesson after it is determined by the teacher who plays the role of the activator. It is preferable that the questions are open with multiple answers.

Investigative Method: The meaning of investigation is tracking, investigation and examination. This method is so called because it follows the lesson’s parts and examples and details the information it contains and investigates them to extract the summary of the lesson, and derives its rule that organizes all those parts and details (Noun Center, 2011).

This method confirms that there is something mysterious that must be explored, and that every topic in the school represents what can be called an investigative cognitive branch in which all students can participate. The investigative model developed by Richard Stothman is based on the concept that the mental strategies that scientists use to solve problems and investigate the unknown can be taught to learners. The innate curiosity of young children can be developed and controlled by investigative methods. The first step in any problem-solving process is to acknowledge the existence of a problem and accept a challenge to find a suitable solution. After that, one has to gather information by asking questions and research in order to form hypotheses and choose possible solutions to them. The final step is to propose a temporary solution whose applicability can be tested in different contexts and throughout the process, a combination of individual and collaborative efforts will lead to the most effective solution (Ahmed, 2005).

This method is based on the teacher presenting the examples to the students, explaining and discussing them, then arriving at the rule with the participation of the students. This method was known as one of the forms of inference through observation. It involves walking from the part to the whole, from the examples to the rule, or from the specific to the general, in order to reach generalizations by studying a sufficient number of individual cases and then reaching the characteristic that the cases share and then formulating them in the form of a law, a rule, or a theory. Learning through induction is one of the most successful teaching methods because it helps the learner to carry out various educational activities (Aziz and Khaled, 2012.).

The investigative learning method has several steps, the most prominent of which are (Ahmed, 2005):

1) The teacher chooses a perplexing situation.

2) The teacher explains the survey process to the class and the progress of the problem.

3) Students ask questions to collect and verify data. 4. Students choose different hypotheses and formulate a theory.

4) Class students discuss the rules or findings related to a theory and think how to verify it.

5) The investigation process is reviewed, and the class discusses the steps for solving the problem.

Discovery Learning Method

It is one of the modern methods that emphasize the need to make the learner positive during the process of learning and teaching, and he is the one who searches for knowledge and discovers it by himself. The role of the teacher is to encourage, guide, and design appropriate situations. Through this method, students feel energetic and self-reliant in discovering ideas and solutions. This, in turn, generates a sense of satisfaction and a desire to continue learning, learning and discovering new ideas on their own. It has been called by several names, including the method of exploration, discovery, scouting, reconnaissance and others (Aziz and Khaled, 2012).

The discovery learning method differs from the traditional methods of teaching, in which the student’s role is seen through that he receives information from the teacher without being a positive participant in the teaching and learning process. Or that his participation is limited to limited forms, such as answering the teacher's questions, or in asking some questions that he cannot access by himself. In this method, the major responsibility in the learning process rests on the effort expended by the student to contribute to this process. Learning by discovery is concerned with the means and methods that a person uses using his mental and physical abilities to reach new knowledge or to achieve something he did not know before. Therefore, discovery learning is the learning that is achieved as a result of high-level selective mental processes through which the given information is analyzed and then re-combined and converted into new images in order to reach previously unknown information and conclusions (Ahmed, 2005).

It is possible to distinguish between two main groups, each of which depends on the students’ participation in the teaching situation, which are as follows (Ahmed, 2005):

1) The discovery group where the students work under the supervision and direction of the teacher.

2) A group of self-learning where students do the work as well, but the teacher does not intervene except in the narrowest boundaries, in order to correct the mistakes that some students face or to correct their thinking paths.

Discovery learning has several goals, the most important of which are (Ahmad, 2005):

1) Through their involvement in discovery lessons, pupils learn some of the necessary methods and activities to discover new things for themselves.

2) It develops in the students’ directions and training strategies that they can use in solving problems, investigation and research.

3) Discovery lessons help pupils to increase their ability to analyze, construct and evaluate information in a rational manner.

4) There are internal evidences such as the tendency to educational tasks and the feeling of confidence and self-fulfillment upon reaching a discovery. These motivate the student to learn more effectively and efficiently during the course of the lesson.

The most prominent steps of discovery learning are (Ahmad, 2005):

1) Nervous thinking - feeling a problem.

2) Pay attention to other things in the situation.

3) The sudden flash (ascertaining intuition).

Discussion Method

It is an ancient method attributed to the philosopher Socrates to guide and encourage his disciples. It can be considered as an evolution of the propositional method through the use of discussion in the form of questions that motivate learners. This method depends on prompting students to think, discuss, express their opinion, ask questions and provide answers, and involve them in preparing the lesson with interest in research, information collection and analysis by following major steps, namely preparation, discussion, and evaluation (Al-Mandlawi, 2019).

This method is based on dialogue and discussion in presenting ideas and exchanging them freely and orderly between the teacher and his students who have the courage to debate. As the role of the teacher is organized, facilitating and motivating their participation and organizing the discussion process. Socrates is considered, or who used this method, for that reason some call it the Socratic method of dialogue. The method of discussion was defined as an oral dialogue between the teacher and the students, in which the positive and clear role of the students appears and takes place in an undifferentiated way under the supervision of the teacher and organized in order to achieve specific goals and objectives that can only be achieved with the participation of students. The method of group discussion and serious interaction between the teacher and the students among themselves is adopted in order to reach the facts and goals required in order to encourage students to read, read, summarize, participate, cooperate, listen and meaningful dialogue (Aziz & Khaled, 2012).

This method, which can be the basis for most modern teaching methods, takes into account the interest in the interaction and linguistic communication that takes place in the classroom through the talk directed by the teacher to the students and through the answers that students give in the classroom, or through the questions and inquiries that students direct to their colleagues or to their teacher. From here we notice that the process of verbal interaction and exchange of positions between students and their teacher allows for the spread of an atmosphere of freedom, active participation, permanent dialogue and respect for opinion and the other opinion, which makes the teaching and learning process more enjoyable and has a far-reaching effect in achieving the desired educational goals. The discussion is for the teacher to participate with the learners in understanding, analyzing, interpreting and evaluating a topic or an idea or solving a problem and stating the points of difference and agreement between them in order to reach a decision and thus it is one of the most important colors of educational activity for adults and children alike (Ahmed, 2005).

The method of discussion has several conditions, the most important of which are (Noon Center, 2011):

1) The teacher determines the topic and makes sure of its validity to be the subject of group discussion with the learners.

2) The teacher begins the discussion with a brief presentation of his topic or problem, its importance and purpose, the most important terms and some of its ideas.

3) Inform the learners of the topic of the lesson so that they can read about it and prepare for the discussion.

4) Create an appropriate atmosphere for discussion in place, time, preparation and arrangement.

5) The teacher is keen on the participation of all learners in the discussion while not allowing some of them to monopolize or withdraw from it.

6) Adjust the course of the discussion within the specified topic, and in light of the specified time and specified objectives.

The method of discussion differs according to its different objectives, and accordingly it is of two types (Ahmed, 2005, Aziz & Khaled, 2012):

1) Free discussion. It aims to obtain new, innovative and surprising ideas that come as a result of brainstorming in an issue. The method of discussion is used in the classroom with young and old alike. This type of discussion is effective in reaching generalizations and innovative ways of solving problems. This method is characterized as a free movement of the mind, which results in a lot of ideas and suggestions about a topic or problem. It may be very practical, and it may be imaginary and unlikely. The goal here is to get a lot of ideas without interference from anyone to control or direct the discussion.

2) Directed or controlled discussion: it aims to reach ideas and information also through the learners, but in contrast with free discussion, it is based on a specific topic in order to reach a decision in it. According to this type of discussion, the teacher may have the whole group participate in the discussion on the topic.

The method of discussion has several shortcomings, the most prominent of which are (Ahmed, 2005):

1) It requires highly skilled teachers of classroom control who have a high ability to use and direct classroom questions well and can formulate questions in several forms in line with the individual differences of learners.

2) The role of direct experiences is excluded from learning, as it often deals with verbal topics, and was done without the use of physical educational materials.

3) It sometimes turns into a session devoid of excitement, as it depends on reading the lesson and preparing its content on the part of the learner before the time it is presented in the class. This makes the teaching situation less exciting as the students are familiar with the elements of the lesson.

As for its main advantages, they are as follows (Ahmad, 2005):

1) This method contributes to showing the positive role of the learner, and not limiting his role to receiving, but making him a true contributor to the learning process.

2) Both the teacher and the learner are accustomed to respecting each other, which leads to enhancing the learner's self-confidence, and this contributes to his notification that he has a role in the learning process, and leads to raising the pace of his enthusiasm for what he learns.

3) This method provides a practical scope for highlighting some trends, skills and knowledge and practicing them in real practice.

4) The discussion method helps more in acquiring communication skills, especially the skills of listening, speaking and dialogue management. It also provides the student with system-based discussion methods.

5) It provides the learner with the opportunity to talk about topics of interest to him and problems that occupy him. Thus, he feels the value of learning and its importance in his life, thus increasing his demand for it and his interaction with educational activities.

6) Make the teacher more aware of the extent of the learners’ attention, acceptance or non-acceptance of the main discussion topic.

7) The method of discussion in postgraduate studies contributes to accustoming students to identifying and analyzing the problems they feel by using scientific research.

Among the most important things that must be taken into account in applying the method of discussion are the following:

1. The necessity of prior planning for preparing the lesson in this way, as it precisely determines the educational objectives and educational content, and procedures that include the means and processes that the teacher and students carry out.

2. Defining the roles: the role that the student or the group of participating students will play, the role or roles that the teacher will play as well as determining the appropriate means and procedures to implement the discussion.

3. Observing flexibility during the implementation of the pre-planned activity, so that the students remain preoccupied with the purposeful work or practice and are free to ask their questions and observations without being immobile in the classroom in order to preserve the so-called strict system.


This study found a number of results, the most important of which are:

1) The teaching process is a science that has its principles and rules, and it can be observed, measured, evaluated, and then trained on its skills. Raising the efficiency of the teacher by using teaching methods leads to raising the efficiency of general education, including its research aspects.

2) The teaching process has several methods, the most prominent of which are the lecture, discussion, hot chair, brainstorming and others.

3) The lecture method has several advantages, the most important of which is that it requires the teacher to have a high skill in planning the lesson and implementing the lesson using verbal fluency and support it with non-verbal signals, facial expressions, eyes of the eyes, and the harmony of tone of voice with the subjects. The most important defect is that the teacher makes a great effort in setting goals and it is his responsibility to explain and clarify the lesson.

4) The method of brainstorming is one of the most important teaching methods because of its great effectiveness in the classroom due to the large number of questions raised by the teacher and the interaction of students with him by posing their answers and different opinions.

5) The hot chair method, investigative learning, discovery, discussion and other effective teaching methods are considered as they require a joint effort between the teacher and his students and motivate them to research, think and discover


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