Research Article: 2019 Vol: 22 Issue: 1
Hasanulddin Mohd, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Jamalluddin Hashim, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Wan Mohd Khairul Firdaus Wan Khairuldin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Engku Ahmad Zaki Engku Alwi, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Soal Jawab Haji Dan Umrah (The Hajj and Umrah Q&A) is a book published by Lembaga Tabung Haji (TH-Malaysian Pilgrimage Board). It talks about the Shariah rules related to hajj and umrah based on Shafii's school. Despite its small size, this book is among the most important references to Malaysian pilgrims. There is an impression that the approach to the pilgrimage and umrah of the TH is too narrow and rigid. They are seen to emphasize the use of the Shafi’i sect. Some of the views that are used are quite hard and are not concerned with the convenience of pilgrims, as well as different from the practice of the Prophet himself. Some cynically labeled the views chosen by TH are isolated and unauthorized. This perception invites the defamation of the credibility of TH in managing the pilgrimage of Malaysian pilgrims, especially in relation to legal guidance. Hence, this paper will highlight the ethics of citations in Soal Jawab Haji Dan Umrah, which is one of the most important mediums of hajj and umrah by TH to pilgrims. This selection was made to see the extent of the authority and credibility of the references used by the book, as well as the influence of Shafii's sects and others. The study uses document analysis methods and interviews in collecting relevant data and analyzed using content analysis and comparison methods. The study found that the Book have its own approach and ethics in the writing. In term of citations, the whole references are authoritative that illustrate the credibility of this writing. The topics discussion put forward is in keeping with the approaches of the fiqh scholars of the al-Shafi'i sect, as well as the author's panel also has a relatively flexible approach when discussing certain legal issues, particularly involving the pilgrims’ maslahah (benefits). In conclusion, hajj and umrah guidance to the target group should be emphasized and strengthened in various mediums so that all parties benefit from it
Book of Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah (Hajj and Umrah FAQs), Hajj Guidance, Method and Ethics of Referral Recruitment.
“Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” is a book published by Lembaga Tabung Haji since 1984. Its contents discuss the rules related to hajj and umrah based Syafie’s school and the decision of the National Level Hajj Muzakarah. Although the size is relatively small, the book is the most important reference to the pilgrims of Malaysia, as well as the, Umrah and Pilgrimage books which have been published by Lembaga Tabung Haji for a long time (Hajar & Shihab, 2011).
In line with the ever-changing and complex haj and umrah issues, this book is constantly being reproduced and refined from time to time. Starting its publication in 1984, it has been reprinted 16 times with the latest print is in 2017. It has also been updated 3 times in 2013, 2015 and 2016. This clearly shows Tabung Haji's commitment to provide the medium of knowledge for the sake of pilgrims so that they can perform Hajj and Umrah perfectly. However, there is a saying that the pilgrimage and umrah approach brought by Tabung Haji is too narrow and rigid, either by course guidance and lectures, publications or worship lines (Juanda, 2017). They see too much emphasis on the use of Syafie's school and do not take into account the other sects except in desperate circumstances. Some of the views used are quite hard and do not reflect the concern of the comfort of the congregation and are said to be different from the practice shown by the Prophet himself. In fact, some who cynically labeled the views chosen by Tabung Haji described the 'own school of discipline' by Tabung Haji (Yusnah, 2018). Such perceptions are still isolated and do not reflect the majority of the votes, but they continue to invite defamation and suspicion on the credibility of Lembaga Tabung Haji in managing the pilgrimage of Malaysian pilgrims, especially in relation to legal guidance. It needs to be dammed with the best of wisdom. In this regard, this paper will highlight the recruitment of reference books of Hajj and Umrah Hajj which is one of the most important mediums of hajj and umrah law by Lembaga Tabung Haji to pilgrims (Haji, 1990). This selection was made to see the extent of the authority and the credibility of the references used by the book, as well as the influence of Syafie's sects and other sects on the election of the law being discussed. Therefore, the study is centrally structured on the book of “Soal Jawab Haji Dan Umrah” by Lembaga Tabung Haji which has its own approach and ethics in the writing.
The purpose of this writing was expressed in the welcome speech of the Group Managing Director and Tabung Haji Chief Executive Officer Datuk Seri Johan Abdullah:
"I hope this book will benefit and become an important reference material for Muslims and Muslims, especially pilgrims during their pilgrimage, pilgrimage and pilgrimage in the Holy Land .... Hopefully it will answer various problems and questions related to the pilgrimage faced by pilgrims in their quest for perfection of pilgrimage and pilgrimage, in Allah (Anon, 2017).”
This desire looks relevant and realistic with the important role that this book plays. It is certainly very useful and is a major reference not only for pilgrims, but also referred by pilgrims in solving the problems faced by pilgrims who are guided by them.
The book of “Soal Jawab Haji dan” Umrah is not authored by one person only (Zulkifli et al., 2016). There are a special committees appointed to ensure that they are able to achieve the goals and objectives outlined. The committee referred to in this book is the Hajj Advisory Committee (Tabung Haji/JAKIM). They consist of: Dato Seri Haji Hassan Ahmad (former Chairman of JPIH, where he has now been replaced by SS Datuk Dr Zulkifli Mohamad al-Bakri), Dato 'Haji Nooh Gadut, Dato 'Haji Fadzil Haji Awang, Dato 'Haji Wan Mohamad Dato' Sheikh Abdul Aziz, SS Datuk Dr Zulkifli Mohamad al-Bakri, Associate Professor Dr Hajah Raihanah Haji Azahari, Dr Anisah Abdul Ghani, Dr Shamsiah Mohamad, and YM Tengku Aziz Raja Abdullah (Secretary).
According to Tengku (2017), this book is organized on the basis of the division of fundamental pilgrims and the questions raised by pilgrims during each haj season (Ibrahim, 2005). These questions are usually restructured and discussed at an early stage among the Members of the Hajj Advisory Committee (AJPIH). It is then debated in the larger audience, involving the pilgrims of the homeland (PEKTA) and the pilgrim worshipers of the holy land (PIHTAS) in the National Level Hajj Muzakarah (MHPK) which are routinely held each year, especially after the end of the pilgrimage operations on the ground holy. Next, selected questions that cover each chapter will be included in the book of “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah”.
The “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” is written and compiled using a certain ethic, in accordance with its position as a religious scholarly book that is a mass reference. This discussion of ethics can be done from two angles, namely the ethics of writing and ethics of sources presentation. In discussing the ethics of his writing, some aspects may be reviewed including the ethics of the use of language and writing styles, reference taking ethics, ethical arrangement and selection of chapters/topics, ethics of law clarification, ethics of ethics and the ethics of the use of special terms. Whereas aspects that can be highlighted in the ethics of the sources presentation are the sources of the law used, their credibilities, and “manhaj istidlal” or istinbat of the sources. However, this paper will only focus on the ethics of reference recruitment used by the book of “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah”.
The “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” book has its own ethics in taking certain references to clarify the Hajj and umrah laws. In terms of reference presentation, it does not list specific references either on the preamble of the book or at the end. It only calls it when quoting on certain topics. This matter can only be detected when conducted on a one-to-one basis (istiqra) on the contents of the book.
List of General Referrals
In total, the references referred to directly by the author belong to a relatively large quantity of 24 pieces. Periodic references are sometimes referred to as the name of the author and author, or the name of the book alone, or the name of the author alone. In terms of the content and topic of the debate highlighted from the references which the name of the title involved involves either the reference of fiqah, paperwork or newspaper clippings. In terms of language, most are references in Arabic, as well as in Malay references (Fattah, 1994). The full list of references in the order specified in the “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” book is as follows:
“Tuhfah al-Muhtaj, Al-Fiqh 'ala al-Mazahib al-Arba'ah, Al-Idhah/Manasik al-Hajj, Al-Umm, Al-Majmu', Al-Bahjah, I'anah al-Talibin, Al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuh, Manasikul Hajj, Al-Ifsah 'an Masail al-Idhah, Al-Fatawa al-Kubra, Bahr al-Mazi, Al-Bahr al-Wafi, Mughni al-Muhtaj ila Ma'rifah Ma'ani Alfaz al-Minhaj, Kasyf al-Litham, Nihayah al-Muhtaj, Manasik al-Haj Darul Hadis, Sabil al-Muhtadin, Qalyubi wa Umayrah, Bughyah al-Mustarsyidin, Minhaj al-Salam, Kifayah al-Akhyar, MHPK paperwork, The al-Alam al-Islami newspaper.”
Most of the references mentioned in the “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” are the books of fiqah. This is in accordance with the contents of the book, which is to discuss the pilgrimage and the umrah. These references are mostly definitive and major references in Syafie's school along with other references. From the long list presented, most references are Arabic only but some references are identified in the Malay language. The details are as follows:
1. Handbook of Hajj and Umrah Manasikul Hajj.
2. Bahr al-Mazi.
3. Al-Bahr al-Wafi.
4. Sabil al-Muhtadin.
5. Bughyah al-Mustarsyidin.
Working Papers References
There is one reference only that is Muzakarah Haji Peringkat Kebangsaan (National Level Hajj Work Paper)
There is also one reference only that is the al-Alam al-Islami Newspaper (Wahbah, 1997).
References of Clerical Figures
The book of “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” also quoted the words of two scholars to reinforce the legal submission brought. They are Ibn Suraij from the past scholars and Sheikh Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz from the contemporary scholar figures.
This study gathered data related and then analyzed through document analysis method. According to McNeill & Chapman (2005), document analysis method is defined as data that can be read and linked to certain aspect in social world. Among the most suitable data collection methods to be used in doing data collection of document form is the library research (Sedarmayanti & Syarifudin, 2011) or archive research (Saunders et al., 2009).
Indeed, this study merely focused on the discussion of concept. This study chose content analysis method to obtain accurate textual results. Neuman (2011) stated that content analysis is an examination involving systematic study to the contents of a medium which have been communicated mainly in the document form. Generally, content analysis functions to measure the structure, contents and the sources of writings (Masri, 2005). Referring to Krippendorff (2004), analysis of contents is a technique of research by making conclusion systematically and objectively through data in document form.
The book of “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” is found to have its own approach and ethics in writing and citations (Zulkifli et al., 2016). The ethics can be viewed from a number of angles such as languages used and citations. Almost all of these references are authoritative that illustrates the credibility of this writing. Similarly in the selection and sorting of topics in the “Soal Jawab Haji dan Umrah” also commit to the school being followed, by making reference books used as the basis for doing their writing work. The discussion put forward is in keeping with the customs of Islamic jurisprudence scholars in the al-Shafi'e sect, as well as the panel of authors also have a relatively flexible approach when discussing certain legal issues, especially those involving the benefits of pilgrims.
Hence, this paper has highlighted the ethics of citations in Soal Jawab Haji Dan Umrah, which is one of the most important mediums of hajj and umrah by TH to pilgrims. This selection was made to see the extent of the authority and credibility of the references used by the book, as well as the influence of Shafii's sects and others.
This article is part of a research titled: Metode Bimbingan Haji Oleh Lembaga Tabung Haji: Analisis Terhadap Modul Penerbitan Dan Cadangan Penambahbaikan (Guidance of Hajj Methods By Hajj Fund Board: Analysis Of Publishing Module And Recommendation Proposition) and it was funded by the University Research Fund (DPU), Project Reference Number: UniSZA/2017/SRGS(26). Special thanks to the University of Sultan Zainal Abidin for funding the research.