Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Review Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

The Concept of Creating Character of the Nation's Successful Generation of Anti-Corruption to Realize Good Governance in the Time of Covid-19 in North Sumatera

Sri Sulistyawati, Universitas Prima Indonesia

Mukidi, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara

Iwan Setiawan, Universitas Prima Indonesia

Nelvitia Purba, Universitas Muslim Nusantara Al-Washliyah

Rudy Pramono, Universitas Pelita Harapan

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to apply character education to the younger generation of Indonesia so that it plays a role as an anti-corruption agent of change as a form of realizing good governance in North Sumatra Province. Mental has a close relationship with character. Mental is a person's inner atmosphere in the face of an event. The state of a person's soul can not be seen, but can be known from the symptoms. If someone is strong in responding to an event, they are said to have a strong mentality. Conversely, if someone is immersed in an event without being able to control and direct the events at hand, they are said to have a weak mentality. A person's steady and specific mental attitude is a reflection of a person's character. The way of thinking and behaving that characterizes a person who focuses on how to apply the value of goodness in the form of actions or behavior, especially in fortifying oneself from start in preventing corruption, especially during Covid 19 Pandemic where economic conditions are experiencing shocks.

               The method used in this study is empirical using a fact approach and a concept approach and is presented in an analytical descriptive manner supported by: 
a)       Literature review: books related to character education.
b)       Other writings and books relevant to modeling prevents corruption.
               From the results of study, it can be stated that the role of younger generation as an anti-corruption agent of Change to realize good governance in Sumatra Province will be able to make a direct change in their lives. Or make himself an agent of change, meaning that students have a great resource in character building education, and they never run out. As a student, they are considered to be a group of people who have good morals, not only having academic abilities that are prioritized. By having a good character and of course academic achievement, at least the students/young generation will become social control in their social life when carrying out their daily activities. 

Keywords

Good Governance, Anti-Corruption, Agent of Change, Young Generation, Covid 19 Pandemic

Introduction

Corruption in North Sumatra occurred in the executive and legislative institutions of the North Sumatra Regional House of Representatives at the provincial level officials in districts and cities in the North Sumatra province, which was carried out by some regents and mayors in the North Sumatra region. The democracy that is being implemented is expected by elected government officials in North Sumatra to do their best for the people, and they have to be held in prison. The people of North Sumatra are very disappointed and are very clear about the occurrence of forms of corruption and the effects of corrupt behavior that occur in the Executive, legislative environment. This shows a weakness in the government and in the character of younger generation. As a result of political education that deviates from the code of ethics and applicable laws, it will lead to corruption. The younger generation is aware of the occurrence of corruption by state officials to date, so that this bad example will become a virus that will continue to plague corruption. Because corruption is rampant in Indonesia, especially during Covid-19 pandemic, economic conditions are alarming for the perpetrators of corruption. This is to prevent the government from imposing the death penalty (Purba, Tanjung, Sulistyawaty & Pramono, 2020)

North Sumatra Regional Court Corruption, 14 Former North Sumatra DPRD Members Immediately Imprisoned The fourteen defendants were sentenced to various sentences by the Medan District Court. The fourteen defendants were found guilty of accepting bribes of Rp. Revised 2013 APBD. Chief judge Immanuel Tarigan, in his online ruling at the Medan Corruption Court on Monday, said that the defendant Syamsul Hilal was sentenced to 5 years in prison and a fine of Rp. 500 million or a subsidiary of 3 months in prison. In addition, Syamsul had to pay a replacement fee of IDR 477.5 million. Meanwhile, Ramli was sentenced to 5 years, to pay a fine of Rp. 200 million, subsidiary to 3 months in prison, and to pay compensation of Rp. 497.5 million. Then the other seven defendants were each sentenced to 4 years in prison and a fine of Rp. 200 million with a subsidiary of 2 months. The four defendants have returned all replacement money, namely Jamaluddin in the amount of IDR 497.5 million, Japorman Saragih (UP IDR 427 million) and the defendant Rahmad P Hasibuan (UP IDR 500 million) and Layari Sinukaban with (UP IDR 377.5 million) have also paid it off. The presiding judge also mentioned that other defendants, namely Robert Nainggolan, had returned UP of Rp. 327.5 million, Ahmad Husen Hutagalung with UP of Rp. 752.5 million and the defendant Nurhasanah with UP of Rp. 472.5 million. Meanwhile, the other five defendants, namely Megalia Agustina, Ida Budiningsih, Mulyani, Sudirman Halawa, and Irwansyah Damanik were each sentenced to 4 years and 6 months in prison and a fine of Rp. 300 million subsidiary to 2 months in prison. Defendant Megalia with UP Rp 540.5 million, defendant Ida Budiningsih Rp 542.5 million, defendant Mulyani UP Rp 452.5 million, Sudirman Halawa UP Rp 417.5 million and defendant Irwansyah Damanik with UP Rp 602.5 million. The judge stated that things that incriminate the defendants abused their authority as members of North Sumatra DPRD, did not support the government's program to eradicate corruption.

Behavioral approach is an approach that emphasizes the dimensions of individual cognitive and offers a variety of action-oriented methods to help take clear steps in changing behavior (Komalasari, 2011). Meanwhile, according to Baraja, Behavioral Approach views that the problems faced by individuals are due to the individual making wrong decision or taking an attitude to take an action (Changena, 2011). Therefore, this approach (behavioral approach) in counseling emphasizes specific behavior, namely behavior that is in conflict with or contrary to the environment and client himself (Baraja, 1996). Behaviorism views human behavior as largely determined by external environmental conditions and the engineering or conditioning of human being. This flow assumes that humans are neutral, good or bad behavior is determined by situation and treatment experienced by the human being. Behaviorism views individuals only from the side of physical phenomena, and ignores mental aspects. Learning events merely train reflexes in such a way that they become habits controlled by individuals. Corruption is a deviation committed by humans by manipulating truth, honesty and contrary to religious values, human values and society (Baraja, 2004). The corruption eradication program carried out by the judiciary and law enforcement agencies such as the Corruption Eradication Commission needs to be supported by Indonesian people. One of the programs to eradicate corrupt practices such as bribery, embezzlement, theft, and waste of state money is to increase the culture of shame in preventing corrupt practices.

Research Methods

The method used in this paper is empirical using a fact approach and a concept approach and is presented in an analytical descriptive manner supported by:

a) literature review: books related to character education

b) other writings and books relevant to modeling 'to prevent corruption'.

Discussion

The Urgency of Character Education is Applied to the Younger Generation of Indonesia

Character education strengthening program is used as an educational policy whose main goal is to implement Nawacita. Character education strengthening is integrated in the National Movement for Mental Revolution, namely changing the way of thinking, acting, and acting for the better. In this PSP, Minister Nadiem Makariem developed Character education strengthening by adding one value for the character of diversity, bringing it to six. The six character values are a reflection of the profile of Pancasila students who are PSP's goals. This mental-character problem becomes a big PR. Therefore, it is very appropriate and quite reasonable if the Minister is still paying serious attention to the problem. Remember what Emha Ainun Nadjib said. Cak Nun, his nickname, said that corruption is a mental-character problem. It's not a moral issue. If it's a moral issue, everyone understands it. Everything is fine. Corrupts are polite. They are kind to their neighbors and their children. So the mosque takmir also often provides assistance to the mosque. That is, morally they are fine, but their mentality is less organized. There is a poor record in the administration of education. At that time schools tended to glorify science and mathematics. Meanwhile, strengthening character education is not taken care of. The mental aspect is marginalized. Instead, they only think about exams and school success. Even interested in news and jokes. True education is marginalized. School success is only measured from the academic aspect alone. Schools are considered advanced measured by the high scores obtained by their students at the time of final exam. Likewise, participants are considered successful when they are able to gain a high enough score during the test. The mental-character of students does not get any meaningful treatment at all. Everyone is busy thinking about the progress of school. Schools have responsibility to build the mental-character of students. However, it would be irrational if all responsibility for producing people with strong character and mentality was borne by the school. And it becomes even more difficult when the task of giving birth to Pancasila students is borne by the teacher at school. Even more so in the current pandemic era. Everything is done in virtual classrooms through virtual learning. This does not mean pessimistic. But giving birth to a profile of Pancasila students who have 6 characters must be together. Teachers have been bloodthirsty to build students' mental character through habituation at school, then outside of school students are faced with news that ministers, regional heads and other officials violate legal norms, religious norms, and social norms. Teacher has been determined to instill a good mental attitude, suddenly students are faced with the reality of the existence of "stowaways" in various state-owned agencies. This will actually make students and teachers despair. That is, the hard work of teachers must be balanced with good examples from leaders. Students are not good at listening to what teacher says. The public also never pays attention to the speeches of officials, but they never fail to imitate. Through the PSP, it is hoped that the old paradigm will shift. Academic indicators are no longer significant as a measure of educational success. The test score is not a student's real competence. On the other hand, indicators of emotional intelligence, such as the ability to restrain oneself, have emotional stability, always understand others, don't give up easily, never give up, have patience, self-awareness, multiple motivations, dynamic creativity, empathy, and are tolerant. is a far more important characteristic for students to have than just the achievement of numbers written on the report card/diploma itself.

The Role of Younger Generation as Agents of Anti-Corruption Change to Realize Good Governance in Sumatra

Mafia and corruptors continue to undermine this country. State assets that were originally used to improve education, welfare, and public health, have been robbed by a handful of people who are greedy and thirsty for wealth (Purba, Mulyono & Darwis). This is a tragedy that destroys this nation. At the beginning of last November, an international conference on character education took place in Yogyakarta. This is the first conference that invites various observers and education practitioners in the world to discuss character education in determining the future of a just Indonesian nation. This conference emerged from a deep concern over the condition of Indonesia which has not yet come out of rampant corruption practices. Although there is already the Corruption Eradication Commission, a special institution created for the solution to eradicating corruption in the country, the practice of corruption has never subsided, in fact it has become rampant. Ironically, corruption is also spreading in institutions that should be taboo from such evil practices. That's an educational institution. Then, why is our education world not free from corrupt practices, even giving birth to corruptors? Failure of the World of Education? Education in Indonesia is often trapped in power games. Education which was previously neutral, impartial, and objective, has turned into a power struggle full of intrigue, conflict, and often colored by narrow ideological interests. In such conditions, education which was previously a means of seeking truth and values has finally turned into a means of seeking self-identity which is pseudo, abstract, and far from the value of human morality. In economic affinity, education is often used as a mere wealth-raising institution, no matter how this nation is suffering from acute poverty. Just look, the suspects and defendants involved in various corruption cases are elite tie-ups. The suspects are generally graduates of higher education, from elite schools as well. More and more college graduates, nowadays, instead of making this country more advanced, but instead getting entangled in a circle of corruption. With a fairly adequate standard of education, instead of bringing enlightenment to society, they have brought society and this nation to the brink of destruction. This is the danger of corruption perpetrated by the tie, which is a complete destruction, as said by an Islamic intellectual who is also the former chairman of PP Muhammadiya A Syafi'I Ma'arif. According to him, the damage to the Indonesian nation due to corruption is complete. Anti-Corruption Character What should educational institutions do to erase their stereotype as a tie-tied corruptor? The most appropriate and strategic step is to build an anti-corruption ideology of life. There are several things that need to be considered in building the ideology of anti-corruption education. First, place education as a means of character building. German pedagog FW Foerster (1869-1966) said that the main essence of education is the formation of character. In Foerster's view, there are four basic characteristics in character education, namely interior regularity where every action is measured based on a hierarchy of values, coherence that gives courage, is firm on principles, is not easily swayed by new situations or afraid of risk, provides autonomy in internalizing rules. external value becomes personal value, and builds firmness and loyalty in fighting for truth and justice. The maturity of Foerster's four basic values will build the form of a person in all his actions. With these four basic values, a strong person will be born and ready to face the inequality that plagues society, especially corruption. Second, create a curriculum that always condemns corruption as a social evil. In every subject matter, a teacher should not only explain the textual meaning of scientific theory, but also be able to contextualize the phenomenon of social inequality that occurs in society. With the integration of theory and reality, educational curriculum, in addition to not boring students, is also able to lead them to a vast and powerful knowledge gap. They are not only rich in knowledge, but also life experience as a provision for the future. Third, take real action in eradicating corruption. This real action can be in the form of cooperation with judicial institutions that drag corruptors or non-governmental organizations that are concerned about policies to eradicate corruption. With this real action, collage student or students will see the real corruption in Indonesia and explain to them that the corruptors are tie-dated people who have completed their education to the highest level. That way, students will be "slapped" to rise to restore the morality of education and will ultimately be positively dedicated to the survival of the nation. Fourth, build a new cross-sectoral flow of education. Here it is necessary to form a massive movement in various central and regional educational institutions in opposing the actions of corruptors. This new wave of currents will always be covered by media and will eventually become the mainstream of future human thought. By becoming new mainstream, anti-corruption education is not just a discourse, but a very important movement for the survival of the nation's future. Some of the ideological steps mentioned above are expected to be the most effective deterrent to social ills that have damaged the life of this nation. Corruption and its two twin brothers, collusion and nepotism, have so far become a “trilogy” of diseases that are eating away at this nation. Do not let the "trilogy" of this nation's disease continue to live and undermine our common life. Therefore, anti-corruption education must become a savior god, a blueprint that can bring progress to the nation in the future (Saturday Corruption and Character Education, 2011).

Transition from the new order to reformation era had an impact on political landscape in Indonesia. The democratic system that is implemented brings many new policies that open up opportunities for anyone to become a politician. It attracts all people to participate in the world of politics. Practical politics is one of the ways taken by the emergence of new faces in political contestation. Practical politics gave birth to a transactional culture of money politics to make it easier to achieve power targets. This transaction gives birth to a corrupt political culture and will side with oligarchic groups who have benefited greatly in the political succession process. Access to capital from political donors will have an impact on the basic rights of citizens. The Corruption Eradication Commission survey in 2018 found that policies can be purchased from nomination process for both regional heads and presidents. The implications of transactional politics will be to perpetuate a culture of corruption, normalize political bargaining, political donors can smooth their business and get a strategic place in the government and society. Finally, people become victims of the greed and arbitrariness of rulers who have been protected by pro-ruler and oligarchic policies.

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, students are university students. In the Indonesian education structure, students occupy the highest level of education unit among others. Such as education at the primary, junior secondary, or upper secondary or vocational levels. Students as part of campus stakeholders have a very large role and function in moral, social and intellectual aspects. In the moral aspect, students are considered mature in choosing their own lives. This degree means that he is able to think to be able to determine his own future. At this level, students will be forged with various advanced knowledge, as well as various influences from inside and outside the campus. From here, they will develop attitudes in the form of cognitive, affective, and conative attitudes (Secord & Bacman, 1964). Including how students will determine their attitude in participating in anti-corruption education received on campus. How students will form beliefs from knowledge gained about the importance of anti-corruption education. They will also be motivated by their feelings of liking or disliking anti-corruption education so that it is evaluative. The last is how they should behave towards anti-corruption education, including their readiness to implement anti-corruption education on campus and in the surrounding environment. In recent years, character-based education has been continuously disseminated. This program has even received the attention of various parties, especially academics and the world of other education. Character education has now been included in many school and campus curricula. This is also an effort to overcome moral crisis that is a problem today. The application of character education in the character behavior of students is part of the output of campus personnel as a form of their contribution to producing quality generations. Therefore, as a student, you must be able to make direct changes in your life. Or make himself an agent of change, because he has received a lot of education on a sufficient scale. What it means is that students have a great resource in character building education, and they never run out. As students are considered to be a group of people who have good morals. At least students can also become social control in social life. Anti-corruption education for students cannot be separated from knowledge they gain while studying on campus. Including providing knowledge in the eradication process. The values of corruption must continue to be instilled so that students also have competence in preventing others from corruption. But also prevent yourself from doing corruption. As one real example for students is to prepare themselves as well as possible in facing semester exams. Don't cheat on exams, or commit other plagiarism. This is a small example of anti-corruption education that students must understand. This means that students must be able to recognize and understand corruption correctly. From this it can be concluded that students must be able to understand corrupt behavior by paying attention to various events that occur in the campus environment. However, also do not forget the various aspects that participate in this character education, namely the family and surrounding environment. The courage of students to take various forms of corruption prevention actions is the orientation in the formation of this character, this is because corruption has grown into a habit, a culture, therefore mental through the formation of the character of this young generation can be started prevention (Widhiastuti & Ariawan, 2017)

How students are able to implement anti-corruption behavior in real life and become an example for others. And, this is a tough task for all campus stakeholders. The role of lecturers, employees, rectors, and all those involved in the process of forming this character must work hand in hand to create a strong character, especially in the midst of an economic crisis, health and difficult situation due to Covid-19 pandemic, there are still politicians who use social assistance funds to personal interests. Either stored in the eyes of his heart and conscience. Serious reforms Extraordinary crimes must be fought in extraordinary ways. Corruption has entered the critical point of democracy. This has to be taken seriously. Corruption is not only enough to be eradicated by conventional law, but also requires policy breakthroughs and political actions (Azra, 2021). Improvement of democracy must go hand in hand with eradicating corruption. The government, DPR and political elite must have high sensitivity and political will. Efforts to eradicate corruption should not only be a mere discourse in the leadership's vision and mission, but in fact allow or even protect corruptors to thrive in this country. This form of seriousness should be demonstrated by concrete policies in the form of strengthening regulations. No mercy for the perpetrators of corruption in this country. Punishments need to be tougher. The President must immediately dare to take quick and appropriate action for the benefit of this country. Not playing in a gray area that further confuses civil society. The president should be able to become a legacy at the end of his tenure. Give the best performance for the people. In addition, the strengthening of commitment also needs to be done by political parties. The rise of corruption cases that occur indicates that the party system, recruitment and funding have not had a significant influence. In fact, bribery case that has been holding on for a long time, main actors are political party cadres. Improving political parties is a necessity. Law Number 2 of 2011 concerning Political Parties states that political parties must map two things. First, to shape the attitudes and behavior of political parties that are patterned or systemic so as to create a political culture that supports the basic principles of a democratic system. This is indicated by the attitude and behavior of political parties that have an adequate membership selection and recruitment system and develop a strong cadre system and political leadership. Second, maximizing the function of political parties, both for the state and for people, through effective political education, cadres and recruitment of candidates to produce cadres of leaders who have integrity and competence in the political field.

Conclusion

1) The urgency of character education applied to the younger generation of Indonesia, the old paradigm is expected to shift. Academic indicators are no longer significant as a measure of educational success. The test score is not a student's real competence. On the other hand, indicators of emotional intelligence, such as the ability to restrain oneself, have emotional stability, always understand others, don't give up easily, never give up, have patience, self-awareness, multiple motivations, dynamic creativity, empathy, and are tolerant. is a far more important characteristic for students to have than just the achievement of numbers written on the report card/diploma itself.

2) The role of the younger generation as agents of change in anti-corruption to realize good governance in the province of Sumatra is able to make a direct change in their lives. Or make himself an agent of change, meaning that students have a great resource in character building education, and they never run out. As students are considered to be a group of people who have good morals. At least students can also become social control in social life.

References

Purba, N., Tanjung, A.M., Sulistyawaty, S., & Pramono, R. (2020). Death penalty and human rights in Indonesia. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology. 9.

This article has been published on Bisnis.com with the title "North Sumatran APBD Corruption, 14 Former North Sumatran DPRD Members Immediately Imprisoned".

Changena, K. (2011). Theory and techniques of counseling. Jakarta: Index.

Baraja, A.B. (2004). Counseling psychology and counseling techniques. Jakarta Studio Press

Purba, N., Mulyono, H., & Darwis, R.U. (n.d). Application of building shame culture at university students. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.

Saturday Corruption and Character Education.(2011).19:23 WIB Oleh City Muyassarotul Hafizoh.

The author is a researcher at the Yogyakarta State University Postgraduate Program. Editor : Gora Kunjana This article has been published on Investor.id with the title "Corruption and Character Education".

Widhiastuti, G.A.A.D., & Ariawan, I.G.K. (2017). Raising young generation awareness to behave anti-corruption through anti-corruption education. Scientific Journal of Notary Masters Study Program.

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