Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 4

The Effect of Competence and Discipline of Work on Motivation and its Impact on Performance of Forensic Checkers at Puslabfor Bareskrim Indonesia National Police (POLRI)

Mohammad Benny Alexandri, Universitas Padjadjaran

Meita Pragiwani, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia

Yuswardi, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia

Abstract

The main tasks of the Indonesian National Police, Criminal Investigation Division, and Central Forensic Laboratory are to conduct evidence of examination and carry out crime scene processing, which is inseparable from the performance of the Central Forensic Laboratory's forensic examiners. Performance is an interesting phenomenon to study that is a multitude of factors influencing it. This is the work of competence and its impact on the performance of forensic examiners. The census method is used in sample determination. Primary data collection through questionnaires was distributed to 78 respondents. The research was analyzed using multiple linear regression with path analysis and Sobel test by showing the results: 1) Competence directly influences performance, 2) Work discipline directly influences performance, 3) Competence directly influences motivation 4) Work discipline has a direct effect on motivation, 5) Motivation directly affects performance, 6) Competence indirectly affects performance through motivation, 7) Work discipline does not indirectly affect the performance through motivation, 8) Competence and work discipline simultaneously affect motivation, 9) Competence, work discipline, and motivation simultaneously affect the performance of forensic examiners.

Keywords

Competence, Work Discipline, Motivation, Performance of Forensic Examiner.

Introduction

Performance has become a world issue today, it occurs as a consequence of the demands of the community for the need for excellent service or high-quality services.

Performance according to Robbins 1996 in Sinambela (2017) is interpreted as the result of evaluating the work by individuals compared to the criteria that have been set together. An employee who has high performance can support the achievement of goals and objectives set by the organization. Performance is also a measure of the success of an organization, the better the performance of an organization, the achievement of predetermined targets will be easily realized. Good performance is, of course, an expectation for all organizations or companies that employ employees because the performance of these employees is ultimately expected to improve overall organizational performance.

Getting optimal performance is not easy; various factors can influence performance including competency, work discipline, and motivation. As an organization, the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) is required to be able to provide the best service to the community. In accordance with the Grand Strategy of the National Police 2005-2025, the long-term development plan of the National Police is divided into three stages, namely: Phase I Trust Building (2005-2010), namely building public trust in the National Police, Phase II Partnership (2011-2015), namely fostering partnerships with the community in order to support the task of the National Police, and Phase III Strive of Excellence (2016-2025), which is to provide the best service to the community.

In order to provide the best service to the community, the Center for Forensic Laboratory of the National Police Bareskrim (Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI) as part of the national police institution fully supports the current policy of the National Police in order to increase public trust in the National Police institution through PROMOTER (Professional, Modern and Reliable), according with the scope of the main tasks of the Police Headquarters for the Police Criminal Investigation Unit, which is to examine the crime scene (crime scene) and scientific evidence in order to support investigation (Scientific Crime Investigation).

The performance benchmark of the Forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI can be seen from the completion of the case of examining incoming evidence in accordance with the Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI Analysis of Workload (ABK). It was noted that the completion of the examination cases of evidence from 2012 to 2016 based on workload analysis (ABK Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI) was seen to decline, especially for resolving cases of moderate and severe categories, where the maximum settlement time for mild cases was 5 days, moderate cases 14 heavy days and cases 30 days.

The Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI has a characteristic when compared to other agencies under the National Police because the scope of work is specific and scientific so special competencies are needed. The more competent personnel in doing their work, the organizational performance will increase. From the data in Table 1, it is suspected that there is a connection between the competency of Forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI and the performance related to the resolution of cases, especially cases of moderate and severe categories.

Table 1: Cases Investigation By Puslabfor Bareskrim Polri
Year Light Cases Moderate Cases Heavy Cases
Amount  Resolution (%) Amount Resolution (%) Amount Resolution (%)
2012 2711 100% 641 95.3% 49 93.5%
2013 2887 98.2% 690 92.3% 43 83.6%
2014 3043 97.7% 774 87.4% 58 79.8%
2015 3619 100% 925 91.1% 71 82.7%
2016 3679 98.9% 857 88.8% 63 80.1%

Other factors that can be the cause of the decline in the performance of Forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI are work discipline. From the percentage data of the presence of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI from January to December 2017, it is seen that Forensic examiners who were present in full during working hours from 7 AM to 3 PM only ranged from 40%-55%. Low attendance due to Forensic examiners who often enter the office late and go home earlier than work and often leave the office. The data shows that the level of work discipline of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is still low and is thought to affect organizational performance.

The aim of this study:

1. What is the direct influence of competence on performance (Q1).

2. How to direct effect of work discipline on performance (Q2).

3. How to direct competence influence on motivation (Q3).

4. How to direct effect of work discipline on motivation (Q4).

5. How to direct effect of motivation on performance (Q5).

6. How do indirect effects of competence on performance and motivation as intervening variables (Q6).

7. How do indirect effects of work discipline on performance with motivation as intervening variables (Q7).

8. How to influence competence and work discipline on motivation (Q8).

9. How does the effect of competence, discipline work and motivation on performance (Q9).

This study consists of:

1. Introduce

2. Literature Review

3. Methodology

4. Discussion

5. Conclusion

6. Suggestion

Scope of the Study

In this study, the focus of the performance is the settlement of case files carried out by forensic examiners, while the performance parameters in the institution Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI are not only case settlements, but there are other things such as budget absorption, customer satisfaction, etc. The next researcher can develop research on other parameters of the performance at Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

Literature Review

According to Boulter in Riyanto et al. (2017), the competence is defined as:

“Competence is a basic characteristic of a person related to performance effectiveness based on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that make the person able to fulfill what is indicated by work in an organization”.

According to Spencer in Moeheriono (2014), the basic competence of an individual consists of 5 things, namely:

1. Character (traits), which is what, makes someone have a behavior attitude or how the person responds to something in a certain way.

2. Motive, which is something that someone wants or is consistently thought about and desired that, results in an action.

3. Self-concept is the attitude and values that a person has. These attitudes and values can be measured through tests to find out their values.

4. Knowledge i.e., which is information that someone has in a particular field or in certain arenas.

5. Skills or skills, namely the ability to carry out certain tasks both physically and mentally.

Work discipline is a habit of oneself to be able to work on a socially voluntary rule and norm that aims to achieve everything expected. As an employee, it must have a high sense of discipline, so that whatever has become the goal and expectations of the organization can be achieved as expected.

According to Singodimedjo (2000) in Riyanto et al. (2017), the factors that affect employee discipline are:

1. The size of the compensation.

2. Whether there is an example of leadership in the organization.

3. Whether or not there are certain rules that can be used as a handle.

4. Courage leadership in taking action.

5. The presence or absence of leadership supervision.

6. There is or no attention to employees.

Motivation is encouragement from both inside and outside the important individuals in an organization that functions to achieve the goals or objectives to be achieved.

According to Stephen P. Robbins in Priansa, states that:

“Work motivation as a willingness to carry out high-level efforts to achieve organizational goals that are conditioned by the ability of efforts to meet certain individual needs”.

Quoted in the book Donni Juni Priansa, some of the motivational theories include:

1. Maslow’s hierarchy of theory of needs.

2. McClelland’s achievement needs theory.

3. Herzberg's two factor theory.

Performance is the level of success achieved by an employee in his work which is measured over a period of time, in which the quality and quantity of an employee in doing a job can be seen. Dimensions that support performance, according to John Miner 1988 in Edison et al. (2017), namely:

1. Quality, namely the level of error, damage, accuracy.

2. Quantity, which is the number of jobs produced.

3. Use of time in work, i.e., absenteeism, delay, effective work time/lost work hours.

4. Cooperation with other people at work.

The thinking framework of this study is as follows (Figure 1):

Figure 1.Thinking Framework.

The research paradigm is as follows (Figure 2):

Figure 2.Research Paradigm.

The research hypothesis is:

H1: Competence has a direct effect on the performance of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

H2: Work Discipline has a direct effect on the performance of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

H3: Competence has a direct effect on the motivation of Forensic Examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

H4: Work Discipline has a direct effect on the motivation of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

H5: Motivation directly influences the performance of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

H6: Competence has an indirect effect on the performance of the Forensic Examiner of the Center for Bareskrim POLRI mediated by motivation.

H7: Work Discipline indirectly affects the performance of the Forensic Examiner of the Center for Bareskrim POLRI mediated by motivation.

H8: Competence and Work Discipline simultaneously influence the motivation of the Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI.

H9: Competence, Work-Discipline and motivation simultaneously affect the Performance of Puslabfor Forensic examiners for Bareskrim POLRI.

Research Methodology

The method used is quantitative with a population of all forensic examiners at the Police Headquarters for the Police Criminal Investigation Unit related to examining case files in each Field, namely Narcotics, Kimbiofor, Fiskomfor, Balmetfor and Dokupalfor, with the position of Head of Division Head (Kasubbid), Head of Affairs (Kaur), Affairs (Paur), Administrative Officers (Pamin) and functional position as examiners totaling 78 personnel in 2017.

The types and sources of data used in this study will be explained as follows:

Primary Data

The primary data contained in this study is the result of distributing questionnaires to a predetermined sample (Forensic Examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI) in the form of raw data from a Likert scale to find out responses from respondents regarding the influence of competence and work discipline on motivation and its impact on the performance of forensic examination Puslabfor Bareskrim National Police.

Secondary Data

Secondary data used in the study were the history and organizational structure of the Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, interviews with Forensic examiners and sources of data from previous research journals.

Analysis Techniques

Data must be processed and analyzed first after it has been collected and will be useful as a basis for decision making in a study. The purpose of the method of data analysis is to describe the data so that it can be understood, then to draw conclusions or draw conclusions about the characteristics of the population based on the data obtained from the sample, usually based on the estimation and testing of the hypothesis.

Sampling Technique

The sampling technique used in this study was saturated sampling. Sampling technique is a sampling technique that will be used in research with several choices. The sampling technique used in this study is saturated sampling, which is a sampling technique if all members of the population are used as samples. Another term for saturated samples is a census, where all members of the population are sampled (Sugiyono & Agus, 2015). In this study the population is all Forensic examiners at the Police Headquarters for the Police Criminal Investigation Unit who are concerned with examining case files in each field, namely Narcotics, Kimbiofor, Fiskomfor, Balmetfor and Dokupalfor, with the position of Head of Division, Head of Sub Division, Head Affairs (Kaur), Affairs Officers (Paur), Administrative Officers (Guarantees) and Functional Offices as Examiners totaling 78 personnel in 2017.

This study has three variables, namely the dependent variable, intervening/mediation variables, and independent variables. The dependent variable is the performance symbolized by Z. The intervening variable used is motivation which is denoted by Y. This study the independent variable used is the work competence and discipline symbolized by X.

The method used to test the validity of this study is to use SPSS program (Statistical Package for Social Science), by comparing the value of r count Pearson correlation with the product moment r table with α=0.05 and the number of samples (n) as much as 78. If the results are significant, the indicators on each question are valid. Furthermore, reliability testing can be done using the help of the SPSS program, providing facilities to measure reliability with the Cronbach Alpha (α) statistical test. A construct or variable is said to be reliable if it gives the value of Cronbach Alpha>0.70 (Ghozali, 2016).

Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether there was an influence between competence, work-discipline on motivation and its impact on performance.

In multiple linear regressions there are 4 variables, they are:

1. Free Variables, namely Competence (X1), Work-Discipline (X2).

2. Intervening Variables, namely Work Motivation (Y).

3. Bound Variables, namely Performance (Z).

To test variables the multiple linear regression analysis is used as follows:

image

Where,

X1=as exogenous independent variable competence.

X2=as exogenous independent variable work discipline

Y=endogenous dependent intermediary motivation.

Z=as endogenous dependence performance.

β=variable regression coefficients.

Results and Discussion

Regression Analysis

1. Regression analysis of competence and work discipline on motivation.

Based on the results of the analysis using the SPSS 22 program, the regression results were obtained between the competence and work discipline towards motivation as follows:

From the regression results obtained, the regression equation can be made as follows:

image

2. Regression analysis of competence, work discipline and motivation on performance. From the regression results obtained, the regression equation can be made as follows.

image

3. Coefficient of determination of competence and work discipline for motivation coefficient results determination of competence and work discipline towards motivation. The value of R Square is 0.404, thus the variable of competence and work discipline is able to influence the motivation variable by 40.4%, while the remaining 59.6% is explained by other variables not examined in this study.

4. Coefficient of determination of competence, work discipline and motivation towards performance.

The coefficient of determination results between competence, work discipline and motivation towards the performance of adjusted R square value is 0.742, thus the competence, work discipline and motivation variables are able to influence the performance variable of 74.2%, while the remaining 25.86% is explained by other variables that are not examined in this study.

Validity Test

Validity Test is done to measure the validity of the questions on each indicator of each variable. The value of r count is the result of the correlation of the respondent’s answers to each question in each variable analyzed by the SPSS version 22 program and the output is called the Pearson correlation, whereas to get the R table is done by r product moment table, which determines α=0.05 then n (sample)=78 so that there is a two-sided R table value of 0.222 (Table 2).

Table 2: Validity Test
Variable Q R test R Table Validity
      Competency X1.1 0.689       0.222       VALID
X1.2 0.704
X1.3 0.722
X1.4 0.619
X1.5 0.89
X1.6 0.672
X1.7 0.736
X1.8 0.718
X1.9 0.631
X1.10 0.71
      Work Discipline X2.1 0.621         0.222         VALID
X2.2 0.652
X2.3 0.598
X2.4 0.57
X2.5 0.597
X2.6 0.596
X2.7 0.626
X2.8 0.678
X2.9 0.603
X2.10 0.572
      Motivation Y1 0.577       0.222       VALID
Y2 0.618
Y3 0.372
Y4 0.57
Y5 0.502
Y6 0.474
Y7 0.457
Y8 0.615
Y9 0.598
Y10 0.694
    Performance Z1 0.696     0.222     VALID
Z2 0.654
Z3 0.637
Z4 0.641
Z5 0.611    
Z6 0.651
Z7 0.654
Z8 0.697
  Z9 0.666    
Z10 0.6

From the table of validity test results show the value of r count for each indicator of the variables of competence, work-discipline, motivation and performance greater than the value of r table. Thus the questions for each indicator on the questionnaire used by each variable are declared valid to be used as a variable measuring instrument.

Direct Competence Influence on Performance (H1)

Regression coefficient (β) effect of competence on performance is 0.440 which shows the direction of positive influence. The value of t count (4,917)>t table (1,993) for df=74, with a significance of 0,000<sig α (0, 05). Thus, H1 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the first hypothesis: Competence has a direct effect on the performance of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is accepted.

Direct Effect of Work Discipline on Performance (H2)

Regression coefficient (β) influence of work discipline on performance by 0.191 which shows the direction of positive influence. The value of t count (2.177)>t table (1.993) for df=74, with a significance of 0.033<sig α (0.05). Thus, H2 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the second hypothesis: Work discipline has a direct effect on the performance of the Forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI received.

Direct Competence Influence on Motivation (H3)

Regression coefficient (β) effect of competence on motivation is 0.386 which shows the direction of positive influence. The value of t arithmetic (3.026)>t table (1.992) for df=75, with a significance of 0.003<sig α (0.05). Thus, H3 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the third hypothesis: Competence has a direct effect on the motivation of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is accepted.

Direct Effect of Work Discipline on Motivation (H4)

Regression coefficient (β) influence of work discipline on motivation of 0.299 which shows the direction of positive influence. The value of t count (2,343)>t table (1,992) for df=75, with a significance of 0,022<sig α (0, 05). Thus, H4 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the fourth hypothesis: Work discipline has a direct effect on the motivation of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is accepted.

Direct Effect of Motivation on Performance (H5)

Regression coefficient (β) the effect of motivation on performance is 0.355 which shows the direction of positive influence. The value of t count (4,645)>t table (1,993) for df=74, with a significance of 0,000<sig α (0, 05). Thus, H5 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the fifth hypothesis: Motivation directly influences the performance of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is accepted.

Indirect Effect of Competence on Performance with Motivation as an Intervening variable (H6)

The magnitude of the direct influence of competence on performance is 0.440, while the indirect effect through motivation is 0.137 and the total effect is 0.577. Based on these data it is known that the direct influence of competence on performance is greater than the indirect effect. From the calculation of the Sobel, test obtained Z count (2.502)>Z table (1.96) with a significance of 0.05, so that the position of motivation as an intervening/mediating variable significantly affects the relationship of competence to performance. Thus, H6 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the sixth hypothesis states that competence has an indirect effect on the performance of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI mediated by accepted motivation.

Indirect Effect of Work Discipline on Performance with Motivation as an Intervening variable (H7)

The magnitude of the direct influence of work discipline on performance is 0.191, while the indirect effect through motivation is 0.106 and the total effect is 0.297. Based on these data it is known that the direct influence of Work Discipline on Performance is greater than the indirect effect. From the calculation of the Sobel Test, the Z value is calculated (1.789)<Z table (1.96) with a significance of 0.05, so that the position of motivation as an intervening/mediating variable does not significantly affect the relationship of competence to performance. Thus, H7 is rejected and H0 is accepted, so the seventh hypothesis which states that work discipline indirectly affects the performance of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI mediated by motivation is rejected.

The Effect of Competence and Work Discipline on Motivation (H8)

The results of the F test used to test the hypothesis show the value of F count (25,463)>F table (3,112) for df1=2 and df1=74, with a significance of 0,000<sig α (0.05) Thus, H8 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the eighth hypothesis: Competence and work discipline simultaneously influence the motivation of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is accepted.

The Effect of Competence, Discipline Work and Motivation on Performance (H9)

The results of the F test used to test hypotheses show the value of F count (71.088)>F table (2.73) for df1=3 and df1=74, with a significance of 0,000<sig α (0.05). Thus, H9 is accepted and H0 is rejected, so the ninth hypothesis: Competence and motivation simultaneously affects the performance of the forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI is accepted.

Intervening/Mediation Test

In order to prove that the motivation variable (Y) is able to be the variable that mediates between competence (X1) and work discipline (X2) on performance (Z), then the direct and indirect effects of competence and work discipline on performance. To do direct and indirect calculations obtained from the value of standardized regression coefficients of each independent variable on the dependent variable and path analysis images can be made as follows (Figure 3):

Figure 3.Regression Coefficients Of Each Independent Variable On The Dependent Variable.

The magnitude of the error value for each influence of the independent variable on the dependent is obtained through the following calculations:

image

Conclusion

Based on the results of data analysis through proof of the nine hypotheses proposed in this study regarding the influence of work competence and discipline on motivation and its impact on the performance of forensic examiners for the National Police Bareskrim, it can be concluded as follows:

1. Competence has a positive and significant effect on the performance of Puslabfor Bareskrim examiners Police, proven by the value of the regression coefficient (β)=0.440 and the value of t count (4.917)>t table (1,993), with a significance of 0,000.

2. Work discipline has a positive and significant effect on the performance of the forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, proven by the value of the regression coefficient (β)=0.191 and the value of t count (2.177)>t table (1.993), with a significance of 0.033.

3. Competence has a positive and significant effect on the motivation of the forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, as evidenced by the value of the regression coefficient (β)=0.386 and the value of t count (3.026)>t table (1.992), with significance 0.003.

4. Work discipline has a positive and significant effect on the motivation of forensic examiners Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, proven by the value of the regression coefficient (β)=0.299 and the value of t count (2,343)>t table 1,992, with a significance of 0.022.

5. Motivation has a positive and significant effect on the performance of the forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, as evidenced by the value of the regression coefficient (β)=0.355 and the value of t count (4,645)>t table (1,993), with a significance of 0,000.

6. The effect of competence is directly greater than the indirect effect on the performance of forensic examiners with motivation mediation, where the value of the regression coefficient (β) for the direct influence of competence on performance is 0.440 and the value of the regression coefficient (β) for indirect effects is 0.137. In relation to competence and performance, the motivation variable has an influence as Intervening/mediation proven Z value calculated (2.502)>Z table (1.96), at a significance level of 0.05.

7. The effect of work discipline is directly greater than the indirect effect on forensic examiner performance by motivation mediation, where the value of the regression coefficient (β) for the direct influence of work discipline on performance is 0.191 and the value of the regression coefficient (β) for indirect effects is 0.106. In relation to work discipline and performance, the motivation variable does not have an effect as intervening/mediation, it is proven that the Z value is calculated (1.789)<Z table (1.96), at the significance level of 0.05.

8. Work competence and discipline simultaneously influence the motivation of forensic examiners, Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, as evidenced by the value of F count (25,463)>F table (3,112), with a significance of 0,000.

9. Competence, work discipline, and motivation simultaneously influence the performance of the forensic examiner Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI, as evidenced by the value of F count (71.088)>F table (2.73), with a significance of 0,000.

Recommendations

The limitations of the research and advice that the author can convey at the end of the writing of this thesis are as follows:

1. This study only looks at the effect of competence and work discipline on motivation and impact on forensic examiners for the National Police Bareskrim, it is suggested that the next researcher add other variables that can affect personnel performance such as job satisfaction variables, organizational climate, compensation, organizational culture, etc., in order to understand more about factors that can affect performance.

2. Motivation is also thought to be a factor causing a decline in performance. From the results of interviews with researchers and colleagues, a number of factors included the lack of attention of the leadership towards the development of personnel careers such as the absence of quota for members of the National Police who would attend further police education (Sespimma, Sespimmen and Sespimti), absence of “Reward and Punishment” compensation in the form of performance allowances that are not directly proportional to the workload and uncomfortable workspace where currently there are 156 personnel of the National Police for Bareskrim which occupy the Jakarta Regional Government Cooperative and MSME Building with a maximum capacity of 90 personnel not including laboratory equipment.

Limitations Of The Study

The limitation of this study is that the sample is limited to the object of the forensic examiner at the Puslabfor Bareskrim POLRI. This might be different if extended to forensic examiners at six branch forensic laboratories throughout Indonesia, namely Medan, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Denpasar, and Makassar. Therefore it is necessary to develop research on forensic examiners throughout branch forensic laboratories in Indonesia.

References