Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 2
Nazief Nirwanto, Merdeka University Malang
Boge Triatmanto, Merdeka University Malang
Structural Equation Modelling, Lecturer Competence, Education Organization, Private Services, Indonesian Education System.
Quality lecturer performance is needed by college institutions in the effort to improve the lecturer performance and then the lecturer should get satisfaction in work fist. Lecturer performance in implementing their function not independent, but influenced by work satisfaction, reward, skills, abilities and individual characteristics. Because of that, partner-lawyer model, individual performance basically influenced by factors: (1) Reward expectation (2) Motivation (3) Ability, needs and character (4) Perception toward task (5) Internal and external reward (6) Perception toward reward and work satisfaction (Mathis, 2000).
Soft skill is a skill that able to form strong personality to strengthen professional competence in the hard skill. The more soft skill owned the stronger personality of the lecturer. Currently, it is easy for the private college to get an institution to handle soft skills training. Soft skills training grow rapidly; recall the problem of the nation at the human resources. Soft skills are the self-ability that cannot be seen and can be ground down with learning by doing, various training or seminar or learning and doing activities with others. Basically, organizational culture in the organization is a tool to integrate each individual which do activities together.
According to Umar, compensation can be meant as something accepted by an employee as a reward for service or work. Appropriate compensation means able to fulfil the primary need of the lecturer. By giving sufficient compensation, able to give motivation to the lecturer to improve their performance. Generally, the human behaviour is behaviour which aware to goal, useful for their life. To know whether the compensation influence toward work performance and impact to the work satisfaction, has been investigated in the research especially to the lecturers of private colleges in Ambon city.
Soft Skills in the World of Education
In order to realize the ideals of the intellectual life of the nation, kemendiknas has a vision 2025 to produce Insan Indonesia Smartphone comprehensive and competitive (Insan Kamil/Insan Plenary Session). What is meant by insane Indonesia smartphone is insane that smartphone comprehensive, namely smartphone spiritual, smartphone emotional, social smartphone intellectuals and smartphone kinaesthetic. The vision is very precise in anticipation of changes in education paradigm XIX century that according to the National Education Standards Agency, one of the characteristics of the twentieth century XXI is (BSNP, 2006): Science will increasingly converge, follows the implication, especially against: Research, the philosophy of science, paradigm of education and the curriculum.
College graduates are expected to not only Master of Science, technology or art on a specific area but also controls the additional skills such as the ability to communicate effectively, the ability to think logically, the ability to learn and others. This additional capability called soft skills. As already discussed above, job requirements not only emphasize on the quality of the graduates that only emphasize the mastery of hard skills (technical ability and academic) only but also the mastery of soft skills. In the fulfilment, the business industry needs the work, of course, will result in a paradigm change (think pattern) in the learning process. Change mind-set that can meet the learning process that can produce the quality of graduates as expected by the labour market will require graduates able to grasp the meaning of the competencies in educational namely cognition, psychometric aspects and effective.
The Culture of the Organization
Many countries, to describe the concept of the culture according to The International Encyclopedia of The Social Sciences (1972) used two approaches the study of anthropology 1900-1950 period i.e., 1) Approach process pattern (process the paten theory, culture paten United States basic) 2) structural-functional approach (structural functional theory, social culture United States basic) developed by (Ndraha, 2003), both the theory is covered in the definition of culture in the broad sense given Taylor namely: That culture or the culture is a unity and the entire complex includes knowledge, trust moral arts, customs and ability and other habits that belongs to man as a member of the community. This definition and then developed further in the discipline of sociology and then widely use these words to describe the various phenomenon that occurs in the community groups or specific communities.
The term culture (culture) initially popular in the discipline of anthropology. The word Culture (culture) comes from the Latin colere means manage, working, usually associated with processing activities the land. The term culture (culture) developed into all power and human efforts to change the nature. Culture (culture) has many meaning and connotation, According To Schein (1992) that the culture must be used for the level of assumptions and the belief that more in the felt together by the members of an organization that works without realizing.
A way of the department of personnel in an effort to improve employee work motivation is through the compensation. Compensation is all things that received the employees as a reply to work. The purpose of the purpose of compensation is to help meet the needs of the employees outside the needs of a sense of justice, as well as improve employee work motivation in completing tasks that become the responsibility. For more details, the definition of compensation according to some experts among others as follows: Compensation according to Panggabean (2004) is defined as any form of the awards given to employees as a reply for contributing to services given to the organization. According to Sihotang (2007) compensation is the overall settings reply gift would have been collected basically services employees and managers whether it is financially or goods and services received by each employee.
According to Sikula quoted by Mangkunegara that:
Compensation is considered as something that is comparable. In staffing, the prize is money is the compensation given to employees in recognition of service.
Hariandja (2005) proposed that:
Compensation is the entire reply services received by employees as a result of the implementation of the work in the organization in the form of money or others who may be in the form of salary wages, bonus, incentives and the allowance of the feast, money eats money holidays and other.
Based on the understanding of the sense of above it can be concluded that compensation is a form of appreciation or reply of services provided by the company to its employees both in the form of financial and goods and services to employees felt valued in the work. Compensation is one of the implementations of the function of the MSDM caused with all kinds of gifts individual award as the exchange to organize tasks.
This research is an explanatory research which describes the relationship between variables through hypothesis testing. Research aimed at obtained about measured parameter from the item contribution and indicator per variables including soft skills, organization cultures, compensation toward work performance. Population in the research is lecturers who work at the private college in Ambon city of 170 persons. They were chosen through proportional stratified sampling. Data collected by using questionnaires with Likert scale 1-5. Data analysis by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with AMOS approach. The analysis used to answer hypothesis of the research by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) by using program AMOS 5.0.
The measurement model of soft skills latent variable, organizational culture, compensation and performance based on significance test of Regression weights (loading factors) given in Table 1.
|Table 1: Measurement Model Of Soft Skills Variable (X1)|
|Soft Skills (X1)||Personal effectiveness (X1.1)||0.750||0.000***||Yes|
|Organizational culture (X2)||Autonomy on task (X2.1)||0.769||0.000***||Yes|
|Orientation on results (X2.2)||0.829||0.000***||Yes|
|Orientation on human (X2.3)||0.792||0.000***||Yes|
|Orientation on development (X2.4)||0.692||Fix||Yes|
|Compensation (X3)||Financial compensation (X3.1)||1.000||0.000***||Yes|
|Non-financial compensation (X3.2)||0.840||Fix||Yes|
|Lecturer performance (Y)||Work quantity (Y1.1)||0.847||Fix||Yes|
|Work quality (Y1.2)||0.768||0.000***||Yes|
|Work creativity (Y1.3)||0.809||0.000||Yes|
Based on Table 1. The four indicators, that is Personal effectiveness (X1.1), flexibility (X1.2), Creativity/innovation (X1.3) and Leadership (X1.4) are significant as Soft skills (X1) measurer. From the magnitude of factor loading obtained that Creativity/innovation (X1.3) as the strongest measurer of Soft skills (X1). The four indicators that is Autonomy on task (X2.1), Orientation on results (X2.2), Orientation on human (X2.3) and Orientation on development (X2.4) are significant as measurer of Organizational culture (X2). From the magnitude of factor loading obtained that Orientation on results (X2.2) as the strongest measurer of Organizational culture (X2). Both indicators that are financial compensation (X3.1) and nonfinancial compensation (X3.2), significant as the measurers of Compensation (X3). From the magnitude of the highest factor loading obtained that financial compensation (X3.1) as the strongest measurer of Compensation (X3). The three indicators, Work quantity (Y2.1), Work quality (Y2.2) and Work creativity (Y2.3) are significant as measurers of Lecturer performance (Y2). From the magnitude of loading, factor obtained that Work quantity (Y2.1) as the strongest measurer of Lecturer performance (Y2).
Theoretical model at a conceptual framework of research can be said as fit if supported by empirical data. The test results of the goodness of fit overall model suitable for the analysis results given in Table 2:
|Table 2: Test Results Of Goodness Of Fit Model|
|Criteria||Cut-of value||Model result||Explanation|
|Chi Square||Kecil||145.377||fit model|
|p-value||≥ 0.05||0.103||fit model|
|RMSEA||≤ 0.08||0.031||fit model|
|GFI||≥ 0.90||0.915||fit model|
|TLI||≥ 0.95||0.985||fit model|
|CFI||≥ 0.95||0.988||fit model|
Test results of Goodness of Fit Overall showed that CMIN/DF, RMSEA, chi-square and p-value, GFI, TLI and CFI gave conclusion that evaluation model has appropriateness and can be accepted.
Structural model in Table 3, gave relationship among research variable through structural model coefficient concluded that there is the significant relationship between soft skills, organizational culture and compensation toward lecturer performance (p-value<0.05).
|Table 3: Structural Model|
|1||Soft skills(X1) toward Lecturer performance (Y)||0.232||0.007***||Yes|
|2||Organizational culture (X2) toward Lecturer performance (Y)||0.214||0.024*||Yes|
|3||Compensation (X3) toward Lecturer performance (Y)||0.219||0.011*||Yes|
Soft skills influence to the lecturer performance. The results mean that the increase of soft skills influences the lecturer performance increase. The finding support Astuti that soft skills positively influence lecturer performance. The empirical finding in the field according to the lecturer perception, personal effectiveness indicator with the biggest average. It showed that become effective lecturer not only demanded to master professional competence, but also have the positive personality to be accepted by learners. Competent lecturer based on empirical data has an interesting personality. Personality can be built on soft skills through self-adaptation continuously. Lecturers who have much knowledge but unable to deliver to others especially students, lack of communication skill, like the sophisticated instrument without manual. Results of research Tang (2018) show that quantitative findings indicated that teamwork and lifelong learning skills were the most important soft skills acquired by lecturers.
Based on the results and theoretical support, lecturer success or manpower in general, not only determined by hard skill such as learning achievement, technical skill and general academic potential but also influenced by soft skill, social skills and emotional skills. Combination of proportional hard skills and soft skills in a work environment will make lecturer have high achievement and liked by many persons. Improve the soft skills course helps them to progress in the future courses to fulfil the prerequisite of few courses (Ahmed et al., 2018).
Organizational culture influences to performance. The results mean that organizational culture will influence the lecturer performance improvement. The results supported by Sugeng (2012) proved that organizational culture has the positive influence on lecturer performance. Organizational culture has a strategic role in developing the human resource of Indonesia in facing the take-off era because organizational culture related to the behavioural matter of person working in the certain organization such as in college. Organizational culture in general influences the behaviour of organizational member so able to crease togetherness, either in attitude or behaviour of organizational member in reaching the organizational goals. College as an organization that a run in the education field, education man power is expected has the organizational culture that has the positive impact on the performance as part of academics.
Finding similar to Hariyati (2012) stated that organizational culture influences the lecturer performance. The results are supported by Sutrisno (2010) who defined organizational culture as the value system in the organization that determines the level how employee do activities to reach organization goal. Organizational culture as value becomes the guidance of human resources in facing the external problem and the integrative effort in the organization, so each member in the organization should understand the value in the organization and how they should behave and act.
The empirical finding showed that organizational culture has been good in private college environment in Ambon but need improvement to reach optimum organizational culture. The results according to the lecturer perception toward organizational culture in the private college environment dominantly are the orientation to results, the finding proven with the biggest loading factor at the indicator of results orientation. Where orientation on results, that is how far management focused on results than the process to reach the results. So the organizational culture is maintained and improved for the lecturer. Because with good professionalism according to the perception of lecturer toward institution will make positive organizational culture influence to the lecturer performance in servicing to the learners.
Compensation influences positively and significantly toward performance. It means that the compensation for lecturer will improve the lecturer performance. The finding strengthens the concept given by Nitisemito (2001) stated that compensation problem not only important because it is the main encouragement to be the employee, but compensation is important because has big influence to the work spirit. So each organization should able to determine appropriate compensation, able to support the reach of organization goal effectively and efficiently. Research results along with research of Sudarsono (2008) that financial compensation influence toward performance. The results suitable with the concept of Long (1998) that compensation is partial part of reward system that only relates with economic, but since the presence of the belief that individual behaviour influenced by a system in wider spectrum then compensation system cannot be separated from whole reward system given by the organization. While the reward is all thing given by the organization to fulfil the individual needs. Refer to the results of empirical finding, there is compensation influence toward lecturer performance in Ambon, it can be known from the influence magnitude of 0.214 it means the magnitude of influence compensation toward the performance of 21.40% considered as the weak influence while the remainder is influenced by another factor. The research results also supported by Maharsi (2011) stated that lecturer perception in Indonesia generally, the low performance because of low income (financial compensation). Because of that, it needs research to know what factors that felt as inhibition and support for the performance of lecturer.
Work satisfaction influences positively and significantly toward performance. It means that the higher work satisfaction of lecturer the higher lecturer performance. The finding strengthens the concept given by (Kristianto et al., 2012) that work satisfaction is a pleasuring condition or positive emotion produced by work experience of someone. While performance given by Artadi (2015) stated that performance as work results in quality and quantity can be achieved by an employee in conducting their task suitable with the given responsibility. Work satisfaction of lecturer is emotional response of positive and negative attitude which influence the feeling, thinking that love to work and will crease the lecturer performance as the lecturer ability in conducting task such as teaching, research and societal service and administrative work as expected by the foundation or rectorate (Fadli et al., 2012) Work satisfaction influence to the work results. The research results supported by Marlia (2010) stated that in relation with work satisfaction, if work satisfaction has been fulfilled, then performance will increase and able to increase the company profit, while if satisfaction is not fulfilled, then employee performance will be disturbed and impact to the difficulty to reach maximum profit suitable for target.
Based on the research done at a company showed that work satisfaction influences positively and significantly toward performance of employee in a company, it is influenced by several factors, such as salary and bonus for employee who able to finish work more than target, satisfaction toward partners and promotion given (Artadi, 2015), so the higher work satisfaction the higher performance (Simaremare, 2015).
Based on the results of research, it can be concluded that. 1) Soft skills significant and positive impact on the performance of lecturers. These results indicate that the performance should be supported with adequate soft skills where faculty performance is the performance shown by the lecturer, both in quality and quantity in performing its duties in accordance with the responsibilities given. 2.) Cultural organizations significant and positive impact on the performance of lecturers. These results indicate that a good culture of organizations working in the campus will be able to improve performance in the future lecturers 3). Compensation significant and positive impact on the performance of lecturers. Granting compensation (fringe benefits) include: As forming job satisfaction, remuneration of lecturers so as to meet the physical needs and social status.
This research has some limitations that present the possibility for future study. The sample is restricted to the private campus in Ambon. Therefore, the future could examine State campus in Indonesia; Thus, research on performance expected can be generalized in General and applies to private and State campus in Indonesia. The sample size is a bit simple. Hence, future research should be carried out using a large sample to give substantial results concerning the determinants of the performance of a lecturer. Despite these limitations, current research has major implications for performance lecturer.
The study also contributes practically to the leadership of the University and the researcher further development related to the performance of Lecturers, namely: Soft skills lecturer on a private campus in Ambon preferably soft skills is expected to impact to the quality of education, capable of transforming science to educators and with soft skills can build a personable lecturer better. This is significant considering the positive influence and soft skill on performance but weak.
The development of soft skill can be done with the training, With regard to the culture of the Organization, the need for an increase in the work behaviour of member organizations (Lecturer) in a private campus in Ambon. In a weak but significant influential statistics this is because private campuses, less developed optimally is often caused by organizational culture and leadership are less supportive of the academic, but as power factor defining a work behaviour, among others, is the culture of the organization. Because organizational culture conducive to improved performance Lecturer of aspects of leadership that is running because the role of the leader is very determining "colour" the Cultural Organization.
Compensation for lecturers need to be present with the granting of compensation in a fair and equitable will have an impact on the performance of a lecturer. The granting of compensation. With the compensation for Professors in a fair and equitable is no feedback on the policies that have been taken by the leadership of the University. The results of this research are expected to spur on-going research aims to investigate the determinants of the performance of lecturers.
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