Research Article: 2022 Vol: 26 Issue: 4
Nayma Iftakhar, International University of Business Agriculture & Technology
Citation Information: Iftakhar, N. (2022). The influence of affective commitment on job-hopping behaviour among private sector employees in bangladesh?. Journal of Organizational Culture Communication and Conflict, 26(4), 1-6.
The goal of this study is to explore how job satisfaction and affective commitment affect jobhopping behaviour, as well as what role affective commitment plays in mediating the effects of job satisfaction on job-hopping behaviour. There were 89 samples from various private organizations in Bangladesh. The PLS (Partial Least Square) analysis was used in this research. As a consequence, job satisfaction influenced affective commitment in a positive and significant way. Job satisfaction influenced job-hopping behaviour in a negative and significant way. Job-hopping behaviour was also revealed to be influenced by affective commitment in a negative and significant way. Affective commitment was also found to partially mediate the impact of job satisfaction on job-hopping behaviour. The implications of these findings are that private companies should adopt performance-based promotion and yearly increment to improve job satisfaction, and they should approach employees' emotional attachment through leadership style to control the job-hopping behaviour
Job Hopping Behaviour, Affective Commitment, Job Satisfaction, Leadership, Private Sector, Bangladesh.
In order to achieve both short- and long-term organizational goals, human resources are the most crucial asset in an organization. Those organizational objectives could be met if employees work hard, are dedicated, and are willing to try new things in order to advance their careers. However some employees are unable to commit themselves to the organization for a long period of time. They switch jobs for a variety of reasons, one of which is that they find better opportunities elsewhere. Job-hopping has been a phenomenon since the beginning of the industrial period. According to Pranaya (2014), Job-hopping is a pattern of employees leaving their present job every one or two years on their own preference, rather than because they were fired.
In the field of organizational behaviour, job satisfaction and affective commitment are two commonly studied variables. Job satisfaction is described as an individual's level of satisfaction with his or her job, as well as whether or not they enjoy it (Azeem, 2010). On the other hand, affective commitment differs from normative and continuous commitment. Affective commitment leads to emotional attachment and relationships with the organization and this emotional attachment can motivate employees to work hard and achieve greater results (Azeem, 2010). They believe that working for the organization is crucial and that their success will be aided by their efforts. Employees will have a higher level of affective commitment if their satisfaction is valued by the organization.
Certain number of studies shows that job dissatisfaction, lack of commitment, workplace stress, increasing working hours, and a lack of employee-friendly policies, are a few reasons leading to job switchover. If employees in developing countries are satisfied with their current job, they will not leave job or job-hop. The majority of Bangladeshi private organizations struggle to retain employees because they are unable to identify the factors that influence employee satisfaction and commitment (Akther, 2017).
According to the above statement, job-hopping is a major concern since it can lead to labor market instability and will place a direct financial strain on the company because it will have to hire and educate new employees. The purpose of this study is to find out how affective commitment plays a role in mediating the association between job satisfaction and job hopping. However, very few studies have explored the impact of affective commitment on job hopping behavior.
Job hopping is defined as someone who moves from one job to another for no valid or logical reason, regardless of whether or not they are employed (Pranaya, 2014)). Few employees have a practice known as job hopping, which may be identified by the number of times they leave a position throughout the course of their working time. According to Kafeel (2015) individuals change employment for personal desire and for amusement. The second category refers to a work environment in which people are pressured to change jobs by their peers. Staying in a job for a long time appears to be a sign of incompetence, and employees may change occupations if they are pressured by their coworkers to do so. Branham (2005) highlights the reasons for job hopping in his book "The Seven Hidden Reasons Employees Leave": i) the job or workplace does not meet one's expectations, ii) mismatch between the job and the person, iii) insufficient coaching or feedback from supervisors to employees, iv) a lack of career advancement growth or opportunities, v) job stress from overwork and work-life balance, vi) unrecognized work performance or feeling undervalued, including pay, and vii) a loss of trust and confidence in senior leaders. The talent pool has been moving from job either voluntarily or involuntarily. In the light of the current global economic catastrophe, involuntary job hopping is identified as retrenched employees, which contributes to job hopping (Bansal, 2014). Voluntary movers or job hoppers move mostly for financial reasons, such as pay raises, and those who desire to boost their self-esteem. According to Pittinsky & Shih (2004), "knowledge Nomads" is individuals who need to improve their understanding of new technologies and gain worldwide exposure, as well as those who are rising faster in their company.
Hoppock (1935) coined the word to describe, a set of psychological, physical, and environmental factors that lead to a person saying, "I am satisfied with my job". One of the most widely accepted definitions of job satisfaction is provided by Locke (1976), who describes it as a good emotional feeling resulting from one's judgment of his or her job or work experience by comparing what one anticipates from his or her employment to what one actually receives. According to Singh and Dubey (2011), job satisfaction refers to an employee's feelings and attitudes about his or her job, as well as those components of that job that contribute to the formation of such feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Given that there are five important characteristics of job satisfaction, namely pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers and work itself (Smith et al., 1969; Locke, 1976).
Meyer & Allen (1991) defined it as “The employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization” (67). According to Jaros (2007), affective commitment reflects commitment based on emotional ties the employee develops with the organization primarily through positive work experiences. According to Mathieu (1991), affective commitment is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals and values, a willingness to put considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and a strong desire to remain a member of the organization. Affective commitment was described by Patrick & Sonia (2012) as an employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization. According to Meyer & Allen (1991), this is a psychological link between the employees and the organization to which they are attached. Fu et al. (2007) concluded that affective commitment is based on individual values, which in this study corresponds to management values. Based on the theoretical assessment, it can be determined that someone with a high level of affective commitment will identify with the company's goals, mission, and vision and want to be a part of it.
According to Farris (2012), there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and commitment. According to Meyer & Allen, affective commitment has the highest association with job satisfaction and organizational achievement from the three types of commitment. According to Christian & Herman (2016), Job satisfaction is an employee's general attitude about his or her job. According to Huak et al. (2015), there is a link between job satisfaction, commitment, and employee changes job. Odom et al. (1990) discovered that job satisfaction and affective commitment have a significant relationship. According to Patrick and Sonia (2012), it is important to meet employees' demand in order to increase their satisfaction and commitment. Employees who are motivated are satisfied in their jobs and are affectively committed.
According to Kafeel & Alvi (2015), employees started job hopping because they were dissatisfied with their current positions. Job satisfaction research can assist an organization in identifying the elements that contribute to job switchover as well as conveying and contributing to the intention to leave. According to Trombetti (2015), millennials, or generation Y, who are rapidly taking over the workforce, shift employment frequently due to dissatisfaction with present salary and fringe benefits, as well as a desire for work-life balance and the availability of alternative jobs. According to a study by Masood et al. (2014), teachers with a high level of job satisfaction are less likely to change jobs. According to Kellman (2015), talented people, demand certain motivators, such as a strong relationship with decision-makers, job autonomy, a balance between work and life, challenging jobs, and fair compensation.
H1: Job satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on affective commitment.
H2: Job satisfaction has a negative and significant effect on job hopping.
H3: Affective commitment has a negative and significant effect on job hopping
This study was designed utilizing descriptive type of research, which uses hypothesis testing to explain a link between variables. Employees from various organizations in Bangladesh who work in the private sector were interviewed to conduct this study. Job satisfaction, affective commitment, and job hopping are among the topics investigated in this study. The survey was mostly performed through sending questionnaires over the internet in order to acquire required data in a timely manner. A total of 100 participants from various private organizations in Bangladesh completed the survey; after removing observations with missing data, the final sample had 89 observations were used as study data. There were 24.7 percent females and 75.3 percent males in the sample. The respondent fills out the survey based on his or her current work situation and job satisfaction. The technique used to analyze this research is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on variance SEM, known as Partial Least Square (PLS).
PLS analysis tool was used to investigate the results of empirical research model. Job satisfaction has a direct effect on affective commitment with a correlation coefficient of 0,748 where t-statistics value (8,767) is greater than t-critical value (1.96), with a correlation coefficient of – 0,371 also t-statistics value (2,825) is greater than t-critical value (1.96), it can be said that job satisfaction has a direct impact on job-hopping behaviour, and with a correlation coefficient of -0,597 and where t-statistic value (4,527) is greater than t-critical value (1.96), affective commitment has a direct effect on job-hopping behaviour. According to the result of research, the variables of job satisfaction and affective commitment determine the level of job-hopping behaviour inside a company. PLS was used to do hypothesis testing based on the criteria of the mediation test. Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on affective commitment, where t-statistics value (8,767) is greater than t-critical value (1.96), affective commitment has a negative and significant impact on job-hopping behaviour, where t-statistics value (4,527) is greater than t-critical value (1.96), and Job satisfaction has a negative and significant direct effect on job-hopping behaviour, also t-statistics value (2,825) is greater than t-critical value (1.96). It can be stated that affective commitment serves as a partial mediator between job satisfaction and job-hopping behavior (Pivi & Hassan, 2015; Selvanathan et al., 2019).
Job satisfaction is the independent variable in this study. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was used to assess job satisfaction. It measures five characteristics of a job: pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers, and the work itself (Smith et al., 1969). Respondents were asked to identify whether a word or phrase that described a specific feature of their job was suitable. Each facet's score was determined by allocating 3 points for True, 1 point for Unsure, and 0 points for False. Many employees have accepted the Cornell Job Descriptive Index (Cornell JDI) as a well-designed tool for determining job satisfaction (Smith et al., 1969; Mowday et al., 2013). According to Poon & Ainuddin (1990), The JDI has been proved to be a reliable and valid measure of job satisfaction. Salary is a significant factor for private sector employee’s job satisfaction according to this study. The results of this study also reveal that job satisfaction is influenced by promotions and benefits, where the employee receiving unsatisfactory promotions and benefits in most of the private organization (Robbins, 2003).
On the other hand, claimed that three indicators of affective commitment were used to measure affective commitment: "The employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization." 18 questions were asked, each with a five-point Likert scale (Meyer & Allen, 1991). For analysis, four items were negatively phrased and had to be reverse-coded. To arrive at a summary indicator of an employee's three dimensions of affective commitment, the results for each component were added together and divided by six. Organizational identity takes priority over affective commitment in this study. Employees in the private sector describe themselves as members of the organization, and they feel a feeling of belonging to it, its values, brand, and procedures, among other things. The results of this study also reveal that employees find it easy to leave the organization, according to this survey, because emotional attachment has the lowest value in the private organization.
According to the findings of the research and discussion, job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on affective commitment, which means that as job satisfaction is perceived by private sector employees, affective commitment is increased, and employees feel more compelled to stay in the workplace. Job satisfaction has a negative and significant impact on job-hopping behaviour, meaning that the higher the employee satisfaction, the less likely they are to leave the organization. Affective commitment has a negative and significant impact on job-hopping behaviour, implying that employees who have a positive attitude toward their job are less likely to want to leave.
To boost employee satisfaction, the private sector should offer performance-based promotion and yearly increment (Peacock et al., 2020). When management promotes an individual based on their performance rather than their seniority, known as performance-based promotion. An employee who has been performing really well for a year but has only been with the company for five years would be promoted under this strategy. This strategy can motivate employees to work hard in order to win promotions which may contribute to achieving the goal of organization. A performance-based promotion system may reward hardworking employees, more appealing to make highly qualified and ambitious individuals, encourage employee creativity, increase productivity among all employees seeking promotions, and reward those who have a talent for their job (Gerrish, 2015).
In order to increase affective commitment, the organization should increase employee emotional attachment. Examine whether the employee's view of their leader's style influences their perception of the company. A perception of compatibility can be created when a leader's style matches that of their subordinates. Some employees form emotional attachments to their leader if they believe they are given adequate support. Employee perceptions of organizational support are also important in the development of emotional attachment.
As a result, private companies should adopt performance-based promotion and yearly increment to improve job satisfaction, and they should approach employees' emotional attachment through leadership style to control the job-hopping behaviour. So, it has been proven that affective commitment mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and the job-hopping behaviour.
Akther, S., Akter, S., & Uddin, M.D. (2017). Factors influencing job stress in privatized banks of bangladesh. Global Management Review, 11(1).
Azeem, S.M. (2010). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the sultanate of Oman. Psychology, 1(4), 295-300.
Bansal, G. (2014). Job hopping–Issues and challenges in a dynamic environment: An empirical study. Gian Jyoti E-journal, 4(2).
Branham, L. (2005). The 7 hidden reasons employees leave. American Management, New.
Farris, J.R. (2012). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A quantitative investigation of the relationships between affective, continuance, and normative constructs (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).
Fu, F.Q., Bolander, W., & Jones, E. (2009). Managing the drivers of organizational commitment and salesperson effort: An application of Meyer and Allen's three-component model. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17(4), 335-350.
Gerrish, E. (2016). The impact of performance management on performance in public organizations: A meta-analysis. Public Administration Review, 76(1), 48-66.
Hoppock, R. (1935). Job satisfaction. Harper.
Jaros, S. (2007). Meyer and allen model of organizational commitment: Measurement issues. The Icfai Journal of Organizational Behavior, 6(4), 7-25.
Kafeel, N., & Alvi, A.K. (2015). What Play Significant Role in Increasing Turnover Intention: Job Hopping or Perceived Organizational Politics?. Science international journal. (Lahore), 27(5).
Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In: dunnette, M.D., Ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 1297-1343.
Masood, A., Aslam, R., & Rizwan, M. (2014). Factors affecting employee satisfaction of the public and private sector organizations of Pakistan. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 4(2), 97.
Mathieu, J.E. (1991). A cross-level nonrecursive model of the antecedents of organizational commitment and satisfaction. Journal of applied psychology, 76(5), 607.
Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.
Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W., & Steers, R.M. (2013). Employee organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. Academic press.
Odom, R.Y., Boxx, W.R., & Dunn, M.G. (1990). Organizational cultures, commitment, Patrick, Harold Andrew and Sonia, Jasmine, Job Satisfaction and Affective Commitment (September 18, 2012). The IUP Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 11(1), 23-36.
Peacock, M., Stewart, E.B., & Belcourt, M. (2020). Managing employee performance. In Understanding human resources management: A Canadian perspective. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Pittinsky, T.L., & Shih, M.J. (2004). Knowledge nomads: Organizational commitment and worker mobility in positive perspective. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6), 791-807.
Pivi, F.G., & Hassan, Z. (2015). The impact of organizational citizenship behaviour on employee’s job satisfaction, commitment and turnover intention in dining restaurants malaysia. Journal Accounting Business and Management, 3, 108-125.
Poon, M.L. & Ainuddin, A.R.O. (1990). Relationships between perceived organisational climate and job satisfaction and performance. Malaysian Management Review, 25(1).
Pranaya, D. (2014). Job-hopping an analytical review. Impact: International Journal of Research in Business Management (Impact: Ijrbm), 2(4).
Robbins. (2003). Management. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Education satisfaction, and cohesion. Public Productivity & Management Review, 157-169.
Selvanathan, M., Buga, M. M., Arumugam, T. H., Supramaniam, M., & Jayabalan, N. (2019). Determinants of job hopping factors among lecturers in private universities, malaysia. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(6), 234-242.
Singh, A.P., & Kumar 6 Dubey, A. (2011). Role of stress and locus of control in Job satisfaction among middle managers. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(1).
Smith, P.C. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: A strategy for the study of attitudes.
Received: 20-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JOCCC-22- 12203; Editor assigned: 21-Jun-2022, PreQC No. JOCCC-22- 12203(PQ); Reviewed: 04-Jul-2022, QC No. JOCCC-22-12203; Revised: 7-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. JOCCC-22-12203(R); Published: 13-Jul-2022