Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 4
Fibria Indriati, Universitas Indonesia
Setyo Hermawan, Universitas Indonesia
The aim of this study is to examine the role of engagement as mediating variable on the influence of job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership toward employee performance. The quantitative approach was applied in this study. The respondents of this study are investigators of the Criminal Investigation Department Denpasar City Police. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires to 220 respondents. Data processing was performed using the SEM approach using the Partial Least Square (PLS-SEM) method. The result shows job characteristics, extrinsic compensation and authentic leadership influence performance mediated by engagement significantly.
Authentic Leadership, Engagement, Job Characteristic, Extrinsic Compensation, Performance, Organizational Behavior.
Good quality human resources can maintain organizational performance at a good level too. Thus, this makes public and private sector organizations equally need qualified human resources in providing services according to their respective fields. On the other hand, organizational performance is also a reflection of the performance of its employees. If there are high-quality performances of employees, the performance of the organization is also high quality. The high quality of performance and consistency of an employee can ensure consistency if the employee has engaged (Anintha, 2014; Sanneh & Taj, 2015). So it can be seen that performance is one of engagement’s output.
Employee engagement with both work and the organization is very important in maintaining organizational performance. On the contrary, disengagement is also a crucial problem for employees who can be shown as a lack of commitment and motivation at work (Saks, 2006). Employees disengaged will tend to make rejection that can make performance not optimal by causing relationship gaps, being passive and avoidance (Kahn, 1990). So it becomes important for organizations to know the level of their employee's engagement. If employee engagement is already high, it will also positively impact organizational performance, and if employee engagement is low, it will also harm organizational performance (Anintha, 2014; Sanneh & Taj, 2015). Various factors influence employee engagement, three of which are job characteristics, extrinsic compensation and authentic leaders (Agarwal & Gupta, 2018; Hoque et al., 2018; Anintha, 2014; McAuliffe et al., 2019; Oh et al., 2018; Saks, 2006; Sanneh & Taj, 2015).
The Indonesian National Police (INP), as a public organization with investigative services, requires high-performing investigators. This high performance can be achieved if the investigators already have a high engagement. The condition is related to the problems that currently arise related to the performance of INP in conducting investigations. INP's performance is still considered unsatisfactory by the public. The delay in the investigation process, investigators who have not professional, until there is an indication of corruption in the investigation process becomes a problem that must be addressed immediately.
Seeing the relationship between engagement and performance, then to reach the optimal performance point, investigators at Denpasar City Police should also have a high engagement. However, referring to the available data, it seems more directed at the level that supports less optimal performance. Less optimal performance can be seen from several violations, both discipline and code of ethics committed by the investigators. In 2018 there were 12 (twelve) reports of violations handled by the Internal Security Section of Denpasar City Police. The high turnover of investigators also exacerbated this. Still, in 2018, according to the Administration Section of Criminal Investigation Department of Denpasar City Police, in 2018, there was only 21 (twenty-one) personnel who had left the department function. On the other hand, the existing turns over and violation also show the investigators' low level of commitment and motivation.
The low commitment and motivation of investigators also have another impact. Public complaints about the handling of cases by Denpasar City Police’s investigators prove that they cannot work professionally. From 2014 to 2018, there were 94 complaints related to the handling of existing cases. Unprofessional investigators in handling cases raise doubts over the competencies they should have. Not without reason, various types of cases that enter require different handling as well. So, investigators are needed with competency standards established by law to handle various incoming cases.
On the other hand, investigators who have worked hard to deal with these types of cases have not received appropriate and appropriate compensation. When compared with members of the INP who are not investigators, the take-home pay they receive will be the same. The difference is the rank, service period, and position held as regulated in the ruled. Provision of compensation that has not been adjusted to the challenges, risks, and workload makes it difficult for investigators to motivate themselves to work well.
The difficulty of investigators in getting optimal performance certainly requires a leader who can foster enthusiasm, trust and work motivation. The investigators need a leader who can be a role model in working well, being a consultant in every problem, having good moral integrity, and accommodating suggestions. So that members will feel comfortable working despite various problems. According to one Investigator, the leadership of the Denpasar City Police Chief was able to create a comfortable working atmosphere and foster trust between the two so that they were able to work their best.
Problems that have described should be able to be addressed by investigators to keep working as well as possible. For this reason, this research focuses on investigators' engagement which will influence their performance with job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership as the contributing factors. These variables are chosen with consideration of various previous studies that can prove the existence of a positive and significant effect to create optimal performance.
Performance is behavior or something done by an employee, not about what results from the employee's performance. Performance has two dimensions, task performance and contextual performance (Aguinis, 2009). The INP Performance Management System (SMK) also provides a similar definition, the work achieved by each INP member in work units / functional units / regional units according to generic and specific factors. Generic factors are indicators of individual performance appraisal, including PKA (member work behavior) assessment, increasing the value of rewards, and reducing punishment by members of the National Police. Specific factors are indicators of individual performance appraisal, which include work contracts and additional tasks. Kasmir (2016) states that a person's performance is influenced by various factors, including a) ability and expertise; b) knowledge; c) work design; d) personality; e) work motivation; f) leadership; g) leadership style; h) organizational culture; i) job satisfaction; j) work environment; k) loyalty; l) commitment; m) work discipline. This study uses performance measurements proposed by (Aguinis, 2009), which are according to the concept of performance used by the INP.
Engagement refers to an understanding of employee motivation and performance in an organization. This is due to requests from managers for solutions regarding problems that arise related to motivation and performance (Little & Little, 2006). Engagement is a unique and different construction consisting of cognitive, emotional and behavioral components associated with individual performance models. Furthermore, engagement can be divided into several related constructs, specifically organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job involvement (Saks, 2006). Engagement is also a positive attitude, full of meaning and motivation divided into three aspects: vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2006). The study chose the definition of engagement from Schaufeli et al. (2006) which was considered the most appropriate condition for the locus and object of the study. In addition, the measurement of engagement also uses the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), which was also developed by Schaufeli et al. (2006).
Robinson et al. (2004); Saks (2006); United States Merit Protection Board (2009); Sanneh & Taj (2015) more clearly states several factors that influence engagement, including Job Characteristics; Perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support; Rewards and recognition; Procedural justice and distributional justice; Work Environment; Leadership; Team and coworker relationship; Training and career development; Organizational policies, structural and practice. While the factors influenced by engagement (Saks, 2006; Anintha, 2014; Sanneh & Taj, 2015) include: Job satisfaction; Organizational commitment; Intention to quit; Organizational citizenship behavior; Work performance. Schaufeli et al. (2006) conveyed the measurement of engagement using UWES (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale). There are three dimensions of engagement, including Vigor; Dedication; Absorption. This study uses a measurement model from UWES with consideration of the suitability of the measurement model with the conditions of the research subjects.
Job Characteristic is a theory that can determine the conditions of a task where individuals are expected to succeed in their work (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Psychological value obtained from varied and challenging work characteristics can encourage users to use different skills and opportunities to contribute to work (Kahn, 1990). Job Characteristic is an approach that emphasizes the importance of compatibility between the character of a job and the character of the job performer. When a match is formed, the job characteristics can predict the desired results by the organization and employees (Kulik et al., 1987). Specifically, the job characteristic model is a reference used in enriching some aspects of a job which is an effective way to change the psychological state of employees to increase the effectiveness of their work (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). The following is a job characteristic model presented by Hackman & Oldham (1976) in his research.
Hackman & Oldham (1976); Agarwal & Gupta (2018) in their research model states that several outcomes are influenced by job characteristics, including Internal work motivation; Quality work performance; Satisfaction with the work; Absenteeism, and turnover; Engagement. Job Characteristic measurement uses Job Characteristics Model (JCM), according to Hackman & Oldham (1976), which has five dimensions: Skill Variety; Task identity; Task Significance; Autonomy; Feedback from the job.
Martocchio divides compensation into two, intrinsic compensation and extrinsic compensation. Intrinsic compensation reflects the psychological mindset of employees for the resulting performance. While extrinsic compensation refers to monetary and non-monetary compensation (Martocchio, 2004). Monetary compensation represents core compensation which includes: basic salary, seniority wages, service wages, incentives, wages for knowledge plans and wages based on employee skills and benefits. While non-monetary compensation includes protection programs (such as health insurance), leave rights and services (such as health services). Extrinsic compensation is used to satisfy basic needs for survival and security, while intrinsic compensation is more helpful in fulfilling higher-level needs (Long & Singh, 1998). Thus, extrinsic compensation is used as compensation used to meet basic needs will be a priority to be met first. This study chose the definition of extrinsic compensation from Martocchio (2004), which states that extrinsic compensation is a core element of compensation. Several variables related to compensation in managing human resources (Kasmir, 2016; Saks, 2006; Indriyani, 2017; Hoque et al., 2018). The following are some of the variables affected by compensation: Work motivation; Work atmosphere; Commitment; Job satisfaction; Performance; Employee Turnover; Engagement. Martocchio (2004) explains that extrinsic compensation is divided into two forms: monetary compensation and non-monetary compensation. Monetary compensation then has 6 (six) elements which are the core of compensation, including a) Base Pay (hourly pay or wages or as salary); b) Cost of Living Adjustments (COLA); c) Seniority Pay; d) Merit Pay; e) Incentive Pay; and f) Pay for Knowledge Plans and Skill-Based Pay. Whereas non-monetary compensation consists of protection programs (health insurance) leave rights and other services (health services).
Authentic leaders have a unique way of leading developed through experience, learning, consultation, self-introspection, and consistency with values , character, and personality (Bass, 2003). They are honest with themselves and what they believe in, foster trust and develop sincere relationships with others, motivate others to achieve high levels of performance based on this trust (George & Sims, 2007). Avolio et al. (2004) state that authentic leadership is leadership that realizes how to think and behave and is felt by others as self-aware and others; have moral values/perspectives, knowledge, and strengths; aware of the context in which they operate; and have confidence, hope, optimism, resilience, and high moral character (Avolio et al., 2004). Researchers chose the definition presented by Avolio et al. (2004) as the definition of authentic leadership in this study.
Gardner et al. (2011); Oh et al. (2018) and McAuliffe et al. (2019) state that authentic leadership can influence several variables, including a) personal & social/organizational identification; b) positive leader modeling; c) trust in leadership; d) follower job satisfaction; e) organizational commitment by followers; f) follower work engagement; g) follower job performance; h) leader and follower well-being, and i) follower withdrawal behavior. There are 4 (four) dimensions of authentic leadership known as the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) developed by Walumbwa et al. (2008), namely: Self-Awareness; Relational Transparency; Internalized Moral Perspective; Balanced Processing.
The relationship between job characteristics and engagement is explained in several studies conducted by Kahn (1990), which state that a meaningful psychological condition can be obtained from job characteristics that provide a challenging, varied job, allowed to use various skills, personal discrete. There is an opportunity to be able to contribute. Saks's (2006) research also places job characteristics as an antecedent of engagement. Hackman & Oldham (1976) states that redesigning jobs such as job enrichment can enhance an organization's work experience. Agarwal & Gupta (2018) also stated that job characteristics can influence engagement in the results of their research.
H1 Job characteristics significantly influence engagement
In several studies linking compensation and engagement, Kahn (1990) states that individuals have different levels of engagement as a function of their perceptions of the benefits they receive from their roles. Saks (2006) also places reward and recognition as antecedents of engagement. At the same time, the research conducted by Indriyani (2017) and Hoque et al. (2018) states that compensation has a positive correlation with employee engagement.
H2 Extrinsic compensation significantly influences engagement
Authentic leadership provides an understanding that a leader is a direct example for employees. A positive relationship between leaders and employees will be able to create trust between the two parties. So that trust will motivate to display high performance, which will ultimately create engagement. Authentic leaders can influence follower engagement (Gardner et al., 2011). The same thing was also found in the research results conducted by Oh et al. (2018) and McAuliffe et al. (2019), which showed that authentic leadership provides a positive correlation with employee engagement.
H3 Authentic leadership has a significant effect on engagement
The organization expects optimal performance to achieve organizational goals that have been previously determined. One effort that an organization can do to improve employee performance is to increase the engagement that exists for these employees (Saks, 2006). Employees' engagement will encourage commitment and motivation to increase work and organization in achieving high-level performance (Armstrong, 2016). The results of research conducted by Anitha (2014); Sanneh & Taj (2015) and Rich et al. (2010) also showed a positive and significant correlation between employee performance and engagement.
H4 Engagement has a significant effect on performance
Research conducted by Anitha (2014) and Sanneh & Taj (2015) shows a correlation between compensation and leadership with positive and significant employee performance with engagement as a mediator variable. Then Hackman & Oldham (1976); Agarwal & Gupta (2018) mentioned the output of job characteristics, including internal work motivation, quality work performance, satisfaction with the work, absenteeism, and turnover & engagement.
H5 Engagement becomes the mediator of the influence between job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership on performance
This study was conducted to determine the effect of engagement on moderating job characteristics, extrinsic compensation and authentic leadership on the performance of Criminal Investigation Department investigators of Denpasar City Police. The research used quantitative approach, which tests specific theories by examining the relationships between variables using research instruments. Research results can be analyzed based on statistical procedures (Cooper & Schindler, 2014).
Primary data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to respondents, while secondary data were obtained through literature and document studies and interviews. The study population was all Criminal Investigation Department investigators of Denpasar City Police with 220. Total sampling was applied to minimize the error rate in data collection. The scale used is a Likert scale with 1-6 range.
Data was analyzing by using factor analysis with the intention of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The approach used is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the Partial Least Square (PLS-SEM) method. SEM is chosen with consideration of the relationship between variables that occur simultaneously.
Reliability and Validity Test
Data processing results have shown that each variable meets the reliability and validity test as listed in the Table 1 below. Alpha Cronbach value, Composite Reliability, and extracted average variant (AVE) have fulfilled the minimum data eligibility requirements. Thus, the research data is feasible to be re-processed using the bootstrapping method in the SMART-PLS application to test the research hypothesis.
|Table 1 The Result of Reliability and Validity Test|
|Variable||Cronbach’s Alpha||Composite Reliability||AVE|
The Effect of Job Characteristics on Engagement
Data processing results show that the t-statistic value (3,400784) more than the t-table (1.96) rejects Ho and accepts H1. Influences were recorded at 0.338133 and positive. This means that this study provides a positive and significant influence of job characteristics on the engagement of investigators. Respondent’s opinions who are investigators of the INP said that their job has different variations, both from the work unit and the case being handled. Job characteristics can lead to different enthusiasm between investigators following their respective perceptions and it also makes a difference between Investigator' engagements with job characteristics.
The findings in this study are in line with previous studies where job characteristics can influence engagement (Saks, 2006; Agarwal & Gupta, 2018). Jobs that provide challenges for workers will make these workers more closely bound to their work. Variations in conducting investigations make investigators more enthusiastic in completing their work. They cannot be independent in conducting investigations because they have bound by the procedures and binding legal rules in carrying out the activities of each of their jobs. It was due to the legal impact of their work, both on the reporter, witness and suspect and the evidence in each case.
The Effect of Extrinsic Compensation on Engagement
Data processing results indicate that the t-statistic value (4.159873) more than the t-table (1.96) rejects Ho and accepts H2. Influences were recorded at 0.315101 and positive. This means that this study provides a positive and significant influence of extrinsic compensation on engagement. It can be seen from the motivation of the investigators in doing work every day. Even though most of their perceptions regarding take-home pay are still not appropriate, there is already a match between what they expect and what they get in some indicators. As in cost of living adjustments (COLA), seniority pay, merit pay, and protection programs obtained such as work insurance and health insurance. In addition, the right to leave that can be used also provides a positive perspective from investigators. They will often use this right to attend the religious ceremony (in accordance with the majority religion in Bali).
Respondents' perceptions reflect that the compensation they expect from work is not only seen from the take-home pay they receive. Salary adjustments and the ease of using leave rights and protection programs have provided a good perception of the compensation they receive, especially extrinsic compensation in accordance with the theory proposed by Marthocchio (2004). On the other hand, there is still intrinsic compensation which indirectly also provides a different perception of the investigators and auxiliary investigators of the criminal detective function at the Denpasar City Police. So that it can give effect to the engagement that the investigators own.
The Effect of Authentic Leadership on Engagement
Data processing results show that the t-statistic value (2.574333) more than the t-table (1.96) rejects Ho and accepts H3. Influences were recorded at 0.233732 and were positive. This means that this study provides that there is an authentic leadership influence on Investigator's engagement. From the results of the data processing, it can be seen that the perceptions of investigators towards the leadership of the Chief of Denpasar City Police have an impact on the engagement they have. Relationships that are well established between superiors and subordinates will generate trust on both sides. Each party will be able to understand and understand the capacity and ability to handle a case. So as subordinates, investigators and assistant investigators will be easier to communicate regarding handling a case. In addition, the figure of a leader is a role model for its members, especially with a structured organization with a clear hierarchical level and command. The leader's example is one of the essential factors in how the organization runs.
The Effect of Engagement on Performance
Data processing results show that the t-statistic value (11.179425) moe than the t-table (1.96), rejecting Ho and accepting H3. This means that this study provides that there is an influence of engagement on the performance of investigators. Influences were recorded at 0.662869 and were positive. Research related to the influence of engagement on performance has provided many results with positive and significant influences. Engagement provides encouragement from within the Investigator in showing the best performance consistently. Referring to the results of the above research, the performance of investigators is also influenced by the engagement they have. This engagement will encourage investigators' commitment and motivation to work and have impact on the organization in achieving maximum results (Armstrong, 2010). So that efforts to increase the engagement of investigators directly will also be able to improve their performance.
Engagement as a Mediator on the Effect of Job Characteristics, Extrinsic Compensation and Authentic Leadership toward Employee Performance
The results showed (Table 2) that the t-statistic value of each antecedent (job characteristic, 3.538042; extrinsic compensation, 3.766264; authentic leadership 2.218972) is more than the t-table (1.96). The value means that this study provides that engagement can mediate the relationship between antecedents and consequences, rejecting Ho and receiving Ha. The influences recorded were 0.224138, 0.208871, and 0.154933 and are positive. Thus it can be interpreted that job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership indirectly have a positive and significant influence on the performance of investigators. Every increase in each of the job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership variables will indirectly improve the investigators' performance.
|Table 2 Hypothesis Test Result|
|Hypothesis||Hypothesis||Path Coefficient||T-Statistic||Test Result||Degree of Influence|
|H1||JC → E||0.33813||3.40078||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
|H2||EC →E||0.3151||4.15987||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
|H3||AL →E||0.23373||2.57433||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
|H4||E → K||0.66287||11.1794||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
|H5||JC → E → K||0.22414||3.53804||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
|H6||EC → E →K||0.20887||3.76626||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
|H7||AL → E → K||0.15493||2.21897||Ho rejected||Positive and significant|
This research focuses on increasing the Investigator's engagement to emerge commitment and motivation to get their best performance. Researchers chose job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership as measured variables to be more specific. This is done by looking at several previous studies that have proven the influence of characteristic variables, extrinsic compensation and authentic leadership with performance and engagement.
Efforts to improve performance through increased engagement, as discussed above, show that investigators still have the potential to develop for better performance. It can be managed by looking at the influence of job characteristics, extrinsic compensation¸, and authentic leadership variables, all of which positively and significantly influence investigators' engagement. This is reinforced by the more significant influence of the engagement variable on the performance of the investigators. The engagement has an influence of 66.28% on performance. It was a significant influence in improving the performance of investigators. It has become the right step if the INP if wants to improve the performance of its investigators. One of the steps that can be taken is to increase the investigators' engagement first. Following this research topic, the increase in engagement can be done through several variables that are also proven to have a positive and significant influence on the engagement itself (directly) and on performance (indirectly).
The results show that job characteristics had a positive influence on the involvement of investigators. Every positive change in job characteristics will also give positive changes to the involvement of investigators. Conversely, if there is a negative change in job characteristics, it will also have a negative impact on the Investigator's engagement. The change in policy related to the case handling process will be related to the change in job characteristics of the Investigator. The average mean value of the job characteristic variables in the high category shows that the investigators' perception is actually good for their work. But there is one indicator that has a different value, namely the indicator of work that can be done independently without the help of others. Based on the process, handling cases from the investigation stage to handing over the case to the prosecutor (P21), investigators cannot do it alone. Collaboration between the investigation team in handling a case is needed. In addition, investigators must also coordinate with the external institution, such as the attorney general's office, related institutions for corruption cases, and expert witnesses who need information related to their expertise. It is implicated in the issuance of an investigation warrant. The Investigator will be joined in a team with several other investigators who will handle the case.
Aside from not being carried out independently, the case handling process also has a boring indication for investigators. This can be seen from the failure of indicators that measure the level of boredom of investigators at the pre-test stage. It gives a sign that the investigators already feel bored with the routine work. This can also be seen from the number of years of work of investigators who have worked for more than 20 years. Then the results of handling cases that do not affect coworkers are also indicators that fail to pass the pre-test stage. So there are also indications related to the handling of cases an educator will not impact his colleagues. This certainly makes the work atmosphere less conducive wherefrom the indications support from colleagues will feel less. So that more innovative policies are needed to improve the job characteristics of investigators.
The establishment of an investigation workgroup is an alternative to improve the job characteristic of investigators in handling cases. Even though administratively, the investigation has accommodated this matter in the form of an investigation warrant, in practice, only investigators/auxiliary investigators (one or two people) are given the task or in accordance with their turn to win the case until it are finished. This makes the Investigator must be able to manage the investigation timeline properly. The level of the subjectivity of investigators becomes one of the weaknesses when one or two investigators handle one case. Not new when litigants easily intervene investigators. In addition, the small number of investigators who handled also made it difficult to achieve the target time for handling cases in accordance with statutory provisions. The number of arrears in cases in 2019 Denpasar City Police must settle the remaining 32.12% in arrears in the year 2018. This has not been added to the case received in 2019. So the formation of an investigation group work can be an alternative policy by creating a group in handling cases. Each member gets a portion of the task in accordance with the direction of the group leader and the implementation is carried out in a marathon or simultaneously. So that case handling will become faster and more effective and easier to monitor and avoid the Investigator's subjectivity.
There is other alternative in improving investigator job characteristics, by conducting job rotations regularly as a tour of duty step by taking into account aspects of human resource management. The Investigator, who has been having more time and feels so bored in one investigation unit, can be rotated to another unit to improve work experience. For example, unit 1, who are daily engaged in general criminal offenses, can be rotated to unit 4, who carry out special criminal investigations. Besides being able to add experience, it will also increase the involvement of investigators in their work. As in the research findings, in general, most investigators have a working period of more than 20 years, of course, must be considered regarding the level of boredom, work stress and workload they face. Job Rotation will at least be able to refresh the work atmosphere, which will also improve their competence.
In addition to the implementation of job rotation can also be supported by job enrichment by providing other tasks outside the duties and responsibilities. As in the case handling division, it does not always have to be in accordance with the relevant investigation unit, but it can be given to other units that still have competency, duties and authority links. For example, the case related to corruption in the private sector or embezzlement that are usually handled by general criminal units can be given into unit 3, which will only always handle corruption cases. So that investigators will gain experience and new knowledge in handling cases. Thus, an increase in investigator job characteristics can stimulate the motivation and enthusiasm of investigators to increase engagement and performance.
Refreshing the motivation and enthusiasm of investigators also comes from the compensation received both intrinsic compensation and extrinsic compensation. However, in accordance with the title of the study, the compensation in question is extrinsic compensation which can be monetary or non-monetary. In terms of monetary compensation, investigators and supporting investigators still feel that the take-home pay they have received is not appropriate and is not feasible. This can be seen from respondents' response to the take-home pay indicator that does not pass the validity test in the pre-test. In addition, the mean value of extrinsic compensation variables shows that the indicators that measure monetary dimensions are only indicators of salary adjustment with years of service, which get very high categories. This is in accordance with the regular salary increase every 2 (two) years for each member of the INP. So, the investigators are satisfied with the current system. In addition, salary adjustment indicators with performance get a high category, which shows the perception of respondents already feeling the salary they receive is in accordance with the performance they display. Then, the indicators that discuss the existence of additional incentives for investigators who succeeded in exceeding the work target and additional income for the ability or special expertise possessed received the lowest response among the indicators on the extrinsic compensation variable.
Besides monetary compensation, investigators also get non-monetary compensation in work protection (insurance) programs, health service programs, and leave entitlements. For non-monetary compensation, investigators generally have a good perception. It can be seen from the mean value of the indicator that represents the dimension of non-monetary compensation where only the indicator that measures the protection program (insurance) gets a high category. The rest is for the health service program and leave rights, getting a very high mean value. This is in accordance with conditions in the field where INP members and families' health services have been adjusted to their rank levels. Investigators get the first-class service according to officer ranks and the non-commissioned officer rank investigators get second-class service. As for leave rights, investigators who are predominantly Balinese with Hinduism have easy access to leave rights. In addition, the Provincial Government of Bali has also established several special facultative holidays for the Province of Bali in the context of celebrating religious holidays.
The alternative policies that can be carried out in increasing extrinsic compensation received by investigators are improving take-home pay and adjusting it into workloads and work risks. At least there is a difference in take-home pay between members of the INP who work as investigators and members who are assigned to other duties. Adjustments can be made by giving higher class positions to the Investigator even though they have the same rank level. Alternatively, it could also provide additional investigator allowances that are directly attached to the position owned by the Investigator. It will be very useful to see the majority of investigators are the primary support of family income. So the increase of take-home pay will increase the motivation and commitment of the Investigator in showing maximum performance.
The next performance improvement is through the authentic leadership variable, which is the leadership style of the Denpasar City Police Chief. Authentic leadership is chosen by observing the compatibility between the culture of the police organization and the existing forms of leadership. The INP is holding a hierarchical culture with a clear line of command. From the organizational structure, it can be seen that the INP have a command line with all levels of government present, starting from the Indonesian National Police Headquarters at the national level, regional police at the provincial level, resort police at the district/city level and sector police at the sub-district level. In addition, the INP also upholds a hierarchical culture that can be seen in the rank structure that follows the position. Every position must require a minimum rank that must be met.
For this reason, researchers view that authentic leadership is more appropriate to be applied to every member of the Indonesian National Police who acts as a leader at every level of position. Unlike other leadership types, authentic leadership places more emphasis on values and morals or behavior (Bass, 2003). On the other hand, an authentic leader does not have to be an inspirational figure, innovation, or a strong vision and mission. They only need to be themselves by putting forward their goals, values, and integrity in applying authentic leadership (Avolio et al., 2004).
Look at the respondents' responses through questionnaires distributed; it can be seen that the Denpasar City Police Chief has applied authentic leadership in leading the Denpasar City Police. Five indicators received responses in the very high category from the seven indicators, while the other two received responses in the high category. This shows that members have felt the role model of a leader who can be a role model in work. Leaders, who have good moral integrity, are aware of themselves and the environment, sensitive to every situation and condition. So that in every decision making will consider various inputs and see from various points of view. Such a leader will create trust and develop sincere relationships with others, motivating others to achieve high levels of performance based on this trust.
Based on the situation, the alternative policy that can be implemented is providing leadership training to investigators regularly and scheduled. During this time, leadership training is given when investigators attend basic educational level or educational development level. Leadership training is rare for investigators in particular, and members of the INP, in general, are held regularly and periodically for certain periods. Leadership training is crucial for every Investigator, considering that the position levels that will continue to increase will require them to have a leadership style appropriate to the work environment and organizational culture. Leadership training will be beneficial not only for investigators but also for the INP organization itself. The existence of leadership training, investigators will be able to be a leader for them, the environment, and the organization. So it is hoped that leaders will emerge who will be able to positively influence the organization and its work environment.
The conclusions that can be drawn based on the analysis in this study are as follows:
First, job characteristics, extrinsic compensation, and authentic leadership each positively and significantly influence the Investigator's engagement. This means that the higher the job characteristics of an investigator's job, the more appropriate extrinsic compensation received by the Investigator, and the better authentic leadership implemented by the Chief of Denpasar City Police, it can increase employee engagement. Second, engagement has a positive and significant influence on the Investigator's performance. This means that if the investigators have a high level of engagement, it will give better performance. Third, engagement can moderate the relationship between job characteristics, extrinsic compensation and authentic leadership on the Investigator's performance.
As an overview of the results of research that has been done, researchers provide several suggestions tailored to the research topic, including First, the formation of an investigation workgroup in handling cases can be carried out to handle cases that will become faster and more effective and easier to monitor and avoid the element of investigator subjectivity. Second, make job rotation periodically a tour of duty by paying attention to aspects of human resource management. This is intended to avoid the saturation level of investigators who have more years of services. Third, job enrichment can also be implemented by giving assignments other than the duties and responsibilities. As in the case handling division, it does not always have to be in accordance with the relevant investigation unit, but it can be given to other units that still have similar competency, duties, and authority. Fourth, improve the take-home pay and adjust it into the workload and work risks. Adjustments can be made by giving higher class positions to the Investigator even though they have the same rank level. It could also provide additional investigator allowances that are directly attached to the position owned by the Investigator. Fifth, providing leadership training to investigators regularly and scheduled.