Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 1

The Moderating Role of Organizational Politics Perception in the Relationship between Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction of the Staff of Iran's Ministry of Sports and Youths

Hossein Sharafi, Urmia University

Hassan Seyedameri, Urmia University

Abstract

The aim of this study was to the moderating role of organizational politics perception in the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction of the staff of Iran's ministry of sports and youths during 2016-2017. Through the application of the Cochran's formula, 268 individuals were randomly selected as the sample of study. To the end of collection of the data required for the study, standard questionnaires were used for each variable. The validity of the former questionnaires was approved subsequent to incorporation of the recommendations of eight experts and instructors in the field of physical education. In addition the convergent validity of the questionnaires was approved through approval of the indices of factor load and calculation of AVE value. The reliability of questionnaires was approved through the application of the Cronbach's alpha method. Structural model based analysis of data was conducted using the PLS v.3.0 Software. Results shown that organizational justice has a statistically significant and positive effect on job satisfaction while the moderating role of organizational politics perception is also verified. However, considering the negativity of the relationship between organizational politics perception and organizational justice and job satisfaction it can be said that increased organizational politics perception decreases the intensity of the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction. According results increased organizational politics perception can both increase and decrease the organizational justice and subsequently the job satisfaction of staff of Iran's ministry of sports and youths. Therefore, the managers of sports organizations must do their best to decrease the organizational politics perception of their employees. 

Keywords

Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Politics Perception, Leader- Follower Exchange Style.

Introduction

In today’s competitive world, sports organizations are struggling to compete and improve their performance. Therefore, an important part of the energy of organizations is paying attention to employees, because human resources are the main factor behind the organization in the competition (Soltani et al., 2011). One of the most important factors that increases the efficiency and satisfaction of the individual and career success is job satisfaction (Ariza-Montes et al., 2018).

As the main organization responsible for sports related affairs of Iran, the ministry of sports and youths is the highest reference for issues related to sports and youths. The performance of this ministry impacts the entire aspects of sports including the public sports and professional sports. In addition the performance of this organization can provide the necessary contexts for realization of sports-and-physical-education-related goals. This cannot be achieved unless through having employees with efficient capabilities (Pour-Sultani Zarandi et al., 2013). In other words, nowadays one of every individuals’ most important aspects of life is his/her job and therefore identification of needs, motives, tendencies and, factors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees not only are necessary, but are also essential for adoption of proper policies, suitable strategies and, effective plans (Forooghi et al., 2008). On this basis, the very first priority in current era has become the necessity of fulfilling the primary needs of employees. This is because obtaining organizational goals is in debt to the fulfillment of the goals of groups as well as their logical and legitimate needs (Nazari Tavakoli & Montazeri, 2013).

Therefore in organizational conditions, in addition to playing various roles and obtaining goals, keeping the workforce satisfied is also an important priority (Kocoglu et al., 2014). This is because the former has a significant impact on organizational results. In the views of scholars, job satisfaction is defined as the scale of positive feelings of employees about their jobs (Alfayad & Arif, 2017). Enskar (2012) defines job satisfaction as the level to which employees like their jobs. He further adds that job satisfaction is an abstract phenomenon that is the result of synchronization of attitude and behavior. The dimensions of job satisfaction include the six components of the payment system, job type, progression opportunities, organizational atmosphere, leadership style and, physical conditions (Weiss et al., 1967). Job satisfaction is an important factor that leads to improved efficiency, a state of personal satisfaction and, job successfulness. The prerequisite to it is the recognition of human resources as well as their attitudes towards their jobs (Karimi & Andaam, 2016). At the least, managers must pay attention to the personnel’s job satisfaction (Bhatti et al., 2015). This is because loyal human resources who are satisfied by their jobs and consistent with organizational goals and values, in addition to trying to maintain those employees who undertake extra-role activities can be important in terms of organizational effectiveness.

Having such forces in an organization is accompanies with improved performance level, reduced absence rates and lower resignation rates as well. In addition it is the most credible social appearance of tan organization’s credibility while providing the contexts for its growth and further development (Virgolino, 2017). On the other hand, in today’s mysterious competitive environment with evolutions, speed, complexity and uncertainty as its main characteristics, the survival and success of every organization requires the adoption and execution of effective strategies in addition to continuous improvement of the performance. Scholars believe that competence of a society for execution of such strategies depends thoroughly on various infrastructures. Organizational justice and its dimensions are considered as the software infrastructures of every society (Moshiri et al., 2013). Organizational justice has been defined as the methods used during distribution of achievements and adoption of distributive decisions in addition to, laws and norms developed in relation to personal dynamicity (Sain & Shahin, 2017). In another definition, organizational justice refers to the justice perceived of official procedures and policies in relation to the methods adopted by the organization while decision making. In addition it asks whether these methods are trustworthy, clear, and moral, without bias, precise, reformable and free from deception (Rai et al., 2013).

The researchers in the field of organizational justice believe that organizational justice has three dimensions:

Distributive justice: related to evaluation of the results of decision-makings including evaluation of performance, salaries and rewards (Srivastava, 2015).

Interactive justice: related to mutual respect and honesty in social interactions with others.

Procedural justice: related to employees' feeling of justice about policies, processes and methods (Lim & Losmor, 2017).

Organizational justice is one of the most important indices effective on employees' job satisfaction in an organization (Byrne, 2005). This is because injustice lads to employees' psychological distress (Srivastava, 2015). Employees reactions to injustice include absence, quitting, anger, madness and, retributive actions including stealing or sabotaging. As a result, injustice can negatively influence performance, job satisfaction and trust (Rineer et al., 2017; Virgolino et al., 2017). In this regard researchers have supported the necessity of fairness of decision making processes (procedural justice), the relations between these decisions (interactive justice) and, the manner of effectiveness of organizational justice on various attitudinal and behavioral consequences including job satisfaction in sports organizations (Kerwin et al., 2015). Nevertheless, if employees and managers of sports organizations feel injustice, they will run into conflicts with each other in order to ensure fair results (Kerwin et al., 2015). It is obvious that job satisfaction would not be realized without investigating the level of organizational justice and the level of achievement of goals of the organization in addition to, receiving feedbacks about execution of policies, identification of areas that require serious reformations and continuous improvement of performance (Pour Sultani Zarandi et al., 2011).

In this regard, most of the researchers in the past two decades have emphasized on studying the perception of employees of organizational policies. This is usually referred to as perception of organizational politics (Saleem et al., 2015). Organizational policies are related to behaviors that are in contrary to certain positions of an organization. These behaviors are undertaken for selfish goals that are in contrast to the goals of other co-workers in the organization (Chang et al., 2009).

In another definition, the organizational policy has been defined as a nonofficial method for gaining power through instruments other than chance or competence (Dubrin, 2010). Ferris & Kacmar (1992) have stated that organizational policy is some sort of subjective perception, but it is not necessarily an objective fact. Perceived organizational policies are personal political interpretations of environmental motives; they are declared as the factors of change in personal or group interests, which is also political. Managers of organizations can be the most influential actors in organizational politics. It is believed that employees basically know that the managers are responsible for occurrence of political behaviors (Ariai et al., 2015).

Most employees perceive organizational policies under negative circumstances, because it is assumed that the main purpose of organizational policies is to promote and maintain the personal interests of individuals (Saleem et al., 2015). In terms of negative aspects of organizational policies, employees' perception of organizational politics and the feeling of working in a political environment have negative effects on occupational results (Vigoda, 2002).

Researchers believe that high perception of organizational policy can result in reduced job satisfaction, equality between employees, reduced quality of work, lack of realization of goals, feeling of discrimination and ultimately, transfers in the workplace (Gotsis & Kortzei, 2010; Cacciattolo, 2015).

Job satisfaction is formed when the needs, expectations and desires of the employees are satisfied by their jobs and organizations. In this regard, perception of organizational politics in the workplace can damage the sense of equality and justice in managerial processes. As a result, employees may become unsatisfied by their jobs due to others' unfair achievements through political tactics (Atinc et al., 2010).finally, the payment and promotion policies play important roles in continuality of political actions in an organization (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992). If the employees feel that unfair decisions have been adopted by the organization regarding rewards and promotions, they will be unsatisfied by their organization. Lack of justice can be due to organizational policies. This ultimately affects job satisfaction (Vigoda, 2002).

In addition there exists a robust negative correlation between organizational justice and perceived organizational policies (Cropanzano et al., 1997). Regarding the effects of perception of organizational politics on employees' attitudes, researches have shown that this perception results in lack of job satisfaction and higher potentials for quitting (Ram & Prabhakar, 2010). Employees will know their workplace as an unfair workplace especially if rewards and promotions depend on organizational policies rather than laws and regulations. This in turn feeds the perception of bad organizational performance (Andrews & Kacmar, 2001). Therefore with respect to the aforementioned content, it is possible for the relationship between the concepts of organizational justice and job satisfaction to be either intensified or weakened through various factors including organizational politics perception.

Many studies have elaborated on the relationship between organizational justice and perception of organizational politics, however only a few of these studies have considered these variables in sports organizations (Hamidi et al., 2013). In addition, previous studies regarding organizational justice and job satisfaction have shown that low levels of organizational justice and job satisfaction (Nobakht et al., 2013; Pour Sultan Zarandi et al., 2013; Karimi & Andam, 2016) are probably due to the increased organizational politics perception in sports organizations. Considering the fact that most studies in this context have focused on non-sports organizations and with respect to the contradictions between the studies, it seemed necessary to conduct a study that could fill this gap. Therefore the present study tries to in addition to proposing a model, answer the question that what is the moderating role of organization policy perception in the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction of employees of Iran's ministry of sports and youths?

Literature Review

Results of the studies conducted by Mirmoini et al. (2016); Ghanbarpour et al. (2014) and, Eidi et al. (2015) show that there exists a positive relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction of employees of sports organizations of Iran including the ministry of sports and youths. Ghoreishi et al. (2017) have shown that there exists a positive and statistically significant relationship between perceptions of distributive and procedural justices and, job satisfaction. Vincent and Smoker (2007) confirmed the relationships between the three dimensions of organizational justice and coaches' job satisfaction including general satisfaction and satisfaction by special occupational dimensions including surveillance, promotion, payment, co-workers and the job itself. In support of this statement, some of the researchers in the domain of sports management have found out that the entire dimensions of organizational justice (distributive, procedural and, interactive) can anticipate main variables such as job satisfaction (Jordan et al., 2007).

Nevertheless, results of other studies have shown that reduced perception of organizational policy has positive occupational consequences including job satisfaction (Saleem, 2015). In addition it has been found that perception of organizational politics has a statistically significant impact on organizational justice while there is a strong correlation between the former and latter (Kaya et al., 2016). In a 2015 research, Gassemzadeh et al. (2015) concluded that perception of organizational policy has a positive and statistically significant relationship with job satisfaction. Gull & Zaidi (2012) conducted a study and showed that high levels of perception of organizational policy result in reduction of levels of job satisfaction among the employees and vice versa. In their 2013 study on sports experts of the municipality of Tehran, Hamidi et al. (2013) showed that a negative and statistically significant relationship exists between organizational politics perception and the perception of organizational justice while, 28% of the changes in perception of organization justice are anticipated by organizational politics perception. In another 2015 study, Salem et al. found out that organizational policies are manifested in form of stresses and dissatisfactions among the employees and have significant negative effects on job satisfaction. Kaya et al. (2016) conducted a research and revealed that organizational policies have significant effects on perceived organizational justice. Nevertheless, the study conducted by Labrague et al. (2017) stated that there exists a negative correlation between perceived organizational policies and job satisfaction.

Model

Diagram 1 shows the conceptual model; of the study. This model has been proposed based on the theoretical basis found in the both domestic and foreign literature of the subject matter.

Figure 1: The Conceptual Model Of The Study

Hypothesis

According to the proposed model, the present study aims to investigate the following hypotheses:

H1: There exists a relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction of employees of the ministry of sports and youths.

H2: There exists a relationship between organizational justice and organizational politics perception of employees of the ministry of sports and youths.

H3: There exists a relationship between organizational politics perception and job satisfaction of employees of the ministry of sports and youths.

Methodology

In terms of purpose, the present study is an applied research and in terms of data collection method, it is considered as a descriptive-analytic study of the correlational type which has been conducted through filed methods. The population of the study includes the entire employees of the ministry of the sports and youths of Iran reported as 886 individuals by center of information technology, communications and organizational evolutions of the statistics group of the ministry of sports and youths. Considering the extensiveness of the population, the Cochran's formula was employed and resultantly, 268 individuals were randomly selected as the samples of the study. In order to make the results even more generalizable, 321 questionnaires were distributed among a corresponding number of individuals and ultimately, 268 complete and analyzable questionnaires were collected. In order to measure the perception of organizational politics, the 12-itemed questionnaire proposed by Kacmar & Ferris (1992) including three dimensions (payment and promotion policies, proceeding for success and general political behaviors) was used. In addition, in order to measure organizational justice, the 20-itemed questionnaire proposed by Niehoff & Moorman (1993) including the three dimensions of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactive justice was made use of. Nonetheless, for the purpose of measurement of job satisfaction, the 19-itemed questionnaire proposed by Weiss et al. (1967) was used. The content validities of the aforementioned questionnaires were approved by eight experts and instructors in the field of physical education. Furthermore, the convergent validity of the former questionnaires was approved through the verification of indices of factor load and AVE value. Finally, the reliabilities of the former questionnaires have been investigated and approved through the application of the Cronbach's alpha method. The results obtained in relation to these indices have been shown in the following table. As you can see in the following Table 1, the entire values of composite reliability, the Cronbach's alpha and, AVE are higher than 0.7 and therefore, the reliability and validity of the inventories are approved. It is worth mentioning that the values of factor loads are shown in the corresponding diagram in standard mode.

Table 1
Composite Reliability And Cronbach's Alpha
  Cronbach's alpha Composite reliability AVE
Perception of politics 0.892 0.912 0.503
Job satisfaction 0.917 0.928 0.500
Organizational justice 0.951 0.956 0.525

The Smart PLS software has been used for analysis of the collected research data including calculation of the confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis and estimation of the relationships between the hidden variables and model fitness.

Results

The descriptive statistics of the collected data have shown that among the total 268 respondents, 110 were females and 158 were males. In addition, 55 respondents (20.5%) were single while the remaining 213 respondents (79.5%) were married. In terms of age, 6 respondents (2.2%) were 25 years old or younger, 73 respondents (27.2%) were aged between 26-35 years, 129 respondents (48.1%) were aged between 36-45 years and, 52 respondents (19.4%) were aged 45 years old or older. Ultimately, 8 respondents (3%) were aged more than 55 years. In terms of education, 17 respondents (6.3%) were diploma holders, 33 respondents (12.3%) held an associate's degree, 145 respondents (54.1%) held B.A degrees, 64 respondents (23.9%) held M.A degrees and, 9 respondents (3.4%) held PhD degrees. the last but not the least, in terms of experience 42 respondents (15.7%) had 5 years or less of experience, 43 respondents (16%) had 6-10 years of experience, 48 respondents (17.9%) had 11-15 years of experience, 55 respondents (20.5%) had 16-20 years of experience, 48 respondents (17%) had 21-25 years of experience and 11.9% of the respondents had more than 25 years of experience.

Now we elaborate on the fitness of the proposed model. Fitness is investigated under three circumstances. In the first circumstance, the external model of the study is investigated (this part is the same previously discussed content about the reliability and validity of the questionnaires). In the second circumstance, the internal model of the study including path coefficients, R2 determination coefficient, F2 effect size and the anticipator criteria of Q2 will be investigated. In terms of the determination coefficient, it has been agreed that the values of 0.19, 0.33 and, 0.67 are respectively the weak, average and robust values. However, the ultimate desirable value of this criterion is on the one hand dependent on the subject of the study and on the other hand, dependent on the number of exogenous hidden variables related to the calculated endogenous variable. Table 2 shows the values of determination coefficient and the adjusted determination coefficient.

Table 2
Determination Coefficient And The Adjusted Determination Coefficient
  Determination coefficient Adjusted Det. Coeff.
Perception of politics 0.198 0.190
Job satisfaction 0.740 0.735

Effect size or the F2 refers to the robustness of model in determination and it specifies the relationships between the constructs of the model. The values of 0.02, 0.15 and, 0.35 respectively show small, medium and large effect sizes. As it has been shown in the below Table 3, the entire obtained values are higher than the average.

Table 3
Values Of F2
  Perception of politics Leader-follower exchange Job satisfaction
Perception of politics     0.255
Organizational justice 0.688 0.888 0.335

Another index that needs to be investigated at this phase is the anticipation power index of the model that shows the percentage of variance of indices of a variable. High levels of Q2 show that the model has a high anticipation power. In terms of this index, researchers have emphasized that if it had a value larger than zero, it would be acceptable and as it closes in on one, it shows a higher anticipation power.

Table 4
Q2 Index
Variable Q2 (=1-SSE/SSO)
Perception of politics 0.081
Job satisfaction 0.278

In order to investigate the general fitness of a model, the three indices of SRMR, NFI and RMS Theta are used. The value of SRMR is always between 0 and 1 and redline of this index is 0.08. As this index gets larger than this value, it can be concluded that the model has several basic issues and there is need to reform the whole model. The SRMR value in the present study was equal to 0.070 which is a desirable value. On the other hand, the RMS Theta index is merely enough for the evaluation of the reflective model because the residuals of the external model are not significant for the composite measurement model. In the present study, this index is equal to 0.117. In addition, NFI index needs to be higher than 0.9, in order to be accepted. In our calculations this index has been calculated as 0.908 which is a desirable value.

In order to investigate the hypotheses, results have been shown in two modes including the standard mode and the t-value mode. First of all, we have pointed to the standard mode in which paths have been marked by regression coefficients or path coefficients.

Figure 2: Results Of The Primary Research Model In Standard Coefficients Mode

In the second mode, the t-value has been added. In this mode a value larger than 1.96 or smaller than -1.96 indicates significance and or lack of significance.

Figure 3: Results Of The Primary Research Model In T-Coefficients' Significance Mode

After stating the results of the aforementioned two modes, now we try to explain the significance or lack of significance of our research hypotheses according to the obtained results including path coefficients, t coefficients and significance values. These results have been more specifically shown in Table 5.

Table 5
Model; Fitness Indexes
Fitness indices quantity Desirable value
SRMR 0.07 Less than 0.08
rms Theta 0.117 Less than 0.12
NFI 0.908 More than 0.9

As it has been shown in the results, the path coefficient of organizational justice towards job satisfaction is equal to 0.68 while the t statistic is equal to 16.21 and the significance value is also smaller than 0.05. Therefore it can be concluded that organizational justice has a positive and statistically significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, the path coefficient of organizational justice towards perception of organizational politics is equal to -0.44 while the t statistic is equal to 7.98 and the significance value is also smaller than 0.05. Therefore it can be concluded that organizational justice has a negative and statistically significant effect perception of organizational politics. In addition, the path coefficient of perception of organizational politics towards job satisfaction is equal to -0.258 while the t statistic is equal to 4.79 and the significance value is also smaller than 0.05. Therefore it can be concluded that perception of organizational politics has a negative and statistically significant effect job satisfaction. Ultimately the path coefficient between the organizational justice and job satisfaction under the moderating effect of perception of organizational politics is equal to 0.139, with the t value being equal to 2.659 while the significance value is also smaller than 0.05. In other words it can be said that perception of organizational politics has a moderating role in the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction of the employees of Iran's ministry of sports and youths.

Discusion

Results of the present study have shown that high levels of perception of justice in the department of sports and youth of Iran results in amplification of job satisfaction among employees. It seems that in organizations in which the levels of organizational justice perception are higher, employees are more motivated for obtaining organizational goals. In cases where the sense of justice is absent, a decrease has been observed in the rate of job satisfaction. If employees feel inequality, they will become a source of lack of satisfaction in the organization and this in turn has consequences that leave irreparable effects on the organization. Results of the present study are in consistence with the results obtained by Pour Sultan Zarandi et al. (2013) regarding the experts of the department of physical education of the ministry of Tehran; Qanbar Pour et al. (2014) regarding experts of sports federations; Karimi et al. (2016) regarding the sports boards of Hamadan. Mirmoini et al. (2016) regarding the physical education instructors of the city of Tehran, Saadati et al. (2016) and, Bayarçelik et al. (2016) who stated that organizational justice has a positive and statistically significant relationship with job satisfaction.

Although that many researchers have conducted several studies on the effects of interactive and procedural justices on sports, yet these studies are limited in numbers and justice has not been yet fully understood in sports organizations. In other words, we currently do not have a proper understanding of the factors that may impact the perception of justice in different sports organizations or the corresponding beneficiaries (students, athletes, coaches, managers and etc.). The well-developed research pathways that are currently available can improve our recognition of the total perception of procedural justice and interactive justice as well as the differences between circumstances and groups. In addition there are a number of key factors in every organization including distributive justice which is related to employees' job satisfaction.

In addition results have shown that there exists a negative and statistically significant relationship between organizational justice and perception of organizational politics in employees of Iran's department of sports and youths. In order to interpret this finding it can be said that one of the factors that result in reduction of perception of organizational politics is justice. Perception of justice is a factor to which employees have shown the highest levels of sensitivity. Perception of organizational politics explains some of employees' behaviors and attitudes in relation to obtaining specific goals. Attacking or blaming others, using information, management of feelings and illustration, supporting ideology, praising others and showing affection, creation of robust coalitions and obtaining strong allies, making contact with influential people, making commitments and mutual relationships are among the political tactics that are frequently used. Results of this research are consistent with the findings obtained by Fani et al. (2014) who stated that organizational justice has a negative effect on perception of organizational politics. In addition the results are consistent with the ones obtained by Katrinli et al. (2010) stating that organizational politics is the main mechanism in charge of determination of the manner of the effectiveness of distributive justice on job satisfaction. In addition the results are consistent with the results of Hamidi et al. (2013) and Kaya et al. (2016). In an organization like the ministry of sports and youths, in presence of politics employees may witness the appearance and growth of stresses; therefore they may become indifferent towards their jobs and start showing different behaviors. In addition, researchers believe that organizational circumstances can even have negative consequences for those who are not directly under the influence of political activities. The probability of existence of organizational politics in the ministry of sports and youths of Iran creates concerns regarding violation of norms. Usually employees consider political workspaces as negative environments that raise feelings of injustice, discrimination and inequality. Employees usually tend to make use of a variety of effective tactics in order to obtain both predetermined and undetermined specific goals. They prefer nonofficial tools for these goals. The ministry of sports and youths of Iran can adopt different rewarding strategies that eliminate the probability of occurrence of political behaviors. When the reward-systems are individual-based, the individuals try to make use of political actions in order to obtain the maximum rewards and as a result this turns into a norm rather than an exception. When such behaviors are rewarded, more of these behaviors will occur in the future. The former results in unfair distribution of rewards and therefore more people will be oriented towards politics for obtaining better rewards. Resultantly a cyclic behavior will emerge.

In addition, ij order to further explain the discovery of the negative and statistically significant relationship between perception of politics and job satisfaction of the employees of Iran's ministry of sports and youths it can be said that the perception of the employees of the former ministry of organizational politics can decrease the effectiveness of organizational knowledge on job satisfaction. When employees perceive organizational politics in their workplace, their beliefs about the organizational values which are crucial infrastructures of organizational knowledge, will be reduced. Results of this research are consistent with the findings obtained by Malik et al. (2009); Gull & Zaidi (2012) and Saleem (2015) who stated that various dimensions of perception of organizational politics has a negative and statistically significant relationship with employees' job satisfaction. The results are also in consistent with the result obtained by Katrinli (2010) stating that perception of organizational politics can moderate job satisfaction to a great extent.

Conclusions

Perception of organizational politics in workplace results in divergence and bears damages while threatening the overall efficiency of the organization and imposing an increasingly negative effect on the job performance of employees. considering the negative reactions of the employees against political behaviors and attitudes and taking into account the fact that they consider these politics as threats to their welfare in their workplace, the more the employees feel these politics in their workplace, the more probably they will show lack of satisfaction by their jobs. Therefore if the level of perception of organizational politics is high and employees' concerns regarding their job have grown, they will have lower levels of job satisfaction and therefore higher rates of desertion and quitting will be yielded. Perception of employees of the departments of sports and youths of the political structure of their workplace may impact the manner of relationship between their thoughts and their managers and their peers, as well as the levels of efficiency, job satisfaction and quitting intention.

Ultimately as the interpretation of the moderating effect of perception of organizational politics on the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction according to the role theory it can be said that the expectations of a leader and the extent to which a follower fulfills these expectations provide the communicational context of the process of exchange. However the important thing is that the followers will do this exchange with a high quality as long as the leader does not make the environment political. This is because highly political environments results in high perception of organizational politics and ultimately it declines employees' trust towards their organization. Employees who have higher levels of perception of justice are more prone to encourage others towards development of positive behaviors when the environment of their organization is not political. Results of this study are consistent with results obtained by Saleem et al. (2015), Gull & Zaidi (2012), Chang et al. (2009), Başar & Basim (2015), Vigoda (2002), Ferris & Kacmar (1992) and Kacmar et al. (1999) who stated that perception of organizational politics has a negative effect on the level of job satisfaction. The results are also consistent with the results obtained by Malik et al. (2009) who stated that in general politic behaviors, accompanying for progression and payment and promotion has a negative and yet statistically significant and robust effect on aspects of job satisfaction. Perception of organizational politics makes the workspace unsafe and dangerous and results in occurrence of stresses, job exhaustion, impaired performance, reduced positive occupational attitudes and increased rates of quitting. In addition the results were consistent with ones obtained by Başar & Basim (2015) who revealed that organizational politics can negatively anticipate job satisfaction and can have moderating effects on the former. The results have also been consistent with the findings obtained by Kaya et al. (2016) who found out that a negative and statistically significant relationship exists between the dimensions of organizational politics (payment and promotion, progression for success and peers) and the dimensions of organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice and interactive justice). It can be said that high levels of organizational politics perception is considered as a negative process that reduces freedom, equality and justice in organizations. This negative process can also impact occupational attitudes including organizational commitment and job satisfaction. When political behaviors take place in an organization, the employees feel like they have been treated unfairly and therefore their job satisfaction is declined and ultimately, the employees may feel the need to quit their jobs. Organizational politics result in conflicts and lack of synchronization in the workspace since political tendencies are in service of obtaining goals other than the determined organizational goals. Unfairness of managers in sports organizations results in declination of trust between the employees and the organization in the context of employment and exploitation of expert athletic work forces. In general, every decision about rewarding, promoting, evaluating and or allocating resources to employees that is made in a sports organization is related to organizational justice (Ahmed et al., 2012). Through organizing the rules and consequent rule making, managers must try to maintain justice within their organizations. If organizational politics are controlled, we will probably witness fairness in rewards through justice. If managers ignore the issue of creating justice balance within their organizations and their workplace become political, then employees' job satisfaction and organizational performance will reduce. Political environments are dangerous atmospheres since they include no way of making sure that people will invest their time and efforts. On this basis employees may have no tendency to invest their time and efforts in such political organizations. The managers of the ministry of sports and youths should be aware of the most important advantages and weaknesses of various leadership styles since these styles can have effects on the perception of organizational politics which can in turn affect job satisfaction. They must take the employees' abilities into their accounts and help with efflorescence of the talents of their employees through providing a motivating and lesspolitical workplace that also creates job satisfaction.

According to the results of the present study, perception of organizational politics moderates the relationship between the organizational justice and job satisfaction of the employees of Iran's ministry of sports and youths. When employees perceive higher levels of organizational politics in their workplace, these perceptions can damage the senses of equality and justice in managerial processes. As a result, due to unfair achievements of other employees through political tactics, some employees may become unsatisfied by their jobs. On the other hand job satisfaction is realized only when needs, expectations and the requirements of the employees are satisfied by their jobs and their organizations. Managers of the ministry of sports of youths must focus on creating environments based on justice in a way that employees are able to focus on amplifying their organization as much as possible.

References