Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

The Predictive Capacity of Neurotic Perfectionism and Emotional Sensitivity to Moral Anxiety Among Newlyweds

D. Anas Saleh AL-Dalaeen, Mu'ta University

Keywords

Moral Anxiety, Neurotic Perfectionism, Emotional Sensitivity, Newlyweds

Abstract

 The current study aimed to reveal the predictive capacity of neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity to moral anxiety among newlyweds in Karak Province. To achieve the objectives of the study, a sample of (155) newlyweds was selected, and the study measures were developed: moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity, and their psychometric characteristics were verified. The results of the study concluded that the level of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity was moderate. It was also found that there is a correlation between neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity on the one hand and moral anxiety on the other hand. The results revealed that neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity predict a percentage (81%) of moral anxiety, and show that there are differences in moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity amongst married women. The study recommends the need to reduce moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity of married women.

 

Introduction

Marriage is a continuous relationship and it has mutual requirements as it requires mutual gratification emotionally, socially, economically and sexually, in order to reach harmony in marital life. As a result, the beginning of marital life may lead to contradictory feelings between comfort and tension. Marriage may be exposed to problems, especially in its early stages, due to the couple's lack of experience with marital life. Likewise, there may be a lack of experience in the methods of positive interaction between the two within the family sphere, and the pride of each of them in their personality and insistence on their own stance and behavior have the potential to lead to marital conflicts. These challenges can come in addition to the current changes related to family life that have affected the modern family and exposed it to many crises that have in many ways affects the family negatively, especially in Arab societies.

In general, anxiety is a painful feeling of worry and fear that can occur most or some hours of the day and continue for months; it may involve symptoms of tension, muscle cramp, a constant feeling of fatigue, attention deficit, and sleep disturbances. It occurs and is accompanied by vague fear, psychological and physical symptoms (Handy & Davy, 2012).

With regard to its definition in the Diagnostic Manual (DSM5), “it is a general, vague feeling of tension that is accompanied by some physical sensations, not limited to a specific situation, but rather extending to all situations and aspects of the individual's life” (APA, 2013).

Scientists agree that anxiety is the beginning of psychological and mental disorders and the origin of psychological disorders, as there are many explanations and forms of anxiety in the multiplicity of psychological schools and theoretical trends, where the analytical school believes that anxiety represents a state of tension that pushes us to do something, and develops as a result of the conflict between the self and the superego in an attempt to control psychological energy. Freud divided this into three types, as explained by Corey (2011).

1. Trait Anxiety (Neurotic Anxiety): It occurs due to the danger arising from the surrender of the ego to the strong and dangerous impulses of the idiom and it is a state of tension of unknown source.
2. Status Anxiety (Objective Anxiety): It occurs because of an objective risk in the external environment that ends with the end of the situation or the subject.

3. Moral Anxiety: It occurs as a result of desires and actions that exceed the individual's levels of right and wrong, which are associated with superego and generate a sense of shame or guilt and remorse.
Freud believes that moral anxiety makes the individual feel a large amount of guilt, especially when a person thinks about something contrary to the values of society or when they commit an act that conflicts with their moral, social or educational principles, and it comes as a response to breaking the principles of morals and values (Brennan, 2003).

Krieger believes that existential anxiety is the best way to understand the meaning of life, and it is the way in which an individual relates to what surrounds them in reality, and through the experience of existential anxiety, reality can be accessed and discovered, as existential anxiety increases the individual from daily existence to real existence (Frankl, 2004).

Perfectionism has long been a psychological component that carries many clinical subtleties, hiding behind it, whether or not both (Slade et al., 1991). In addition, several studies have indicated to existential anxiety in depth, and briefing in its various aspects, as will be mentioned below. Sayed's study (2010) found that the students in his study sample suffer from moral anxiety, and that they have a fundamental religious orientation. In addition, the study also found an inverse relationship with statistical significance between moral anxiety and the fundamental religious orientation (Aldahadha, 2018).

Abu Daqqa (2012) also found that the study sample had a high level of life pressures, and the most common was material, family, marital, social, and personal pressures. The level of anxiety can be predicted through life pressures and reaching a percentage in which the value of the estimated error of the anxiety level decreases. Abd Al-Latif's study (2013) indicated that there are statistically significant differences between married people who have mobility and those who are visually impaired persons where the level of social withdrawal behaviour was in favour of the visually impaired. The study of Abu Mustafa & Al-Sumairi (2015) found that there is a positive correlation between the state of anxiety and its characteristics in pregnant married Palestinian women. In addition, Al-Qurala’s study (2018) found that those entering into marriage in Karak Province have a low level of moral anxiety that females are higher in the level of moral anxiety than males.

A perfectionist person is extravagant in their expectations and aspirations, and is strict in judging and criticizing themselves, as they are internally driven and keen to achieve high levels of achievement, and they may cry when they feel failure in that as well as frustration, for their perfectionist tendency or idealism are more subdued than just excellence (Al-Quraiti, 2014). Greenspon (2008) explains that the neurotic perfectionist is dominated by an irrational idea, which is that their performance must be ideal in order to obtain the approval, satisfaction and acceptance of those around them, as they link their achievement of any work assigned to them with their being and themselves (Aldahadha, 2020).

Perfectionism is a trait that is emphasized in societies that are dominated by the spirit of competition, and educational and social institutions, financial circles, business and religions contribute to establishing this phenomenon. Among the most prominent behaviors or characteristics associated with perfectionism: thinking with the logic of All-or-Nothing, setting unreasonable extreme standards, compulsive pursuit to achieve impossible goals, and to evaluate oneself on a level of achievement and productivity (Banhan, 2011). In addition Fayed (2005) sees that perfectionism is a neurotic variable that is evident in the desire to reach perfection, and the difficulty in satisfying the individual about their performance despite the quality of this performance.

Hewitt & Flett (1993) believe that perfectionism comes in three different forms: The self- directed perfectionism in which the individual sets for themselves high standards of performance and tries to reach them, and the perfectionism directed towards others so that perfectionism itself sets those around them high standards and demands. By achieving these, the acquired perfectionism is social, which is what the individual acquires from an awareness of the surrounding social situations, and they believe that those around them expect them to perform an ideal or as a perfectionist.

The study of Salima (2015) found that there are no differences between males and females in both neurotic perfectionism and quality of life, and there is a negative correlation between neurotic perfectionism and quality of life among university students. As for Al-Obaidi's study (2015), it revealed a negative correlation between perfectionism, neuroticism and psychological stability while Bedioui’s (2015) study found that the hypothetical average is higher than the average in neurotic perfectionism, and there are no differences between the sample scores according to the variable of the duration of marriage, and that neurotic perfectionism and emotional dullness have a statistically significant contribution in predicting marital troubles.

As for emotional sensitivity, it is not always a bad thing because there are many good features in an adolescent with hypersensitivity, where increased sensitivity may lead the person to awaken their mind, have early and premature eloquence, superior decision-making ability, sympathy and kindness and they may have increased capacity for creativity or poetry if this energy is used properly (Ninaw, 2006). Among the behaviours that reflect excessive sensitivity and the strength of feelings, the following are the most important reasons that make an individual feel more sensitive: feeling of inadequacy, irrational expectations, controlling others, sensitivity as a genetic characteristic (Schaeffer & Melman, 2005).

Mowrer (1953) believes that moral anxiety is an experience that the subject undergoes as long as it is in conflict with the components of the higher self that remain in a vital state with a driving force that derives from the nature of the social reality that it represents and the subject's succession of every behavior that appears external. It is procedurally defined as the degree obtained by husbands on the scale developed in the current study.

Frost, et al., (1990) argue that neurotic perfectionism is a state of dissatisfaction that the individual feels about their efforts and actions so that they set themselves unrealistic standards that they strive to achieve, and there are a set of characteristics that explain the suffering of neurotic perfectionism, including concern for mistakes, an attempt to avoid them, and the high standards of performance and achievement that the individual sets themselves. It is procedurally defined as the degree obtained by husbands on the scale developed in the current study.

The general meaning of emotional sensitivity refers to being severely affected by normal events and situations, and exaggeration by more than the situation requires, with the inability to persist and emotional maturity (Bhatia, 2009). It is procedurally defined as the degree obtained by the husband on the scale developed in the current study.

Patrovsky & Yaroshevsky (1996) define emotional sensitivity as: an attribute that is evident in the individual's sensitivity to events that concern them, and which is usually accompanied by increased anxiety, fear of new situations, or shyness of people. Sensitive people are shy and quick to be affected, and they have a tendency to live with what happened in the past, just as they have a tendency to overthink the future, and a feeling of inferiority in their speech and outlook on life, all characteristics which tend to stagnate in their dealings and ambitions. According to Goleman, although emotional sensitivity is common among people, it was not recognised as a characteristic of personality until very late (Hasher & Zacks, 2007). Cooper (1990) considers that emotional sensitivity is an overabundance of emotion and fertility in the negative sense of thoughts.

Lush (2008) believes that emotional sensitivity is divided into two dimensions. First, negative emotional sensitivity is an exaggerated, aggressive or desperate reaction to situations, events and people. This may happen voluntarily due to the individual’s desire to release pent-up aggressive desires (Lush, 2008). The second dimension of the emotional sensitivity dimensions is what concerns us in this study. As the blabber behavior is related to a lack of positive emotional sensitivity that enables the individual to understand physical expressions and non-verbal communication processes (Aldahadha, 2018; Riggio, 1989).
The study of Fayed & Niazi (2011) found a positive correlation between negative sentiment and both sensitivity between personality and pain, as well as the correlation coefficient between personality and pain, and that isolating the effect of pain scores weakened the relationship between sensitivity between personality and negative sentiment, while The Annabi study (2016) indicates significant levels of negative emotional sensitivity. The Salman study (2017) also found that the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder contributed a statistically significant contribution of (43.7%) to the variance of emotional sensitivity, where it was predicted through the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder among the study sample, and the study of El-Shazly (2019) found a negative and statistically significant correlation between mentally alert parenting and excessive sensitivity in a sample of the study, and the degree of increased sensitivity (high) among children of gifted students.

A person lives at the present time in a changing and complex world, which can make them unable to achieve their goals, goals which may no longer be able to bring reassurance and psychological security. Moral anxiety is very important in contemporary societies in general, and in developing societies in particular, as many of the problems of society are moral problems and the manifestations of neglect and corruption in the family in particular express an ethical crisis. The problem of moral anxiety has aroused strong scientific interest in all scientific circles. This interest made scientific opinions differ about the positive or negative effects of anxiety, as moral anxiety is more dangerous for a person than the obvious dangers that can be avoided due to the inability to deplete the human energy, which makes a person’s thoughts confused, makes them lose their calm and can make them feel tired most of the time.

The observer of neurotic perfectionism finds that the perfectionist variable has also received little attention in the Arab environment, even though, especially among married couples, the perfectionist behaviour represents a human need that pushes for distinction, achievement, development, and self-realization. Perfectionism can be seen as a healthy, necessary and adaptive behaviour which helps a wife, for example, to struggle and strive to achieve her goals, which then support her feeling of happiness and increase her desire for life. As a result of the newlyweds entering into a changing world, the emotional sensitivity of the newlyweds increases for both males and females. Musharraf's study (2010) also indicated that husbands need knowledge and skills related to the concept of marriage and its responsibilities and marital roles. Al-Zawawi study’s (2011) also showed that the most prominent problems facing newlyweds are economic problems, with verbal abuse and persistent disagreements. The most prominent psychological problems facing newlyweds include role conflict, domestic violence, emotional problems, sexual problems, the dissolution of responsibilities and their assignment to the other party, in addition to moral problems.

Hence, the current study tried to work on revealing the predictive capacity of moral anxiety in perfectionism and emotional sensitivity, so the researcher conducted a prospective study that he applied to (10) of the newlyweds, and it was found fluctuating in their responses about moral anxiety, perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity. The present study is about revealing the predictive capacity of moral anxiety in neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity among newlyweds. This study aimed to answer the following questions:

a. What is the level of neurotic perfectionism, emotional sensitivity, and moral anxiety among newlyweds?

b. Is there a statistically significant correlation relationship at (α=0.05) level between neurotic perfectionism, emotional sensitivity and moral anxiety in newlyweds?

c. What is the predictive capacity of neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity to predict moral anxiety in newlyweds?

d. Are there statistically significant differences at the level (α=0.05) between the arithmetic averages of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity of newlyweds, according to gender?

The importance of the present study appears from two aspects:

First, the theoretical importance appears in the target group, which is a category that often leads to divorce, as the newlyweds are from the groups that separate immediately after marriage, and its importance also appears from the importance of the variables and the need to draw attention to them among the newlyweds.

Second, the practical importance appears in that it can benefit family counselors in dealing with the phenomenon of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity of newlyweds, as well as benefitting the newlyweds to reduce their negative phenomena. It can also be used in current measures for diagnosing certain phenomena among married couples. The current study aims to:

1. Learn about the level of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity of newlyweds.

2. Recognize the existence of a relationship between neurotic perfectionism, emotional sensitivity and moral anxiety in newlyweds.

3. Investigate the predictive capacity of neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity as predictors of the emergence of moral anxiety in newlyweds.

4. Checking for statistically significant differences in moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity among newlyweds, according to gender.

Methods

Participants

The study population consisted of newlyweds in Karak province in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the first three years of their marriage. The sample members are (155) newlyweds, of whom (72) are married and (83) are newlyweds.

Instruments

Moral concern for newlyweds

The Moral Anxiety Scale was developed through reference to the educational literature and previous studies (Al-Qur’ala, 2018; Sayed, 2010). The scale, in its initial form, consists of (40) paragraphs and three dimensions:

1. The personal dimension: anxiety resulting from self-punishment, which arises when an individual does or thinks about doing something different and contrary to the ethical pattern.

2. Social Dimension: anxiety resulting from the conscience of the individual when doing something that contradicts the standards of the society to which they belong.

3. The religious dimension: an anxiety resulting from the individual's feeling of isolation and distance from God as a result of the lack of commitment to religious values and standards.

The paragraphs of the scale are answered by choosing one of five options, which are: always (5), often (4), sometimes (3), rarely (2) Never (1). All passages have a trend indicating the increased moral concern of newlyweds.

The Researcher Verified the Validity and Reliability of the Scale

The arbitrators were validated as the scale was presented to a group of specialists in psychology, where (12) arbitrators looked at the scale, and made a set of comments and observations about it, 5 aragraphs were deleted, and (10) paragraphs were amended, and the number of paragraphs of the scale became (35) paragraphs. The validity of the internal structure was verified by applying it to newlyweds from outside the study sample and within the community by (30) newly married, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between each paragraph of the field and the total degree. The internal structure was found, as it ranged between the paragraphs and the total scores (0.35-0.77), all of which are significant at the 0.05 level, while the dimensions with the total score were as follows: for the first dimension (0.51), for the second dimension (0.45), and for the third dimension (0.60).

The Cronbach Alpha Coefficient was used to calculate the total stability of the scale and its various fields. It reached the total score (0.88), while the stability coefficients were in the Cronbach Alpha method for the dimensions with the total score as follows: for the first dimension (0.80) and for the second dimension (0.86), and for the third dimension (0.85).

Stability by the method of repetition was also calculated by the method of repetition by applying it to the sample, which consisted of (30) newly married people from outside the study sample and within the community, and it was re-applied after two weeks. The stability coefficients for the repetition method for the dimensions with the total score were as follows: for the first dimension (0.89), for the second dimension (0.88), and for the third dimension (0.87). This indicates an appropriate degree of validity and reliability of the scale.

The scale consists of three dimensions: the personal dimension, consisting of (11) paragraphs; the social dimension, consisting of (12) paragraphs; and the religious dimension, consisting of (12) paragraphs. The scores for each dimension of the following are interpreted according to the formula: Range=largest value - lowest value/number of categories, range=5-1/3, range=1, and the scores obtained by the newlyweds at the paragraph level can be interpreted as follows: Score (1 -2.33) a low level of moral anxiety, (2.34-3.67) a moderate level of moral anxiety, and (3.68-5) a high level of moral anxiety.

Neurotic Perfectionism for Newlyweds

The neurotic perfectionism scale was developed through reference to educational literature and previous studies, as the study of (Al-Quraiti, Al-Sawy, Yahya & Ibrahim, 2015; Mogawer, 2017; Al-Mutairi, 2017). The scale consisted in its initial form of (30) paragraphs and five dimensions, which are: the first dimension (the need for approval); the second dimension (concern for mistakes); the third dimension (low appreciation); the fourth dimension (dissatisfaction with performance); and the fifth dimension (the irrational thoughts accompanying perfectionism). The answer to the paragraphs of the scale is by choosing an option from five options, namely: always (5), often (4), sometimes (3), rarely (2), Never (1), and all of the paragraphs are of one direction indicating the existence of neurotic perfectionism in the newlyweds.
The arbitrators’ validation, as the scale was presented to a group of specialists in psychology, where (12) arbitrators reviewed the scale, and made a set of comments and observations about it, where 2 paragraphs were deleted, and (5) paragraphs were modified, and the number of paragraphs of the scale became (28) paragraphs.

The validity of the internal structure was verified by applying it to newlyweds from outside the study sample and within the community by (30) newly married, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between each paragraph of the scale and the total score. The existence of the internal structure was found, as the paragraph ranged with the total score between (0.30- 0.70) with the exception of two paragraphs, and the number of paragraphs became (26) paragraphs, while the dimensions of the internal structure validation coefficients for the dimensions with the total score were as follows: for the first dimension (0.44); for the second dimension (0.50); for the third dimension (0.59); for the fourth dimension (0.60); and for the fifth dimension (0.61). All of them are significant at the 0.05 level.
The Cronbach Alpha Coefficient calculated the overall stability of the scale and its various fields with a total score of (0.90). The dimensions of the stability coefficients in the Cronbach alpha method for the dimensions with the total score were as follows: for the first dimension (0.88); for the second dimension (0.86); for the third dimension (0.90); for the fourth dimension (0.80); and for the fifth dimension (0.86).

Stability in the method of repetition was also calculated by applying it to the sample, which consisted of (30) newlyweds from outside the study sample and within the community, and it was re-applied after two weeks. The dimensions of the stability coefficients by the repetition method for the dimensions with the total score are as follows: for the first dimension (0.82); for the second dimension (0.91); for the third dimension (0.86); for the fourth dimension (0.84); and for the fifth dimension (0.88). This indicates the existence of an appropriate degree of validity and reliability, and therefore the current standard was used.
The scale consists of five dimensions, the need for approval which consisted of (5) paragraphs, concern for mistakes which consisted of (5) paragraphs, low appreciation which consisted of (5) paragraphs, dissatisfaction with performance which consisted of (5) paragraphs, and irrational thoughts accompanying perfectionism, which consisted of (6) paragraphs. The grades are interpreted according to the following equation for each dimension: range=largest value - lowest value/number of categories, range=5-1/3, range=1, and the grades obtained by the newlywed can be interpreted at the paragraph level as follows: the score is (1-2.33), a low level of neurotic perfectionism; (2.34-3.67) a medium level of neurotic perfectionism; and (3.68- 5), a high level of neurotic perfectionism.

Emotional sensitivity of newlyweds. The Emotional Sensitivity Scale was developed by referring to the educational literature and previous studies, including studies by Al-Annabi (2016), Badran (2016) and Yassin (2019). The scale consisted in its initial form of (26) paragraphs, and one overall score, and the paragraphs of the scale are answered by choosing one of five options, which are: always (5), often (4), sometimes (3), rarely (2), Never (1), and all the paragraphs are of one direction, indicating the emotional sensitivity of the newlyweds.

The arbitrators validation, as the scale was presented to a group of specialists in psychology and counseling, where (12) arbitrators reviewed the scale, and made a set of comments and observations, and (4) paragraphs were amended, and the number of paragraphs of the scale remained (26) paragraphs. The validity of the internal structure was verified by applying it to newlyweds from outside the study sample and within the community by (30) newlyweds, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between each paragraph of the scale and the total score. The internal structure was found, as it ranged between (0.28-0.78), and all of them are a function at the 0.05 level.

The Cronbach Alpha Coefficient was used to calculate the total stability of the different scale and its value was (0.91). Stability in the method of repetition was also calculated by the method of repetition by applying it to the pilot sample of (30) newly married from outside the study sample and within the community, and it was re-applied after two weeks. It was found that the stability in the method of repetition reached (0.91), which indicates the existence of an appropriate degree of honesty and reliability of scale.

The scale consists of a total score, and the grades are interpreted according to the following equation for each dimension: Range=largest value - lowest value/number of categories, range=5-1/3, range=1, and the scores obtained by the newlyweds at the paragraph level can be interpreted as follows: the score (1-2.33) has a low level of emotional sensitivity; (2.34-3.66) a medium level of emotional sensitivity; and (3.67-5) a high level of emotional sensitivity.

Procedures

To achieve the objectives of the study, the following were conducted:

1. The study population, who are newlyweds, was enumerated in Karak province.

2. Taking a sample for the study population using the electronic sample method.

3. Development of study standards, and verification of indications of validity and reliability.

4. Electronic application of study tools on newlyweds.

5. Transferring data to the computer using appropriate statistical programs, reaching results, discussing them and coming up with recommendations

Results

The first question: What is the level of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity of the newlyweds?

Table 1
Means and Standard Deviations To Identify The Level Of Moral Anxiety, Neurotic Perfectionism And Emotional Sensitivity Of
Newlyweds
Scale Dimension Arithmetic average Standard deviation Level Order
Moral anxiety Personal dimension 3882 6880 Medium 2
The social dimension 2863 688 Medium 3
The religious dimension 2853 6803 Medium 1
Total marks 2815 6852 Medium  
Neurotic perfectionism The need for approval 2830 6885 Medium 3
Pay attention to mistakes 2863 6831 Medium 2
Low estimate 3838 6880 Medium 0
Dissatisfaction with
performance
2870 6882 High 1
Irrational thoughts
accompanying perfectionism
3831 6875 Medium 5
Total marks 283 6853 Medium  
Emotional
sensitivity
  2820 6873 Medium  

To answer the first question, arithmetic averages and standard deviations were used to identify the level of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity among newlyweds in the Karak province. Table 1 shows the results.

It is evident from the results of the first question that the level of moral concern was of a moderate degree with an arithmetic mean of (3.15) and a standard deviation of (0.53).

The dimensions were also at an average level, and the level of neurotic perfectionism came in a moderate degree and reached (2.91) with a standard deviation (0.75).

The dimensions were between medium and high, and the highest level of neurotic perfectionism was dissatisfaction with an arithmetic mean of (3.76) and a standard deviation of (0.83). The level of emotional sensitivity was moderate with a mean of (3.36) and a standard deviation of (0.72).

The second question: Is there a relationship between neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity and moral anxiety in newlyweds? To answer the current question, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used between neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity on the one hand and between moral anxieties among newlyweds in the Karak province. Table 2 illustrates the results.

Table 2
The Relationship Between Neurotic Perfectionism And Emotional Sensitivity On The One Hand And Moral Anxiety Among Newlyweds In Karak Province On The Other Hand
The relationship The personal
dimension
The social
dimension
he religious
dimension
The total degree of
neurotic anxiety
The need for approval **6832 **6830 **6832 **6820
Pay attention to mistakes **6801 *6817 6815 **6827
Low estimate *6810 **6803 681 **6828
Dissatisfaction with
performance
6867 **6808 **6876 **6801
Irrational thoughts
accompanying perfectionism
681 **6857 6860 **6823
The overall degree of neurotic
perfectionism
**6823 **6821 **6827 **6803
The total score of emotional
sensitivity
**6820 6860 **6820 **6820

Table 2 shows that there is a positive correlation between moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity, as the greater the moral anxiety, the greater the neurotic perfectionism, as the correlation coefficient between them reached a total degree of (0.49).

There is also a relationship between moral anxiety and emotional sensitivity, and the correlation coefficient between them reached a total degree of (0.36). The study also found a relationship between most dimensions between neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity on the one hand and moral anxiety on the other hand.

The third question: What is the predictive capacity of neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity in predicting moral anxiety in newlyweds?

To answer the current question, multiple regression analysis using the enter method was used to find out the extent of the contribution of neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity to predicting moral anxiety in newlyweds, and the following table (3 & 4) illustrates the results of this statistical analysis.

Table 3
The Results Of The Analysis Of Variance, The Multiple Correlation Coefficients, And The Determination Coefficient Of The Multiple Regression Models Between Moral Anxiety, Neurotic Perfectionism And Emotional Sensitivity
Source Sum of squares Degrees of
freedom
Average of
squares
The computed
q value
Statistical significance Multiple correlation
coefficient R
Determination coefficient R2
Regression 13821 3 0815 26810 6 6852 6838
Mistake 21862 153 683        
Total 02820 150          
Table 4
Multiple Regression Coefficients And Their Statistical Implications For Neurotic Perfectionism And Emotional Sensitivity
Variables Regression Coefficient Standard Error Coefficient Standard Regression T
Value
Statistical Significance
Constant 1835 6835   5867 6
Neurotic
Perfectionism
6802 6868 6803 5877 6
Emotional
Sensitivity
6815 6865 6831 3882 6861

It is evident from Table 4 that the multiple regression model between moral anxiety (Y), neurotic perfectionism (X1) and emotional sensitivity (X2), can be formulated in the following equation:
Estimated regression model:

Y=1.25+5.77X 1+2.83X 2

This regression model indicates:

- Fixed amount=1.25

- Regression coefficients: b 1=5.77, b 2=2.83 Validity of the estimated regression model:

The validity of the estimated regression model can be judged by commenting on the results of multiple regressions of neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity shown in Table (3 & 4) as follows:
Table 4 indicates that the multiple correlation coefficient (R) is equal to (0.53) and that the coefficient of determination (R2) equals (0.28). This means that neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity explain (0.81) of the changes that occurred in the dependent variable (moral anxiety) and return the remainder (0.19) which is combined with other factors. Thus, the explanatory ability of the model is appropriate as it is higher than the explanation (50%) of the variance of moral anxiety among the newlyweds.

Table 4, which includes analysis of variance, indicates that the statistical significance value is equal to (0.01) and it is less than the level of significance 1%, therefore, the regression model is statistically significant, and the estimated regression model can be used in predicting moral anxiety in married couples.

It is clear from Table 4, which includes the multiple regression coefficient and their statistical significance, that these factors differed in terms of their significance or lack of statistical significance on the one hand and in terms of the level of significance on the other hand, and that these results can be explained as follows:

A. The value of the constant in the equation is equal to (1.25), and this value is statistically significant, and therefore the presence of this constant in the prediction equation is necessary.

B. It is noticed that the regression coefficient is (5.77), which is a statistical function at the level (0.01), and it is the regression coefficient of neurotic perfectionism. This result indicates that neurotic perfectionism is suitable for use in predicting moral anxiety.

C. It is noticed that the regression coefficient is (2.83), which is a statistical function at the level (0.05), and it is the regression coefficient of emotional sensitivity. This result indicates that emotional sensitivity is suitable for use in predicting moral anxiety.

The fourth question: Are there statistically significant differences in moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity among newlyweds, according to the gender variable? To examine the differences between the averages on the statistical significance of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity according to gender, a T-test for double samples was used, and Table 5 illustrates that:

Table 5
Results Of T-Test For Averages Of Moral Anxiety, Neurotic Perfectionism, And Emotional Sensitivity According To The Gender Variable
Scale Gender Number Average Standard Deviation Freedom degree (T)
value
The level of significance
Moral Anxiety Male 72 2.99 0.42 152 -2851 6
Female 82 3.28 0.58      
Neurotic perfectionism Male 72 3.15 0.43 152 -2853 6
Female 82 3.33 0.56      
Emotional sensitivity Male 72 3.18 0.71 152 -2861 6
Female 82 3.52 0.7      

Table 5 shows that there are differences in moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity according to gender, with a value of (3.51) in moral anxiety, and a value of (3.52) in neurotic perfectionism, as well as a value of (3.01) in emotional sensitivity. All these values are statistically significant, which shows that females are more likely to experience moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity.

Discussion

The results of the current study differ with the results of Sayed's study (2010), which indicated a low level of moral anxiety, as well as the results of the Abu-Daqqa study (2012), which indicated a high level of anxiety. They also differed in comparison to the results of the Al- Qurala (2018) study, which indicated a low level of moral anxiety. However, they showed a correlation with the study of Abu Mustafa & Al-Sumairi (2015), which indicated an above- average level in the state of anxiety.

Krieger believes the origin of anxiety is due to human sin resulting from the individual's escape from them self, and their inability to understand and assume responsibility. The difference with some studies is due to the difference in the sample and the objectives of the study, while the researcher attributes the reason for the average level as being due to the presence of factors that play a role in improving moral anxiety and contradictory factors. Others play a role in reducing moral anxiety, so the results were moderate.

The results of the current study are in agreement with the results of Bediwi’s (2015) study, which indicated a hypothesis higher than average level in neurotic perfectionism, and the researcher attributes the average level of neurotic perfectionism to the presence of multiple social support sources that the individual receives from others around them that can reduce the feeling of needing the marriage to reach neurotic perfectionism.

This differs with the results of El-Shazly's (2019) study, which indicated a high level of emotional sensitivity as the study was for students, and the average level of emotional sensitivity in the current study is attributed to the desire of married couples to accept the other partner and stay and continue with it. Given that they are going through a new experience, this experience is necessary to adapt to it and heightened sensitivity is often the emotion released to deal with the new marriage.

In this regard, Krieger believes that existential anxiety is the best way to understand the meaning of life, and is partly consistent with the results of Sayyid's (2010) study on the existence of an inverse relationship between moral anxiety and religious orientation, and with the results of Abd Al-Latif's study (2013) about a relationship between the level of social behaviour and the state of fear and anxiety among married couples. It also corresponds to the results of the study of Abu Mustafa & Al-Sumairi (2015) about the existence of a positive correlation between each of the state of anxiety and its characteristic in women, as well as partly in agreement with the results of the study of Al-Qurala (2018) about the existence of an inverse relationship between moral anxiety and decision-making. It is also partly consistent with Al-Obaidi's study (2015) regarding the existence of a negative relationship between neurotic perfectionism and psychological stability, and with the findings of the study of Fayed & Niazi (2011) that indicated a positive correlation between sensitivity and negative sentiment.

The researcher attributes the current result to the fact that the three variables are negative variables, and thus increasing one of them leads to an increase in the other variable. Married people are greatly affected by these variables, especially as they are considered one of the most prominent psychological aspects they have at this stage of life when a husband, for example, seeks to appear in front of his partner as more perfect, and this increases his moral concern, and also when he appears excessively sensitive, this makes him more anxious about the current situation.

The results of the current question clearly show the need to pay attention to both neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity, given that they play a role in moral anxiety, and the results of the current study partly agree with the results of the Salman study (2017), which indicated that symptoms of seasonal affective disorder contribute 43.7% of the variance in emotional sensitivity.

The researcher attributes the current result due to the keenness of the newlyweds to appear perfect with increased levels of sensitivity, so they play an important role in influencing moral anxiety, and contribute to an increase in the level of moral anxiety. Therefore, the current study found a high level of contribution, and this indicates the importance of designing counseling programs that play a role in changing both variables together because of their interconnectedness and influence on each other.

The results of the current study are partly in agreement with the results of Al-Shazly’s (2019) study, which found differences in emotional sensitivity in favour of mothers, and is consistent with the results of Girala’s (2018) study, which found that females are higher than males in their levels of moral anxiety. However, it differs from the results of Abu Saleema’s (2015) study which found there were no differences between males and females in neurotic perfectionism.

The current result is attributed to the fact that married women naturally search for moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity more so than married men, as the nature of the Karak province requires that the wife adhere to marital life and its variables, belonging to the husband and caring for him, and providing more passion in maintaining the stability of the family. All of this encourages a wife to avoid making mistakes and thus increases moral anxiety, while at the same time married women seek to show the positive side and perfectionism in their behaviour even if they possess neurotic perfectionism. In addition, they are more sensitive than during other situations that have previously happened to them because the marriage experience appears new, and thus they are affected more. Based on the results of the study, the researcher recommends the following:

1. Paying attention to the level of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity of the newlyweds, given that it is moderately prevalent.

2. Paying attention to the relationship between moral anxiety and neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity in newlyweds, as one variable is associated with the other variables.

3. Taking advantage of the fact that neurotic perfectionism and emotional sensitivity predict moral anxiety by (81%), so that work is done on creating psychological programs that show the effect of the variables together.

4. Paying attention to reducing moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity among the newlyweds, especially among married women, because it is higher than that of the newlyweds.

5. Continuing with subsequent studies and counseling programs on the subject of moral anxiety, neurotic perfectionism, and emotional sensitivity of newlyweds, as well as on other samples and other psychological variables.

Acknowledgement

The research leading to these results received supporting from Mutah University.

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

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