Research Article: 2022 Vol: 21 Issue: 1
Titing Widyastuti, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi IPWI Jakarta
Besar Agung Martono, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi IPWI Jakarta
Mutiara Sibarani Panggabean, Trisakti University
Citation Information: Widyastuti,T., Martono, B.A., & Panggabean, M.S. (2022). The role of attitudes and behavior in moderating the influence of culture and organizational justice on lecturer performance. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(S1), 1-9.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of organizational culture and organizational justice through attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment) and behavior (organizational citizenship behavior) on the performance. The model proposed in this study were tested using structural equation modeling. Data were collected from 310 samples lecturer in economics high school in Jakarta. The findings in this study, that the only organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which has direct influence on the performance of lecturers. Cultural organizations directly influence organizational justice and organizational commitment. The influence of organizational culture on job satisfaction is mediated by organizational justice, while the effect on the organizational justice organizational commitment with job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment directly influence the behavior of the extra roles. The influence of organizational culture on the performance of lecturers mediated by organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. The scope of this research is only at the higher education in economics in Jakarta, suggested further research on a broader scope, other suggestions comparing the performance of private college lecturer and public universities. Indicators of each dimension is used only 3 items, further research is recommended to use more indicators. This research has not been able to adopt all the determinants of faculty performance, further research is recommended to add / replace other variables such as communication, leadership, competence. The results of this study can be used as a useful tool for university leaders to redirect or strengthen decision-making aimed at improving the performance of the lecturers through organizational culture, organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Originality in this study were incorporated the influence of organizational culture on organizational justice, and justice organizations as a mediator in the influence of organizational culture on job satisfaction.
Organizational Culture, Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
A20, D25, D29.
In higher education, lecturers have a very important role in achieving institutional goals. With educational and teaching activities, research and community service, it is expected to produce various types of experts who have intellectual awareness and professional abilities. A university must try to get its higher education accredited A, this is because: (1) the status of accreditation is one of the considerations of the community in continuing their studies; (2) in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, it is stated that a diploma is given to students as an acknowledgment of learning achievement and/or completion of a level of education after passing an exam administered by an accredited education unit.
In Government Regulation Number 19 of 2005 Article 86 (1), it is stated that the Government conducts accreditation at every level and education unit to determine the feasibility of the program and/or education unit. However, in reality, the current performance of lecturers, especially private university lecturers, is often complained of by many people, both by students, the business and industry world, and the government because of the lack of lecturer performance. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific publications, according to the Directorate General of Higher Education, the percentage of lecturers who carry out research and community service activities is still small. This shows that there are many things that need to be studied to make efforts to improve lecturer performance. The number of international publications produced by Indonesian academics is still far behind compared to even a number of ASEAN countries. Circular of the Directorate General of Higher Education Number 152/E/T/2012 concerning the Publication of Scientific Work should be the basis for efforts to improve the quality and quantity of scientific publications by Indonesian academics. For this reason, the government requires that lecturers must publish their research results in accredited national/international journals in submitting academic promotions.
Various efforts have been made by the government to improve the performance of lecturers, for example by providing professional allowances. The government based on Government Regulation No. 41/2009 provides considerable incentives to lecturers. There are also many universities that facilitate and carry out the dissemination of research results in various forms, including organizing scientific forums/seminars, scientific presentations in national and international forums, publications in accredited national and/or international journals of repute. However, this does not necessarily have an impact on the performance of lecturers, especially on the performance of the university concerned (Adesta, 2014). From the data published by the QS World University Ranking, since 2009, of the seven Indonesian universities that have entered the QS radar, all have dropped in rank and then stagnate.
From various studies, it is found that there are several factors that influence performance that extra-role behavior has an effect on performance. Other researchers state that performance is influenced by organizational commitment (Pathiranage, 2019; Kerdpitak & Jermsittiparsert, 2020). Performance is also influenced by job satisfaction (Sabuhari et al., 2020; Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020). In addition, organizational justice was also found to have an effect on performance (Tan Fee Yean, 2016; Imamoglu et al., 2019). Other research states that organizational culture has an effect on performance (Arif et al., 2019; Soomro, 2019). Various studies have found several research gaps, and no research results have yet been found that prove the influence of organizational culture on organizational justice. So that the formulation of the problem in this study is: whether organizational culture, organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and extra-role behavior directly or indirectly affect the performance of lecturers. Meanwhile, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of extra-role behavior that might result from organizational culture, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on lecturer performance.
Understanding Organizational Culture is a characteristic that exists in an organization and becomes a guide for the organization so that it distinguishes it from other organizations. In other words, organizational culture is the behavioral norms and values that are understood and accepted by all members of the organization and are used as a basis in the rules of behavior in the organization (Kuswati, 2004) where the perception that people have their organization and that is an existing concept, both within the organization and within the individual. There are certain characteristics within an organization that represent a distinctive and constant trait that distinguishes organizations from one another (Yvan Allaire, 1984). Organizational components, including values, beliefs, assumptions, perceptions, and behavioral norms that are reflected in the behavior of each member of the organization.
Job satisfaction according to Kreitner (2005) is the effectiveness or emotional response to various aspects of work. Each individual has a different level of satisfaction. Meanwhile, according to Noe et al. (2011) Feelings of pleasure as a result of the perception that one's job fulfills or allows the fulfillment of important work values for that person. Robbins & Judge (2013) also explain that job satisfaction is a positive emotional statement resulting from a person's recognition of his work or work experience.
Organizational Commitment elements of loyalty to the organization, involvement in work, and acceptance of the values and goals of the organization. According to O'Reilly & Chatman (1986) organizational commitment reflects the extent to which individuals internalize or adopt organizational characteristics/perspectives. Allen & Meyer (1990) explain that the psychological state that characterizes an employee's relationship with the organization and has implications for the decision to continue or terminate membership in the organization. Furthermore, Robbins & Judge (2013) define organizational commitment as a condition in which an individual sided with the organization and its goals and desires to maintain its membership in the organization.
Extra Role Behavior Maximum employee performance is an organizational demand that is shown not only in-role behavior but also extra-role behavior which is also known as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) or Extra Role Behavior. The concept of extra-role behavior introduced by Bateman & Organ (1983) has become the focus of research in recent years. Smith et al. (1983) argue that self-determined behavior goes beyond a predetermined role in the organization or shows awareness and support for the organization Organ (1988). An individual behavior that arises because of personal desires/choices and is not part of a formal employee job description, but can contribute to the effective implementation of organizational functions.
Performance is work performance, which is a comparison between work results and established standards (Dessler, 2005; Campbell et al. (1993) The behavior of employees in their work that is relevant to organizational goals, either directly or indirectly. Eysenck (1998) also explains that the ability of an employee in realizing their respective work goals, meeting expectations and achieving work targets and/or achieving standards set by their organization (Handoko et al., 2012; Robbins & Judge, 2013) The results of a person or the overall level of success for a certain period of time in carrying out tasks are compared with various possibilities, such as work standards, targets or goals above predetermined and mutually agreed criteria.
This research is a cross sectional study conducted through a survey with the aim of testing the causal relationship between the variables studied. The types and sources of data used in this study are primary data related to organizational culture variables, organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and lecturer performance. The data was obtained from a questionnaire that had been prepared in advance by the researcher and answered by the respondents, namely lecturers at private universities in Jakarta. The population in this study was all permanent lecturers at the College of Economics in Jakarta. This population is 794 permanent lecturers from 17 Schools of Economics (STIE) accredited A and B in Jakarta. The selection of research at STIE accredited A and B on the grounds that it is hoped that the results of the research can serve as a reference for all STIEs in Jakarta in managing their institutions so that lecturers can have high performance.
Analysis of the data used in this study is a structural equation model (Structural Equation Model), which is operated with the AMOS 20 program. The analysis is carried out by testing research hypotheses and testing the model (substructure and overall structure). The suitability of the model is evaluated through a study of various goodness-of-fit criteria (Table 1).
|Table 1 Respondents Descriptive Statistics|
|Age: <35 years
36 – 40
41 – 45
46 – 50
51 – 55
55 >55 years
Teaching Staff (<150)
Expert assistant (150–<200)
Head lector (400–<850)
|Years of service: <5 years
Descriptive Statistics of Research Variables
Descriptive statistical analysis of variables aims to get a picture of respondents' responses to variables and research dimensions/indicators (Table 2).
|Table 2 Variable Descriptive Statistics|
|Organizational culture||3.95||0.58||3.37 – 4.53||Good|
|- Supportive Culture||3.92||0.69||3.23 – 4.61||Good|
|- Bureaucratic Culture||3.89||0.64||3.25 – 4.53||Good|
|- Innovative Culture||4.02||0.69||3.33 – 4.71||Good|
|Organizational Justice||3.74||0.62||3.12 – 4.36||Good|
|- Distributive Justice||3.62||0.76||2.86 – 4.38||Medium|
|- Procedural Justice||3.71||0.75||2.96 – 4.46||Good|
|- Interactional Justice||3.88||0.64||3.24 – 4.52||Good|
|Job satisfaction||3.78||0.61||3.09 – 4.39||Good|
|Organizational Commitment||3.79||0.63||3.16 – 4.42||Good|
|- Affective Commitment||4.13||0.69||3.44 – 4.82||Good|
|- Sustainability Commitment||3.51||0.81||2.70 – 4.32||Medium|
|- Normative Commitment||3.72||0.72||3.00 – 4.44||Good|
|Extra Role Behavior||4.00||0.48||3.52 – 4.48||Good|
|- Helpful Behavior||4.00||0.64||3.36 – 4.64||Good|
|- Politeness Behavior||4.27||0.59||3.68 – 4.86||Good|
|- Social Moral Behavior||3.82||0.61||3.21 – 4.43||Good|
|- Sportsmanship||4.11||0.60||3.51 – 4.71||Good|
|- Careful Behavior||3.82||0.68||3.14 – 4.50||Good|
|Lecturer Performance||3.63||0.58||3.05 – 4.21||Medium|
|- Educational/Teaching Performance||4.20||0.64||3.56 – 4.84||Good|
|- Research Performance||3.17||0.86||2.31 – 4.03||Medium|
|- Performance Devotion to
|3.32||0.84||2.48 – 4.16||Medium|
|- Supporting Performance
Tridharma of Higher Education
|3.83||0.72||3.11 – 4.55||Good|
Full Model-Structural Equation Model Analysis Analysis
Analysis of the results of data processing at the full stage of the SEM model was carried out by conducting conformity tests and statistical tests. The final result of data processing for the full SEM model analysis is shown in Figure 1. Based on the figure, it can be concluded that the model is in good fit, which is in accordance with the data or fit to the data used in the study, where all the model fit conditions are met, except for X2 and the probability which is still poor fit. Therefore, it can be concluded that the proposed model is statistically acceptable to explain the effect of each variable.
Hypothesis Testing Results
The results of hypothesis testing consist of three parts, namely testing the total effect, direct effect, and indirect effect of each of the variables studied. A summary of the total, direct, and indirect effects is shown in Table 3 below.
|Table 3 Summary of Hypothesis Test Results|
|H1||Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on organizational justice||0.892||11.834||**||Accepted|
|Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction
Organizational culture has a significant positive effect through organizational justice on job satisfaction
|Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on organizational commitment
Organizational culture has a significant positive effect through organizational justice and job satisfaction on organizational commitment
|Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on extra-role behavior
Organizational culture has a significant positive effect through organizational justice, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to extra-role behavior
|Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on performance
Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and extra-role behavior on performance
|H6||Organizational justice has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction||0.676||4.703||**||Accepted|
|Organizational justice has a significant positive effect on organizational commitment
Organizational justice has a significant positive effect through job satisfaction on organizational commitment
|Organizational justice has a significant positive effect on extra-role behavior
Organizational justice has a significant positive effect through job satisfaction and organizational commitment to extra-role behavior
|Organizational justice has a significant positive effect on performance
Organizational justice has a significant positive effect through job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and extra-role behavior on performance
|H10||Job satisfaction has a significant positive effect on organizational commitment||0.610||6.513||**||Accepted|
|Job satisfaction has a significant positive effect on extra-role behavior
Job satisfaction has a significant positive effect through organizational commitment to extra-role behavior
|Job satisfaction has a significant positive effect on performance
Job satisfaction has a significant positive effect through organizational commitment and extra-role behavior on performance
|H13||Organizational commitment has a significant positive effect on extra-role behavior||0.371||3.155||0.002*||Accepted|
|Organizational commitment has a significant positive effect on performance
Organizational commitment has a significant positive effect through extra-role behavior on performance
|H15||Extra-role behavior has a significant positive effect on performance||1.332||7.609||**||Accepted|
Organizational culture directly affects organizational justice and organizational commitment. Elements of leadership who use personnel leadership to improve quality, always encourage the process of higher education tridharma activities to be on time, and encourage lecturers to be actively involved in higher education tridharma activities, especially in research and community service, so that lecturers feel they are treated fairly. If this culture goes well, the commitment of the lecturers will also increase. It is proven that a good organizational culture does not necessarily increase job satisfaction, but must go through organizational justice. The direct effect of organizational justice on job satisfaction is significant. New lecturers feel satisfied in their work if the leader hears the lecturer's proposal before the work decision is made. In addition, the leadership first collects accurate and complete information to make work decisions, and the results of the decisions are applied consistently to all lecturers.
Job satisfaction directly affects organizational commitment and extra-role behavior. If the lecturer feels that his opinion is respected by the institution, is satisfied with the recognition received for his work, is satisfied with the income he receives, is satisfied with the personal relationship between the leadership and the lecturers, and is satisfied with the way the leader treats the lecturer, the desire to continue to choose to work at the institution is also great. In addition, the lecturer showed willing to help behavior, politeness, social morals, sportsmanship, and accuracy.
Organizational commitment has a direct effect on extra-role behavior. If the lecturer feels it is inappropriate to leave the institution even though it is profitable, feels guilty if leaving the institution, and feels that the institution deserves loyalty, then the lecturer is encouraged to show extra behavior in his role. It is proven that extra-role behavior directly affects performance. Lecturers who always see things from the positive side instead of looking for what is wrong, never find fault with what the institution is doing, and think that people who create sportsmanship will be paid more attention, this will encourage lecturers' performance to be better.
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