Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 5
Guntur Pawoko, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Wibowo, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Hamidah, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
The research aims to determine the impact of work-life balance, achievement motivation and satisfaction athletes on organizational commitment in Indonesia. It is very rarely research related to athletes in Indonesia especially on how to create organizational commitment for athletes. Research population consisted of 936 athletes in Indonesia, while the sample consisted of 281 athletes using slovin formula. Models in this research are path analysis which will be processed using tools Lisrel. The results of this study indicate that directly work-life balance, achievement motivation and satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on organizational commitment. Results also showed that indirectly work-life balance and achievement motivation influence on organizational commitment through athlete satisfaction.
Indonesian Athlete’s, Work-life Balance, Achievement Motivation, Athlete Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment.
Sport has become a promising industry in supporting the economy of a country with an event such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games. Still, very rare research on human resources in the sports industry, especially for athletes.
Athletes have become a permanent job for athletes in Indonesia. Where athletes must focus on attending training programs, until they get a salary like a worker in the organization. All branches of sports in Indonesia must follow the organization established by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, namely the KOI (National Olympic Committee) and KONI (Indonesian National Sports Committee).
One of the tasks of Indonesian sports organizations is to create the commitment of athletes. This is because many elite athletes have moved to support other countries. Organizational commitment becomes critical to be created for Athlete to avoid the occurrence of hijack.
Organizational commitment of athletes in Indonesia is thought to be caused by several factors such as work-life balance (how sports organizations can make athletes have time with family, social interaction), achievement motivation (sports organizations are expected to grow athletes so that they have high achievement motivation), athlete satisfaction (such as providing appropriate facilities). Athlete satisfaction is the same as employee satisfaction in an organization. Athletes who are able to excel in Indonesia will get facilities and salaries like civil servants. Some of these factors are thought to increase the organizational commitment of athletes in Indonesia.
An organizational commitment levels associated with the bond of loyalty to the organization, and its willingness to continue to participate or cooperate with these organizations (Cernas Ortiz & Davis, 2016). In addition, organizational commitment is the level of employee involvement in the organization and feel wanted to remain part of the organization, which in it contains the loyalty and the willingness of employees to work optimally for the organization where the employee works (Baron & Greenberg, 2003). Thus, it can be said that the Athlete who committed the organization will have an attitude of willingness to earnestly tries to achieve as much as possible in accordance strategy outlined the organization's achievement. Indonesian sportsmen have high organizational commitment, then they will make every effort to produce achievement for Indonesia. This is supported by the opinion of Rehman et al. 2013, which says that the organizational commitment of employees to reflect confidence in his willingness to expend effort in achieving them with the intention to continue to work on the organization.
Commitment organization can be presumed to be a problem for athlete Indonesia. Some of the things that the background that one of them is for their job dissatisfaction in the sportsman himself, since commitment is closely related to job satisfaction (Sejjaaka & Kaawaase, 2014). According to Fattah (2017), job satisfaction is a positive attitude towards work labor, which comes under the assessment of the employment situation. If an athlete has had job satisfaction then the Athlete should be able to have a high commitment. But in order to create an Athlete satisfaction, it can be caused by many factors. Athlete satisfaction and organizational commitment can be improved by creating achievement motivation in the Athlete.
Achievement motivation can also affect the employees' organizational commitment, because achievement is the result given to someone for doing a particular achievement. (Siburian, 2013). Facts related to achievement motivation is in the form of attention given by the government and society to athlete as happened in the Asian Games and the Asian Paragames Event 2018, where the government provides a great bonus and the same to all Athlete who have been performing in the event.
Work-life balance can also affect the improvement of organizational commitment (Sethi, 2014). Work-life balance refers to the imbalance between the various responsibilities at work, at home, and other aspects of life. Indonesian athletes have hours of practice or rules that cause work life imbalances for Athlete s. Examples of these rules are applied by official sport organization in Indonesia for elite athlete, like giving limits to the use of communication until curfew. Imbalance between life and work can make employees are not satisfied in their work, so that later the employee could show an attitude exit or out of the organization, as proposed by. Among these three variables, better work-life balance, satisfaction and organizational commitment can be related to each other. Employee who committed the organization will have a degree of loyalty related with ties to the organization, and its willingness to continue to participate or cooperate with the organization (Cernas Ortiz & Davis, 2016).
Colquitt et al. (2015) define that organizational commitment is the desire of employees to want to remain a member of the organization. It was said that every member of the organization who had a high commitment to the organization where he worked did not wish to leave the organization. Whereas Moorhead & Griffin (2013) defines organizational commitment as an attitude or behavior that reflects the extent to which an individual knows and is bound to his organization. An individual who is highly committed is likely to see himself as a true member of his organization. Kreitner & Kinicki (2007) argue that organizational commitment reflects the degree to which a person recognizes an organization and is bound to its goals.
Job satisfaction refers to the feelings and emotions of people caused by their work, these feelings can be a positive feeling pleasant or not. In this research, job satisfaction theory will be used in measuring athlete satisfaction. This is because elite athletes in Indonesia have become a job for them (because they will be paid and spend time like workers in general). If an individual employee has a positive job satisfaction, it can cause a loyal and voice response (Robbins & Judge, 2015). Voice response refers to the attitudes or behavior of the employee active in its efforts to build an organization such as voice their opinions, building trade unions, and other things that can give positive things to the organization. While the loyal response refers to the passive behavior of employees who wish to remain within the organization. It then refers to the commitment of the organization, that the employee will be deemed to have a commitment to the organization if the employee is loyal and want to do my best on behalf of the organization. The loyal response as well as the response if the employee has a good job satisfaction.
Cernas Ortiz & Davis (2016) also did research on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Mexico and the United States. The results showed that job satisfaction has a positive influence on organizational commitment. Research conducted by Azeem & Akhtar (2014) also showed that job satisfaction is important in developing and enhancing organizational commitment in the study sample was carried out. The study was supported by the results of research and Sejjaaka & Kaawaase (2014) says that job satisfaction is the best predictor of organizational commitment than the other variables in their research. Several previous studies have also demonstrated that there is a direct and positive influence between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
H1 Athlete satisfaction is positively related to organizational commitment
Work-life balance is an effort to combine work with life outside of work. When work and life outside of work has been balanced or in accordance with the expectations of an individual, then it will create a sense of comfort both in work and outside work such as family or social. Past studies showed work-life balance has a positive and significant impact on organizational commitment, as research conducted by Arif & Farooqi (2015) to 171 teachers find the results of that work-life balance significantly influence the work commitment. Another study conducted by Moorman et al. (1993); Pradhan et al. (2016) and Sethi (2014) who showed results that a significant effect between work-life balance on work commitment. Based on these explanations, it can be expected that work-life balance will directly influence positively to organizational commitment.
Research conducted by Gulbahar et al. (2014) found that there is influence between work-life balance of employees in organizational commitment Sungi Foundation in Pakistan. The research also stated Generation Y employees who have work-life balance had a positive impact on improving productivity, employee retention and employee loyalty. Generation Y will tend to remain in the organization if they feel the time between life and work has been balanced. Arif & Farooqi (2015) and Hafeez & Akbar (2015) stated that there is a significant effect and positive between work-life balances on job satisfaction. Work-life balance can refer to the comfort perceived by employees; it can be a factor for employees to feel satisfied working at the company.
Gheitani et al. (2019) also conducted a study of 220 respondents who work in the bank sector Khuzestan. The study found that job satisfaction had a significant positive direct effect on organizational commitment. In addition, research conducted by Bailey et al. (2018) against 235 bank employees in Saudi Arabia found that there is a relationship between satisfaction and organizational commitment. Cernas Ortiz & Davis (2016) also conducted research on the satisfaction and organizational commitment and the results also showed that satisfaction has a positive influence on organizational commitment. Based on the framework described above, there is significant indirect suspected work-life balance on organizational commitment through job satisfaction.
H2 Work-life balance is positively related to organizational commitment.
H3 Athlete satisfaction mediates the relationship between work-life balance and organization commitment.
Arif & Farooqy (2014) concluded that the organization is always concerned with productivity and consequently increased stress. The effects of stress can affect work-life balance. Employees will feel more satisfied with their work and family when they are enjoying the benefits of work-life balance programs provided by the employer (Ueda, 2012). Results of previous studies show that there is a direct relationship between work-life balance and satisfaction (Parkes & Langford, 2008; Adikaram & Jayatilake, 2016; Shadab & Arif, 2015; Azeem & Akhtar, 2014; Anuradha & Pandey, 2016). Based on these explanations, it can be suspected that work-life balance would be a positive direct effect on job satisfaction.
H4 Work-life balance is positively related to athlete satisfaction
Previous research conducted by Siburian (2013) showed that achievement motivation has an influence on organizational commitment. Kreitner & Kinicki (2007) explains that organizational commitment fluctuate according to individual motivation factors, and is integrated with the model Colquitt et al. (2015) which explains that the motivation directly affects organizational commitment. Based on these explanations it is assumed that the achievement motivation will directly influence positively to organizational commitment.
Research conducted by Utomo et al. (2017) to 105 employees in the company private in Indonesia found that there is a significant and positive effect between achievement motivations to satisfaction. The research was supported by Li & Lo (2016) which says that the achievement motivation has a positive effect on employee job satisfaction. If the level of achievement, motivation of employees at a high position; then the employee's performance tends to be high, as well as the satisfaction that will also be high. Bailey et al. (2018) says that if employees are satisfied with their jobs, it is expected that there will be a level higher organizational commitment of these employees. This is supported by studies previously mentioned shows that satisfaction can significantly affect organizational commitment (Cernas Ortiz & Davis, 2016; Gheitani et al., 2018; Bailey et al., 2018).
H5 Achievement motivation is positively related to organizational commitment.
H6 Athlete satisfaction mediate the relationship between achievement motivation and organization commitment
If the level of achievement motivation of employees at a high position, then the employee's performance will tend to be high so that it will result in higher job satisfaction as well. This statement is in accordance with some previous studies, including the results of research by Siburian (2013) and Li & Lo (2016) which says that the achievement motivation will have a positive effect on employee job satisfaction. Colquitt et al. (2015) states that if someone coveting, then he will be motivated to take action toward achieving these expectations. If these expectations are met, then the satisfaction will be fulfilled. Based on these explanations it can be suspected that the achievement motivation have a direct impact positively on job satisfaction.
H7 Achievement motivation is positively related to athlete satisfaction
This study uses a quantitative approach to find causal relationship between independent variables and dependent. Hypothesis testing based on theoretical framework that has been developed. The method used is survey method and technique of path analysis with Lisrel.
The following is the research framework used (Figure 1):
Population and Sample
The population in this study is every sportsman who followed the 2018 Asian Games with the number 936 athlete in Indonesia. So with Slovin formula obtained a sample of 281 sportsmen with an error rate of 5%.
Organization Commitment is measured with 8 questions with the development of the indicators: acceptance of the organization's value, readiness and willingness to strive, desire maintain membership in the organization. The indicator has been developed from the definitions of some experts and previous research as Colquitt et al. (2015), Moorhead & Griffin (2013); Robbins & Judge (2015); Kreitner & Kinicki (2014). Athlete satisfaction was measured with 8 questions with the development of the indicators: intrinsic satisfaction, extrinsic satisfaction, social satisfaction. The indicator has been developed from the definitions of some experts and previous research as Sageer et al. (2012); Colquitt et al. (2015); Robbins & Judge (2015). Work-life balance measured at 8 questions with development indicators: controlling the time between profession and family, control to the profession, control of the environment. This indicator was developed from the definition and the previous research Adikaram & Jayatilake (2016); Zivcicová et al. (2017); Gamerad (2018); Schadel (2011). Achievement motivation was measured with 9 questions with development indicators: dare to take risks, require quick feedback, the desire to succeed. The indicator was developed from the definition and the previous studies Li & Lo (2016); Chamorro-Premuzic (2011). The indicator was developed from the definition and the previous studies Li & Lo (2016); Chamorro-Premuzic (2011). Each question is measured with a Likert scale from 1 (never) to 5 (Consistently). The questions were asked on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (Extremely Disagree) to 5 (Extremely Agree).
Validity of the Instrument
The validity used in this study uses 2 ways: expert judgment (carried out by a Professor who is an expert in the field of human resources management) and testing the validity (r-value must be greater than r-table) and reliability taking Cronbach alpha (must greater than 0.6). Each question instrument in this study was evaluated by 3 professors from Universitas Negeri Jakarta and 1 Professor from Universitas Pelita Harapan. After that the instrument will be distributed to respondents. The following is a table of testing the validity and reliability of each variable used. Based on Table 1, can be explained that WLB is work-life balance, AM is achievement motivation, AS is athlete satisfaction and OC is organizational commitment. All statements in the validity test have r-value above r-tables (0.09); this means each instrument is valid. While the Cronbach alpha value of each variable is above 0.6 so it is said that the data has been reliable.
|Table 1: Validity And Eliability Test|
Data Collection Techniques and Data Process
Data collected in this study used primary data with questionnaires distributed to Indonesian elite athletes who participated in the 2018 Asian Games. Distribution of the Questionnaire was assisted by the ministry of youth and sports by asking permission from sports organizations in Indonesia (KONI and KOI).
The following is a goodness of fit test summarized in Table 2. In Table 2 it can be seen that all of the test criteria have been met properly (Chi-Square, GFI, AGFI, CFI and RMSEA). So it can be said that the model used was fit. Therefore hypothesis testing will be carried out which can be seen in Table 3.
|Table 2: Goodness Of Fit Test|
|Goodness-Of-Fit (GOF)||Analysis Result||Cut Off Value||Model Evaluation|
|Chi-Square||494.84; P = 0.42||Probability = 0.05||Good|
|GFI||0.90||Close to 1||Good|
In Table 3, t-values must be greater than t-table then said to be significant. The amount of t-table is obtained by considering the degree of freedom of 277 and α=0.05, t-table obtained by 1.97. Here is a test of hypothesis based on Table 3:
|Table 3: Structural Parameter Estimates : Path Analysis Model (N = 281)|
|Hypothesis||Structural Path||Original Sample||t value||Results|
|H1||Satisfaction -> Org. Commitment||0.391||10.30||Significant|
|H2||Work-life balance -> Org. Commitment||0.261||5.11||Significant|
|H3||Work-life balance -> Satisfaction -> Org. Commitment||0.386||8.91||Significant|
|H4||Work-life balance -> Satisfaction||0.988||18.07||Significant|
|H5||Achievement Motivation -> Org. Commitment||0.379||8.43||Significant|
|H6||Achievement Motivation -> Satisfaction -> Org. Commitment||0.098||3.41||Significant|
|H7||Achievement Motivation -> Satisfaction||0.251||3.61||Significant|
The influence of satisfaction on organizational commitment has amounted to 10.30> 1.97. So we can say that Athlete satisfaction of the profession have a significant impact on organizational commitment. Athlete satisfaction has a direct influence on an organizational commitment of 0.391, which indicates a positive influence.
Effect of work-life balance to organizational commitment has the t-value of 5.11>1.97. So we can say that work-life balance has singnifikan influence on organizational commitment. The effect of work-life balance on organizational commitment of 0.261, which indicates a positive influence.
Work-life balance to the organizational commitment through athletesatisfaction has a t-value equal to 8.91>1.97. So we can say that work-life balance has a significant indirect effect on the organizational commitment through athletesatisfaction. The amount of indirect influence work-life balance on organizational commitment through the athlete satisfaction is 0.386 (0.988*0.391).
The influence of achievement motivation to organizational commitment has the t-value of 8.43>1.97. So we can say that the achievement motivation significantly influence on organizational commitment. While the influence of achievement motivation to the organizational commitment of 0.379, which indicates a positive influence.
Effect of achievement motivation to the organizational commitment through athletesatisfaction a t-value equal to 3.41>1.97. Achievement motivation have a significant indirect effect on the athlete's commitment to the organization through satisfaction. The amount of indirect influence on organizational commitment achievement motivation through satisfaction is 0.098 (0.251*0.391).
Effect of work-life balance to athlete satisfaction has amounted to 18.07>1.97. So we can say that work-life balance has a significant influence on the athlete satisfaction. While the influence of work-life balance to satisfaction of 0.988, which indicates a positive influence.
The influence of achievement motivation on satisfaction has amounted to 3.61>1.97. So we can say that the achievement motivation have a significant impact on the athlete satisfaction. While the influence of achievement motivation to satisfaction of 0.251, which indicates a positive influence.
Work life balance has a positive and significant impact on the athlete commitment to the organization directly. This study was confirmed by research conducted by Arif & Farooqi (2014). Besides work life balance can also have a positive and significant impact on satisfaction directly. These results are consistent with research conducted by Mas-Machuca (2016). Work-life balance also has an indirect positive effect on an organizational commitment through athlete satisfaction. This is in line with research Kumari (2012); Gunlu et al. (2010). Achievement motivation has a positive and significant impact on the organizational commitment directly and indirectly through athlete satisfaction. Research conducted by Siburian (2013), shows that their achievement motivation significant and positive impact on organizational commitment. The results are consistent with research conducted by Gunlu et al. (2010). Work-life balance has a significant impact on athlete satisfaction. The influence of the work-life balance to be positive athletesatisfaction. The results are consistent with research conducted by by Arif & Farooqi (2014). Achievement motivation also has a positive and significant impact on athlete satisfaction. The results are consistent with research conducted by Muhammad (2015). Satisfaction is usually associated with motivation, which is associated with a feeling of satisfaction for achievement (achievement) both in quantitative and qualitative research (Mullins, 2005).
Organizational commitment can be increased with an increase in work-life balance, especially on controlling the time between the profession and the family and social environment control for the athletes. Organizational commitment can be increased with an increase in achievement motivation, especially with foster a sense of desire to succeed. A sense of desire to succeed in this it is necessary not only as an athlete but also in social life or when it retires. Organizational commitment can be enhanced by achieving athlete satisfaction, especially with foster extrinsic satisfaction. Where extrinsic satisfaction seen from foster self-confidence when the support of supporters.
This study shows that work-life balance, achievement motivation and professional satisfaction has a direct influence on organizational commitment. While professional satisfaction also may mediate the effects of work-life balance and achievement motivation on organizational commitment. Satisfaction is strongly influenced by the work-life balance. While the commitment of organizations affected by the achievement motivation directly have the greatest influence than the satisfaction and work-life balance.
The results of this study indicate that to increase the organizational commitment of athletes, efforts can be made to consider the existence of regulations to allow athletes to be able to contact their family or colleagues. This can be done not by providing a smartphone, but by providing telephone services or by providing a special room that can help sportsmen meet face-to-face with teleconferences. With current technological advances, it is very easy with teleconferences with software such as Skype or video calls with whatsApp or other media. In addition it needs to be considered that the sportsman can do other activities, especially in socializing with the community so that it can foster a sense of confidence. Other activities that can be done by sportsmen such as by inviting meet and greet like the artists. Meet and greet can have a positive impact, one of which is by building a community of sports supporters.
Organizational commitment can also be increased by considering and growing the desire to succeed as an athlete. Practical advice is to provide programs not only as sportsmen, but also to guarantee they can succeed after retirement (either offering as a trainer or being able to offer a retirement program as an entrepreneur and investment). By providing this knowledge, sportsmen can focus on creating achievements because they can choose clear life goals. In addition, sportsmen need to be given not only after their achievements as State Civil Apparatus in state companies. But they can also become coaches, or structural sports organizations so that they are comfortable and are well aware of the weaknesses and strengths that exist.
Organizational commitment can be enhanced by the athlete mentality. This is because the athlete still feel praise or cheers from the audience can reduce their enthusiasm or concentration. Therefore the importance of mental coaching can be done by holding friendly matches which are certainly watched by supporters. By frequently playing friendly matches that are watched, it can train the athlete’s habits when getting cheers or praise from supporters. Until now, friendship matches are still often seen only in football.
Further researchers can also develop research models especially not only using satisfaction as intervening, but can also with organizational citizenship behavior or engagement so as to create athlete commitment to their sports organizations. Future researchers can also use respondents to junior athletes in Indonesia so that they can be compared with elite athletes in this study. This is because in order to measure the level of commitment of junior athletes.