Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 19 Issue: 6

Tourism Development Strategy in Indonesia

Suryanto, Universitas Padjadjaran (SGU)

Poni Sukaesih Kurniati, Universitas Komputer Indonesia

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyze the tourism development strategy in Bandung, Indonesia. The method used in this research is a descriptive research method with a qualitative approach. This study uses data sources obtained from interviews and literature studies. The results showed that the city of Bandung has a lot of potentials. However, not all potential tourism objects can attract visitors. There are strategies in each stage that are carried out in tourism development. The tourist attraction strategy is carried out in the short term, the amenities and accessibility strategy is carried out in the medium term, and the community involvement and ancillaries strategy is carried out in the long term.

Keywords

Strategy, Development, Tourism, Destination, Tourist attraction.

Introduction

Tourism activities are growing from year to year in various regions. Local governments continue to strive to make tourism a priority by developing adequate facilities, facilities, and infrastructure to support tourism development. Tourism development needs to be carried out in a comprehensive and integrated manner in order to attract both local and outside visitors (Go & Govers, 2000; Taufiqurrohman, 2014). Visits of local tourists and foreign tourists are believed to impact the economic growth of an area (Rahma & Handayani, 2013; Manhasa et al., 2016). Therefore we need a development strategy in the tourism sector so that this sector can continue to contribute to the development of an area. Semara (2013) explains that there are several strategies in tourism development, including tourist attraction, accessibility, amenities, ancillaries, and community involvement strategies.

As a tourist destination, the city of Bandung has a large enough tourism potential to be further developed. There are various tourist objects in Bandung, including nature tourism, educational tours, arts and cultural tours, and other tours. Apart from these attractions, the city of Bandung is also famous for its culinary tourism, one of the community's economic sources. The existence of these tourist objects can provide many benefits for the welfare of the community. It is believed that several potential tourism objects have not been developed optimally as tourist objects. Local governments are required to be able to develop potentials in an integrated manner in order to attract local and foreign tourists.

Research on tourism development strategies has been carried out from various perspectives. Semara (2013) concluded that the tourism sector could develop due to tourist attraction, accessibility, facilities, support, and community involvement. Tourism can improve the quality of life, people's welfare, and be able to maintain the historical and cultural values that exist in tourist destinations (Kim et al., 2013). Taufiqurrohman (2014) states that there are several factors that can support the development of tourism objects, including the strategic location of tourism objects, the existence of supporting infrastructure, good security conditions, the atmosphere of tourist objects that provide comfort, and affordable ticket prices. Meanwhile, the obstacles in the development of tourism objects include: less than an optimal promotion of tourism objects, simple tourism development programs, inadequate tourist attraction facilities, poorly maintained tourism objects, unsatisfactory services from the management, and lack of manpower professional work. The strategy applied in developing tourism objects is an aggressive growth strategy, namely optimally exploiting the opportunities and strengths they have to increase tourism objects' growth.

Other research, Kavaratzis (2004) and Hilman (2017) stated that with the formation of city branding, an area into a tourist city will become a unifier and binder for people always to improve the quality of services and products. Rahayu (2015) states that the success of a strategy that is carried out cannot be separated from the factors that influences it. The factors that play a role in the implementation of the tourism development strategy include location, characteristics of tourist objects, Law No.10 of 2009, community participation, limited funds, quality of human resources, and police raids that are troubling the community.

In other related research, Sutrisno et al. (2018) state that attractions, accessibility, and amenities need to be improved and developed to implement a tourism development strategy. In order for the development strategy to be achieved, it is necessary to add new objects that have natural attractiveness, beauty, and uniqueness. In addition, in tourist objects, facilities, and infrastructure are required (Dunets et al., 2019). The latest research related to this research was carried out by Moerwanto & Junoasmono (2017), which stated that to develop the tourism sector in Indonesia, a well-structured plan or master plan is needed as programs that have comprehensive and integrated value.

Based on the results of previous studies, what distinguishes this research is the research locus and focus. This research focuses on the city of Bandung, while the focus is on the types of strategies used in tourism development efforts. In addition, the focus discussed is not only city tourism but also natural tourism around the city of Bandung. This study aims to determine the right strategy for tourism development in the city of Bandung. The method used in this research is qualitative with a descriptive approach. Thus, this study's results are a suitable strategy for the development of tourism in Bandung City.

Literature Review

Tourism Objects and Potential

The concept of tourist objects in literature is better known as tourist attractions. Tourism objects, according to Battilani et al. (2018), are divided into two parts, namely tourism resources, and tourist services. A tourist object is anything that has uniqueness, beauty, and value in the form of a diversity of natural, cultural, and human-made wealth that is the target or destination of tourist visits (Agus & Ridwan, 2019). Meanwhile, tourism potential is everything found in a tourist destination, which is an attraction for people to visit the place (Yoeti, 2008).

Tourist objects have an attraction that can arouse the interest and interest of tourists to come to visit and feel the sensation that can be felt by being present at tourist attractions (Itamar et al., 2016). Tourist attractions, according to Basiya & Rozak (2012), consist of: natural tourist attractions, architectural attractions, cultural attractions, especially managed tourist attractions and social tourism attractions. Spillane (1994) argues that a tourist attraction must include five important elements so that tourists feel satisfied in enjoying their trip, namely as follows: attractions, facilities, infrastructure, transportation, and hospitality.

Tourism Object Development

The tourism sector has now been considered a driver of economic growth in many countries' service sector (Klimek, 2013). Therefore, the development of tourist objects is increasingly becoming a concern. The development of tourism objects depends on external factors such as natural resources, culture, community, government policies, entrepreneurship, finance, organizational leadership, and competition. Therefore, in the 1990s, holistic tourism development was started (Breakey, 2005). According to Mulyadi (2012), tourism development must pay attention to several things, including:

1. The ability to encourage and improve the story of economic and socio-cultural life.

2. Religious values, customs, and views and values that live in society.

3. Cultural preservation and environmental quality.

4. Continuation of the tourism business itself.

Vengesayi (2003) proposes the development of a tourist attraction through a combination of competition and attractiveness factors. This is done in order to consider the supply and demand aspects. The elements of tourism object development proposed by Vengesayi (2003) include attractions and a mix of activities, supporting facilities, and the physical and social environment. Masip (2006) states that the development of tourism objects includes infrastructure, facilities, services, activities, and experiences. Meanwhile, according to Fletcher et al. (2017) tourism development consists of attraction, accessibility, amenities, ancillary service, and institutions.

Methods

Research design is used by researchers to search and analyze systematically and effectively. Research design is all research processes carried out by researchers in carrying out research, starting from planning the implementation of research by selecting data, collecting the data understudy at a certain time. This is intended to assess how the tourism development strategy is carried out. This research was conducted in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. In accordance with the problem under study, a method is needed so that the basics of the truth of a study can be revealed and can further direct the researcher to the subject matter to be discussed.

The research method used in this research is a descriptive research method with a qualitative approach. The researcher chose the qualitative approach because the object under study was not a number object, but this research was conducted based on reasoning using the researcher as an instrument. This study uses data sources obtained from interviews and searches for various articles related to the study's focus and locus. Interviews were conducted with informants from the Secretariat of the Bandung City Culture and Tourism Office, the Association of Indonesian Tour and Travel Agency, the Indonesian Hotel and Restaurant Association, the Indonesian Tourism Guides Association, the Indonesian Recreation Park Business Association, and representatives of local and foreign tourists. Others: books, papers, journals, and research results.

Results and Discussion

The city of Bandung is one of the tourist destinations that are attractive to domestic and foreign tourists. Apart from being topologically located in an area that has cool air, Bandung City also has a variety of tourist attractions, uniqueness, natural beauty, and industrial creativity. In addition, tourists are interested in visiting the city of Bandung, as in the research of Krimayanti et al. (2018) due to its geographic location. Currently, Bandung City is one of the national tourism destinations, such as Bali and Jogjakarta. In fact, according to research by Frontier Consulting Group and Tempo Media Group (2015) followed by Hidayat (2018), the tourism index for Bandung City is the highest in Indonesia, reaching 95.30 or higher than Denpasar (Bali), which has a Tourism Index of 87.65 and the City. Yogyakarta has a Tourism Index of 85.68.

Domestic and foreign tourists every weekend, especially long weekends, many visit Bandung. The number of tourist visits continues to increase from year to year. Even though there is a decrease, the number is not significant compared to the number of tourists visiting Bandung. The following is data on the number of tourists visiting Bandung for the period 2011-2019.

Based on Figure 1, the number of tourists before the Covid-19 pandemic increased by an average of 10% each year. This increase occurred not only because the tourist objects were attractive but also because of the local government's better facilities and infrastructure.

Figure 1 Number of Tourists Visiting the city of Bandung

Tourist attractions that are frequently visited by tourists include Gedung Sate Museum, the Asian-African Conference Museum and Gedung Merdeka, Geology Museum, Sri Baduga Museum, and 3D Art Museum. Furthermore, City Hall Park, Traffic Park, Historical Park, Bandung Square, Braga Area, Chinatown Bandung, Trans Studio Bandung, Saung Angklung Udjo, Bandung Creative Hub, Sunda Cibiru Terrace, Komar Batik, NU Art, Rosyid's House, and Rabbit Town. Several culinary and shopping areas, such as the Dago, Progo, and Burangrang Culinary Areas, Dago and Riau Shopping Areas, Cihampelas Shopping Areas, Pasir Kaliki, and Paris Van Java in the Sukajadi area.

Many local and foreign tourists visit almost all tourist objects. However, tourist attractions that are favorite among tourists in Bandung are shopping and culinary tours. Besides, Bandung's city also has many other tourism potentials such as nature tourism, cultural tourism, and artificial tourism. Besides, special interest tours include knowledge tourism, spiritual tourism, health tourism, sports tours, MICE, and national and international events

Based on Table 1, it can be seen that the tourism potential of the City of Bandung is very diverse. Several potential tourism objects that have not been chosen by tourists so far need to be developed in the context of developing tourism areas. The development of tourism areas includes tourism objects, tourist attractions, as well as various business activities related to tourism.

Table 1 Tourism Potential of the city of Bandung
No Types of Potential Tourism Objects Available
1 Tourist Attraction  
  a. Natural 1. City park tours
2. Environmental Scale Park
  b. Culture 1. Gallery
2. Performance building
3.Historical building
4.Art-Culture Environment
  c. Artificial Tourism 1. Zoo, Traffic Park, Karang Setra, and others.
2. Museum
  d. Special Interest Tourism 1. Shopping tours: production centers, Factory Outlets, Dept. Store, specialty shopping, Cihampelas Jeans Shop, Cibaduyut shoes / bags.
2. Knowledge Tourism: PT. Dirgantara Indonesia, PT. Pindad, fabrication / processing of products (milk, vaccines, medicine, textiles), technology and the Imax Sabuga theater, buildings of cultural value.
3.Spiritual tourism: Pontren Daarut Tauhid
4.Health tourism.
5. Sports tourism (golf, bowling, horse riding, etc.)
6. MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition / meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions / rikopan).
7. National / international events and city venues
* Around Bandung City: agro tourism, adventure, camping ground, volcanoes, Boscha, special sports (paragliding, rafting, aerospace), water tourism
2 Tourism Facilities  
  a. Accommodation 1. Star hotel
2. Budget Hotel
3. Others
  b. Restaurant / restaurant 1. Restaurant
2. Pujasera and other typical food vendors.
  c. Travel agent 1. Travel agent
2. Travel agent
3. MICE organizers
4. Tourism Consultant
  d. General and Miscellaneous Entertainment Entertainment Business

The Bandung City Government has made tourism a leading sector in development planning. In accordance with Klimek (2013)’s opinion, this sector is believed to have the potential to drive the economy. Local governments, both city and provincial, and even the central government, must collaborate in developing this sector. Planned tourism development will have high competitiveness. Although the potential for tourism objects is very much if it is not developed, according to what Sukriah (2014) said, it cannot be the main economic driver.

Many development strategies can be carried out to create good tourism development. Each region has its own way of making strategies to develop the tourism sector. Some are using existing development strategy theories; others are creating new strategies according to their abilities so that the tourism sector development they want to implement can achieve their goals.

The Government of Bandung City in developing the tourism sector divides it into three periods. First, a short-term period that is focused on optimizing all tourism potential. During this period, several activities were carried out, including mapping the natural potential and creating tourism programs in accordance with tourism potential. As shown in Table 1, the Bandung City Government is creating a tourism village tourism object and co-working space in addition to the tourism potential. This tourist attraction is designed so that tourists can experience their own. Several tourist villages and co-working spaces that will be built include Tourism Village in Cigadung, namely Bandung Creative Belt, Bandung Wetan, and Braga. The Bandung Creative Belt in Cigadung Tourism Village will involve several entrepreneurs such as Batik Komar, C59, and Rosyid Cultural House. Mapping activities and creating tourism programs in accordance with what Spillane (1994), Semara (2013), and Fletcher et al. (2017) said are tourist attraction strategies, namely strategies to increase the attractiveness of tourist objects so that tourists, both local and foreign tourists are interested in visiting it.

Second, the medium-term period with the focus point on consolidation or action to strengthen the tourism sector. In this period, the activities carried out were preparing a legal basis in tourism development, developing facilities and infrastructure, and building road access to tourist objects. The legal basis can be in the form of regional regulations, mayoral regulations, or other regulations. Development of facilities and infrastructure in accordance with Rahayu (2015)’s research includes basic tourism facilities, tourism complementary facilities, and tourism supporting facilities. The main facilities for tourism, complementary facilities for tourism, and supporting facilities for tourism in accordance with the research of Semara (2013) and Fletcher et al. (2017) are one of the amenities strategies. This strategy includes the provision of various facilities for hotels, spas, restaurants, transportation, and various other supporting facilities. Other activities during this period were the construction of road access to tourism objects. This activity is in accordance with Semara (2013)’s research and Fletcher et al. (2017), an accessibility strategy, which is a strategy carried out to make it easier for tourists to reach tourist sites.

Third, the long-term period, namely by developing and distributing tourism objects. In this period, the activities carried out included creating cooperation between interrelated institutions in tourism development and conducting promotional activities related to existing tourist objects to increase tourists' attractiveness to visit. Cooperation can be carried out both with the community and with other parties in order to support tourism development. This is consistent with what Semara (2013) and Fletcher et al. (2017) said which is included in the community involvement strategy. Support or involvement from the community is one of the keys to success in tourism development. Promotional activities include various activities to introduce tourism objects by creating an event calendar and promotions through printed media, social media, and providing a tourist information center. This activity is in accordance with that stated by Semara (2013) and Fletcher et al. (2017), which are included in the ancillaries strategy, which is a strategy carried out to introduce various tourism objects and various regulations regarding tourism objects. According to Fajri & Riyanto (2016)’s research, strategy preparation in each timeframe is very important so that overall development can run and be carried out well.

Conclusion

The city of Bandung is one of the cities that is excellent for tourists. Every year the number of tourists, both domestic and foreign tourists, has increased by an average of 10%. Not all existing objects can be optimized properly. The tourists are still focused on culinary tourism and shopping. Tourism development carried out by the City Government of Bandung goes through three stages. The first period is a short-term period, namely by implementing the tourist attraction strategy. The second period is the medium term, namely by implementing the amenities and accessibility strategies. In this period, the strategy was carried out by applying community involvement and ancillaries’ strategies.

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