Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 2
Indra Prasetyo, Universitas Wijaya Putra Indonesia
Nabilah Aliyyah, Universitas Wijaya Putra Indonesia
Rusdiyanto, Universitas Airlangga and Universitas Gresik
Heru Tjaraka, Universitas Airlangga Indonesia
Nawang Kalbuana, Politeknik Penerbangan Indonesia Curug Indonesia
Arif Syafi'ur Rochman, Universitas Gresik
Objective: This paper aims to test the effect employee job training has on employee career development in the company.
Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach with the process of finding the knowledge by using data in the form of numbers as a tool that can be generalized to prove hypotheses. The population in this study was 135 employees by sampling 100 employees using sampling method probability by using random sampling type samples to use slovin formula. Analysis techniques use multiple linear regressions.
Findings: The results showed that job training influences the career development of employees in companies with a significant rate of 0.00 less than α=0.05. Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for company employees to conduct job training as a tool to improve career development. Originality: Previous research has been conducted to test job training on employee career development in large companies; the findings conclude that employee job training affects employee career development. This research researchers try to research medium-scale companies down.
Career Development, Job Training, Employee.
In today's globalization era, competition between companies is growing much more advanced than before. Business is inseparable from the production, purchase, sale, and exchange of goods and services involving people or companies. Activities in Business, in general, have the aim of generating profit for survival and raising enough funds for the implementation of business activities.
A business is an organization that sells goods or services to consumers for profit. Historically the English word for business is Business, from the basic word busy, which means busy in individuals, communities, or communities. The notion of busy can be explained by doing activities and work that bring benefits. Business, in a broad sense, is all activities by the community of suppliers of goods and services.
Human Resources are part of the advancement of science, development, and technology. Therefore, the era of technology and civilization has been very advanced, demanding competent Human Resources who have a high spirit and discipline in carrying out their roles and functions both for individual and organizational purposes. Therefore, the progress of a country depends on the ability of human resources.
Human Resource Management
Human beings are the drivers and managers of other production factors such as capital, raw materials, equipment, and others to achieve organizational goals; with the development of an organization, the more difficult the planning and control of employees.
Human resource management is a very strategic field of the organization and should be viewed broadly from the traditional view to manage people effectively (Harris & Ogbonna, 2001; Phillips et al., 2009; Bozeman, 2010: Chomkhamsri et al., 2017; Chidiac, 2018). It requires knowledge of human behavior how to manage its knowledge capabilities. Human resource management is a process to acquire, train, assess (Leite et al., 2014), compensate employees for taking care of their workforce, their health, and their occupational safety (Weisfeld & Falk, 1983: Chernichovsky & Bayulken, 1995; Veble & Veble, 2020). Matters concerning the fairness of their work (Yung, 2001; Cain & Wright, 2007; Yonglin & Yanhong, 2007; Lamont & Small, 2008; Dalglish, 2012; Dias, 2013; Hasegawa, 2017; Chiao, 2019 ).
Utilization of several individuals to achieve organizational goals (Malone & Reid, 1982; Wang, 2010; Hall, 2014). Individuals deal with human resource problems and always face constantly changing challenges so that the government is always there, the technological revolution is always new (Clempner, 2019; Cui et al., 2019; Smirnov, 2019; Sopha et al., 2019; Mirzaee et al., 2020; Alkaabneh et al., 2020;). Human resource management is the science and art of regulating the relationships and roles of the workforce to effectively and efficiently help realize the goals of companies, employees, and society (Babaei & Shahanaghi, 2017; Fogarassy et al., 2017; Jenčo & Lysá, 2018; Liff et al., 2017; Saridakis et al., 2017; Teimouri et al., 2017).
Basically human resource management has an understanding of how to manage people to achieve organizational goals ( Katona & Heltai, 2018; Xie et al., 2020; Chao et al., 2020). Managing human resource management is not easy because it is managed by human beings with all their senses and consciences. The definition of human resource management (Alyushin et al., 2020; Barbosa et al., 2020; Bianchi et al., 2020; Muff et al., 2020; Townsend & Gershon, 2020; Wickam et al., 2020) Is the process of conducting planning activities, organizing, personnel preparation, mobilization, supervision of its operational functions in achieving the objectives of the organization (Bokrantz et al., 2020; Fernandez & Gallardo-Gallardo, 2020; Shrotryia & Dhanda, 2020a, 2020b; Strohmeier, 2020; Trullen et al., 2020).
Training or training is intended to improve the mastery of various skills and techniques of certain work implementation, detailed, and routine (Gaillard et al., 2020; García et al., 2020; Jonsson & Goicolea, 2020; Kiguli-Malwadde et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; Siebert et al., 2020). As well as preparing employees for the current job. Training according to (An et al., 2020; Bangaru et al., 2020; Cigularov & Dillulio, 2020; Mylona & Mihail, 2020; Naval et al., 2020; Wanberg et al., 2020). New employees need to be given the training to have the skills that fit their needs in doing their work. Training is the responsibility of a manager to develop employees in a company. According to (Al Maani et al., 2020; Gahlawat & Kundu, 2020; Kim, 2020; shakur et al., 2020; Shiferaw, 2020; Wong et al., 2020; Woods et al., 2020), 'Training refers to the methods used to give new employees the skills they need to do the job''.
According to (Alene, 2020; Bäker et al., 2020; Choudhary et al., 2020; Clarke & Lipsig-Mummé, 2020; Fatoki, 2020; Milica & Milica, 2020) Activity activities are designed to provide employees with the learning, skills, and knowledge needed for their current work. Job training has many benefits for the company and employees to develop the careers of employees. For the company, job training will ensure the ability and quality of employees in competing and doing their work effectively and efficiently for now and in the future (Al-Dalahmeh et al., 2020; Asmara & Wu, 2020; Ibrahim et al., 2020; Jabutay & Rungruang, 2020; Kohavi et al., 2020; Lefebvre et al., 2020; Milica & Milica, 2020).
A career is all a job or a position that a person has when working. For a wide variety of companies hiring people is a part of a plan that is carefully distorted. For other companies, a career is just a view of fate. Indeed, career planning will not guarantee if it will be successful (Buzzetta et al., 2020; Cadenas et al., 2020; Dipeolu et al., 2020; Johnson, 2020; Ting & Datu, 2020; Toyokawa & DeWald, 2020). Career planning needs to be implemented so that employees are always ready to use existing career opportunities. Successful companies usually develop career planning and then strive to achieve their plans. Career approaches must be managed through carefully supervised and correct planning (Dalla Rosa et al., 2020; Kang & Kaur, 2020; Park et al., 2020; Verma & Kesari, 2020; Wong et al., 2020; Zuo et al., 2020).
Employee development programs should be carefully structured and based on scientific methods and based on the skills the company needs for now and in the future (Collin et al., 2020; Cummins et al., 2020; Issayeva et al., 2020; Magnotta et al., 2020; Marsh et al., 2020; Scerri et al., 2020). This development aims to improve the theoretical, technical, conceptual, and moral ability of employees so that their work performance is good and achieve optimal results. Employee development is considered increasingly important because of the demands of work or position due to technological advances and increasingly tight competition between companies (Berry & Routon, 2020; Hammond, 2020).
Most people's careers are a series of jobs that employees go through from the lower level to the top level of the company (Al Maani et al., 2020; Epping, 2020; Ghosh & Mukherjee, 2020; Kamberidou, 2020; Linnik et al., 2020; Zhao & Wu, 2020). A career can also be a series of jobs or positions that employees have when entering the company. A career is like a fate that can be changed by human effort. Career planning will help employees in organizing their destiny (Al-Jedaiah & Albdareen, 2020; Benati & Fischer, 2020; E. D. Miller, 2020; Reeder, 2020; Xifré, 2020; Ziede & Norcross, 2020).
Employment Training and Career Development Relationships
Training is basically a step implemented by the company to explore the potential or improve the quality of work of employees. To improve their position at this time. To move to a higher position in the company. The development of a closely related career in one company is increasingly clear. Their views and efforts in developing their potential will also be satisfied the employees, and they will not feel disappointed. And the more the spirit of work, the higher their loyalty for the advancement of the company (Cismas, 2017; Hur & Ha, 2019; Van Hootegem et al., 2019; Wu, 2019; Ahmad et al., 2019; Aburumman et al., 2020).
Training is very important for various considerations in conducting assessments before carrying out training, namely employee reaction, employee learning, employee behavior, and results after training ( Stewart et al., 2010; Cohen et al., 2000; Couch et al., 2018; Lee, 2018; Robinson-Morral et al., 2018; Bächmann et al., 2019). At each level, a comparison will be made. See the influence before and after the training. The implementation of training and development programs serves as a transformation process (Goldstein & Hendriks, 2010; Hart & Hart, 2014; V. Miller, 2018; Holst et al., 2020). Untrained employees are transformed into capable employees so that they can be given greater responsibility.
System design begins with a career path connecting one position to another (O2 Makes the Right Connections with Employees: Company among Top Five in UK for Staff Satisfaction, 2007; Ellington, 2012; Swiatek-Barylska, 2017). Career paths can be attributed based on position, position, employee profession. The most complicated process is determining similar positions and finding positions that have similarities and associations to form a career path (Blair, 1959). The design of the cauterization program is formulated after the design of a career path; through this cauterization program, vacant positions can be filled. It can be known employees who are suitable employees to occupy the position. This cauterization program provides information about promotions or mutations that can be experienced by employees (Ayuningtias et al., 2018; Hirsch, 2019; Ishizue et al., 2018; Sukova, 2020; Avadanei et al., 2020). With this information, the company can prepare employees to have individual qualifications in accordance with the new position so that the transfer of employees can be done without compromising the effectiveness of the organization (Baruk, 2017; Ramanchi et al., 2017; Ramesh & Ravi, 2017; Shahsavari-Pour et al., 2017).
To give an idea in this research, the conceptual framework model of the influence of job training on employee career development can be described in the picture as follows (Figure 1):
Training greatly influences an employee to develop his/her skills effectively for the sake of an employee's future career.
This research uses a quantitative approach based on positive that can be used to research the population and employee samples of companies for data collection using research instruments that have been described before. Quantitative shortness stands on problem formulation, modeling, obtaining data, finding solutions, testing solutions, analyzing results (Juanamasta et al., 2019; Prabowo et al., 2020; Rusdiyanto, Agustia, et al., 2020; Rusdiyanto, Hidayat, et al., 2020; Syafii et al., 2020). One stage does not have to be completed thoroughly before the next stage begins (Table 1).
|Table 1 Operational Definition of Variable|
|Job Training (X)||Training is an activity that aims to improve the mastery of various skills and techniques in the implementation of work, detailing each performance routinely of the employees (An et al., 2020; Cigularov & Dillulio, 2020; Mylona & Mihail, 2020; Naval et al., 2020; Wanberg et
|Career Development (Y)||Career development is all a job or position that a person has when working. For a wide variety of companies hiring people is a part of a carefully conceived plan (Cadenas et al., 2020; Dipeolu et al., 2020; Johnson, 2020; Ting & Datu, 2020; Toyokawa & DeWald, 2020).||Likert scale|
Training Variable Indicator (X)
b) The internship process
c) Support system
e) Executive coach
Career Development Variable Indicator (Y)
e) Mentors and sponsors
The number of questionnaires distributed in this study amounted to 100 exemplars, and the number of questionnaires returned amounted to 100 exemplars, which means the rate of return is 100%. Based on the results of the collection of questionnaire answers from 100 respondents employees of the company, there is 1 questionnaire that is considered flawed due to incomplete charging procedures, so that the total questionnaire used as data is as close as 99 exemplars, and here is an overview of the characteristics of respondents that include gender, length of work, last education and working period.
The Table 2 above shows that the study sample of male gender is 84 people or 84% while the female gender is 16 people or 16%. This indicates that the company's employees are dominated by employees of the male gender, adjusting based on data and field conditions.
|Table 2 Respondent Characteristics by Gender|
|Gender||Number (Person)||Percentage (%)|
The Table 3 above shows that the most research samples were respondents with age groups 40-45 years, namely as many as 37 people or 37%, while the second is the age group of 46 - 50 years, that is as many as 29 people or 29%, the third is the age group of 51 - 55 years, that is as many as 23 people or 23%, the fourth is the age group of < 40 years as many as 8 people and the least is the age group of 55 - 60 Years as many as 3 people. From the results above, it can be known that the majority of respondents of company employees who filled out questionnaires which are up to 50 years old or as much as 74% and the rest are over 50 years old as much as 26%.
|Table 3 Characteristics of Respondents by Age|
|Age (years old)||Number (Person)||Percentage (%)|
|< 40||8||8 %|
The Table 4 above shows that most of the study sample is a group of respondents with high school education level, namely as many as 72 people or 72%, second is the group of respondents with S1 education level of 24 people or 24%, third is the group of respondents with S2 level of 3 people or 3%, while the least is the group of respondents with education level D3, which is as much as 1 person or 1% of the total respondents.
|Table 4 Characteristics of Respondents Based on Education|
|Education Level||Number (Person)||Percentage (%)(%)|
From the data above, it can be known that the company's employees are more dominated by employees with high school/vocational education background. As for employees with fewer higher education backgrounds because most of the services provided by the company do not require a higher educational background.
Respondent's Working Period
The Table 5 above shows that the most research samples was respondents with a long working group at intervals of 21 -30 years, as many as 50 people or 50%. While the second is the old working group of 10 -20 years, which is as many as 47 people or 47%, the third group of long working >30 years, that is as many as 3 people or 3% of the total respondents. From the results of the data above can be known that the management of the Company can maintain its workers so that it has a good level of loyalty to the company, and this can be seen from the long work of the employees who sample in this research has worked for decades in the Company.
|Table 5 Characteristics of Respondent's Working Period|
|Working Period (Year)||Number (Person)||Percentage (%)|
|10 - 20||47||47%|
|21 - 30||50||50%|
Descriptive statistical analysis was used to provide a statistical picture of the independent variables and dependent variables in this study. The independent variables in this study were Job Training and Career Development. Information contained in descriptive statistics in the form of mean, minimum, maximum and standard deviation values.
The Table 6 above shows that the number of research samples is 99. Companies with the lowest value of job training variables are 18, and the highest score is 88 with an average value of 58.28 and a standard deviation value of 20,475. The lowest rate of career development is 19, and the highest score is 90, with the average value being 58.87 and the standard deviation value is 20,462.
|Table 6 Descriptive Statistics|
|Valid N (listwise)||99|
Hypothesis test results show that job training has a significant effect on development career. It is said to be significant because the Sig value, the job training variable is smaller than 0.05, namely 0.00 <0.05. And obtained t-count t of 24.583 and t-table of 1.985. It can be concluded that t-count > t-table, then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. The magnitude of the influence of Job Training on Career Development can be seen in the R Square value of 86.2% and the remaining 13.8% is influenced by other variables outside of this study (Table 7).
|Table 7 Regression Test Results|
The results of this study are in line with previous research. Still, in this study, there is a difference with previous research that lies in the type of variables. The number of variables indicating the relationship between Training and Screening simultaneously affects the development of Employee Careers with a correlation coefficient (r) =0.603. Test-hypothesis analysis obtained calculated F value=12.303> F table=3.21. This indicates that there is a significant relationship between job training and employee career development.
In serving the development of the domestic market for the basic needs of society and consumers. As well as providing quality products and having been accredited by the Quality System Certification Body through ISO 9001 in 2020, the Company provides training schedules. Training is held weekly for 2 days while off from June to September 2020. Among others, training production drivers, service & security K3 in production, Cleaning service production area, and expertise operators setting production machinery, to improve the quality of good production and support the entire production system to run with SOP, which has been determined by the company.
Based on the results of the hypothesis test, it explains that job training has an influence on development career company employees with more job training significance level smaller than 0.05, namely 0.000 <0.05. so that the t count is 24,583 and t table is 1,985. So, it can be concluded that t-count> t-table, then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. The magnitude of the influence of Job Training on Career Development can be seen in the R Square value of 86.2% and the remaining 13.8% is influenced by other variables outside of this study.
The results of this study indicate the relationship between job training and career development of company employees. This shows a strong relationship between job training and employee career development. In serving the development of foreign markets, the basic needs of society and consumers as well as providing quality products and being accredited by the Quality System Certification Institute through ISO 9001 in 2020. the company provides a training schedule for its employees. This training is held every time off from June - September 2020. Production Driver training, K3 security & service in production, Cleaning service production areas, as well as production machine setting operator expertise, in an effort to improve good production quality and support the entire production system so that runs with the Standard Operating Procedure.
Aburumman, O., Salleh, A., Omar, K., & Abadi, M. (2020). The impact of human resource management practices and career satisfaction on employee’s turnover intention. Management Science Letters, 10(3), 641-652.
Ahmad, B., Bilal, A.R., & Hai, M. (2019). Expectations do not always hurt! Tying organizational career expectations to employment mode. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 11(4), 387-407.
Al Maani, A.I., Al Adwan, A., Areiqat, A.Y., Zamil, A.M.A., & Salameh, A.A. (2020). Level of administrative empowerment at private institution and its impact on institutional performance: A case study. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 8(2), 500-511.
Al-Dalahmeh, M., Héder-Rima, M., & Dajnoki, K. (2020). The effect of talent management practices on employee turnover intention in the information and communication technologies (ICTs) sector: Case of Jordan. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18(4), 59-71.
Alene, E.T. (2020). Determinants that influence the performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises in Ethiopia. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9(1).
Al-Jedaiah, M.N., & Albdareen, R. (2020). The effect of strategic human resources management (SHRM) on organizational excellence. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18(4), 49-58.
Alkaabneh, F., Diabat, A., & Gao, H.O. (2020). A unified framework for efficient, effective, and fair resource allocation by food banks using an approximate dynamic programming approach.
Alyushin, A.V, Arkhangelsky, V.G., & Alyushin, S.A. (2020). Acoustic monitoring of the psycho-emotional state of operational personnel in the management of high-risk objects based on neuromorphic self-learning systems. Proceedings of 2020 13th International Conference Management of Large-Scale System Development, MLSD 2020.
An, S.H., Meier, K.J., Ladenburg, J., & Westergård-Nielsen, N. (2020). Leadership and job satisfaction: Addressing endogeneity with panel data from a field experiment. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 40(4), 589-612.
Asmara, A., & Wu, M. C. (2020). An analytical study on the effective approaches to facilitate higher education cooperate with industry: Based on faculty members perspective. TEM Journal, 9(4), 1721-1731.
Avadanei, M., Olaru, S., Ionescu, I., Ursache, M., Ciobanu, L., Alexa, L., Luca, A., Olmos, M., Aslanidis, T., Belakova, D., & Silva, C. (2020). ICT new tools for a sustainable textile and clothing industry. Industria Textila, 71(5), 504-512.
Ayuningtias, H.G., Anggadwita, G., & Prasetia, A.Y. (2018). Global talent program as determinants of employees’ performance on telecommunication company in Indonesia. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 15(3), 242-257.
Babaei, A., & Shahanaghi, K. (2017). A new model for planning the distributed facilities locations under emergency conditions and uncertainty space in relief logistics. Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 5(2), 105-125.
Bächmann, A.C., Abraham, M., & Huber, M. (2019). When do firms evaluate further training measures?
International Journal of Manpower, 40(2), 190-210.
Bäker, A., Bech, M., Geerts, J., Maigaard Axelsen, S., Ullum, H., Krabbe, M.P., & Goodall, A.H. (2020). Motivating doctors into leadership and management: A cross-sectional survey. BMJ Leader, 4(4), 196-200. Bangaru, S.S., Wang, C., Zhou, X., Jeon, H.W., & Li, Y. (2020). Gesture recognition-based smart training assistant system for construction worker earplug-wearing training. Journal of Construction Engineering and
Barbosa, A.P.P.L., Salerno, M.S., Brasil, V.C., & Nascimento, P.T.D.S. (2020). Coordination approaches to foster open innovation r&d projects performance. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management - JET-M, 58.
Baruk, A.I. (2017). Contentment of employees vs their prosumeric activity in the scope of recommending an employer. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 32(5), 742-751.
Benati, K., & Fischer, J. (2020). Beyond human capital: student preparation for graduate life. Education and Training, 63(1), 151-163.
Berry, R., & Routon, W. (2020). Soft skill change perceptions of accounting majors: Current practitioner views versus their own reality. Journal of Accounting Education, 53.
Bianchi, M., Valle, I.D., & Tapia, C. (2020). Measuring eco-efficiency in European regions: Evidence from a territorial perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 276.
Blair, C.R. (1959). On Computer Transcription of Manual Morse. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 6(3), 429-442.
Bokrantz, J., Skoogh, A., Berlin, C., Wuest, T., & Stahre, J. (2020). Smart Maintenance: an empirically grounded conceptualization. International Journal of Production Economics, 223.
Bozeman, B. (2010). Hard lessons from hard times: Reconsidering and reorienting the managing decline literature.
Public Administration Review, 70(4), 557-563.
Buzzetta, M.E., Lenz, J.G., Hayden, S.C.W., & Osborn, D.S. (2020). Student veterans: Meaning in life, negative career thoughts, and depression. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 361-373.
Cadenas, G.A., Lynn, N., Li, K.M., Liu, L., Cantú, E.A., Ruth, A., Carroll, S., Kulp, S., & Spence, T. (2020). Racial/Ethnic Minority Community College Students’ Critical Consciousness and Social Cognitive Career Outcomes. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 302-317.
Cain, B., & Wright, G. (2007). Institutional change in American politics: The case of term limits.
Chao, N., Chen, G., Li, J., Xiang, L., Wang, Z., & Tian, K. (2020). Groundwater Storage Change in the Jinsha River Basin from GRACE, Hydrologic Models, and In Situ Data. Groundwater, 58(5), 735-748.
Chernichovsky, D., & Bayulken, C. (1995). A pay-for-performance system for civil service doctors: The Indonesian experiment. Social Science and Medicine, 41(2), 155-161.
Chiao, V. (2019). Fairness, accountability and transparency: Notes on algorithmic decision-making in criminal justice. International Journal of Law in Context, 15(2), 126-139.
Chidiac, E. (2018). Strategic management of diversity in the workplace: A comparative study of the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia. In strategic management of diversity in the workplace: A comparative study of the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia.
Chomkhamsri, K., Mungcharoen, T., & Yuvaniyama, C. (2017). 10-year experience with the Thai national LCI database: case study of refinery products. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22(11), 1-11.
Choudhary, S., Memon, N.Z., & Mishra, K. (2020). Examining the influence of human capital on employees’ innovative work behaviour: A moderated serial mediation model. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 7(2), 189-213.
Cigularov, K.P., & Dillulio, P. (2020). Does rater job position matter in training needs assessment? A study of municipal employees in the USA. International Journal of Training and Development, 24(4), 337-356.
Cismas, S.C. (2017). Romanian professors adapting e-learning strategies to wider student audiences. Proceedings of the 30th International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2017 - Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic Development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth, 2017-January, 5300-5310.
Clarke, L., & Lipsig-Mummé, C. (2020). Future conditional: From just transition to radical transformation?
European Journal of Industrial Relations, 26(4), 351-366.
Clempner, J.B. (2019). Penalizing passenger’s transfer time in computing airlines revenue. Omega (United Kingdom).
Cohen, J.R., Krishnamoorthy, G., & Wright, A.M. (2000). Evidence on the effect of financial and nonfinancial trends on analytical review. Auditing, 19(1), 26-48.
Collin, K., Lemmetty, S., & Riivari, E. (2020). Human resource development practices supporting creativity in Finnish growth organizations. International Journal of Training and Development, 24(4), 321-336.
Couch, K.A., Ross, M.B., & Vavrek, J. (2018). Career Pathways and Integrated Instruction: A National Program Review of I-BEST Implementations. Journal of Labor Research, 39(1), 99-125.
Cui, Z., Liu, J., Xia, B., & Cheng, Y. (2019). Beyond national culture difference: The role of cultural intelligence in cooperation within international construction joint ventures and insights from Chinese companies. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 26(7), 1476-1497.
Cummins, S., Nielson, B., Peltier, J.W., & Deeter-Schmelz, D. (2020). A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators 2.0. Journal of Marketing Education, 42(3), 198-216.
Dalglish, C. (2012). Archaeology and landscape ethics. World Archaeology, 44(3), 327-341.
Dalla Rosa, A., Vianello, M., Galliani, E.M., & Duffy, R.D. (2020). Moderators of career calling and job-search behaviors among unemployed individuals. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 318-331.
Dias, J.P. (2013). Citizenship and justice: Public prosecutors in social contexts in Portugal. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 20(1), 87-109.
Dipeolu, A., Hargrave, S., Leierer, S.J., Mainzer, E.A., & Davies, L. (2020). Dysfunctional career thoughts and perceived quality of parental relationships in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 288-301.
Ellington, H. (2012). How simulation/gaming transformed my life. Simulation and Gaming, 43(2), 257-269.
Epping, E. (2020). Lifting the smokescreen of science diplomacy: comparing the political instrumentation of science and innovation centres. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 7(1).
Fatoki, O. (2020). Determinants of hotel employees’ electricity saving intention: Extending the theory of planned behaviour. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 8(2), 86-97.
Fernandez, V., & Gallardo-Gallardo, E. (2020). Tackling the HR digitalization challenge: key factors and barriers to HR analytics adoption. Competitiveness Review, 31(1), 162-187.
Fogarassy, C., Szabo, K., & Poor, J. (2017). Critical issues of human resource planning, performance evaluation and long-term development on the central region and non-central areas: Hungarian case study for investors. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 9, 1-9.
Gahlawat, N., & Kundu, S.C. (2020). Unravelling the relationship between high-involvement work practices and organizational citizenship behaviour: A sequential mediation approach. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 7(2), 165-188.
Gaillard, A., Sultan Taïeb, H., Sylvain, C., & Durand, M.J. (2020). Economic evaluations of mental health interventions: A systematic review of interventions with work-focused components. Safety Science, 132.
García, R.L., Carrasco, J.O.L., García, L.E.C., & Orocio, R.N. (2020). Trending overweight and obesity in college football players in Mexico. Retos, 40, 289-295.
Ghosh, S., & Mukherjee, S. (2020). The relevance of spirituality and corporate social responsibility in management education: Insights from classical Indian wisdom. Philosophy of Management, 19(4), 469-497.
Goldstein, H., & Hendriks, R. (2010). Unplugging the DAM: Making digital asset management business process based by deconstructing it. Archiving 2010 - Preservation Strategies and Imaging Technologies for Cultural Heritage Institutions and Memory Organizations, Final Program and Proceedings.
Hall, C.M. (2014). Tourism and social marketing. In Tourism and Social Marketing.
Hammond, R.W. (2020). Sales student preconceptions and a novel approach to sales curriculum mapping: Insights, Implications, and application for sales educators. Journal of Marketing Education, 42(3), 304-323.
Harris, L.C., & Ogbonna, E. (2001). Strategic human resource management, market orientation, and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 51(2), 157-166.
Hart, G.C., & Hart, M. (2014). Transforming south african libraries through leadership education: A programme evaluation. Libri, 64(4), 381-395.
Hasegawa, K. (2017). Interactive reason in law. In Law, Reason, and Emotion.
Hirsch, P.B. (2019). What news on the Rialto? Geopolitics and reputation risk. Journal of Business Strategy, 40(6), 9-15.
Holst, J., Brock, A., Singer-Brodowski, M., & de Haan, G. (2020). Monitoring progress of change: Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) within documents of the German education system. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(10).
Hur, H., & Ha, H. (2019). The link between perceptions of fairness, job training opportunity and at-will employees’ work attitudes: Lessons from US Georgia state government. European Journal of Training and Development, 43(3-4), 375-397.
Ibrahim, H., Zin, M.L.M., & Vengdasamy, P. (2020). The influence of individual characteristics, training content and manager support on on-the-job training effectiveness. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(11), 499-506.
Ishizue, R., Sakamoto, K., Washizaki, H., & Fukazawa, Y. (2018). Student placement and skill ranking predictors for programming classes using class attitude, psychological scales, and code metrics. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 13(1).
Issayeva, G.K., Zhussipova, E.Y., Kuralbayeva, A.S., Beisenova, M.U., Maulenkulova, G.E., & Zhakipbekova, D.
S. (2020). Convergent technologies in science and innovations in Kazakhstan. Business and Society Review, 125(4), 411-424.
Jabutay, F.A., & Rungruang, P. (2020). Turnover intent of new workers: social exchange perspectives. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 13(1), 60-79.
Jenčo, M., & Lysá, L. (2018). Evaluation of a work team strategy by using the SWOT analysis. Quality - Access to Success, 19(165), 39-44.
Johnson, K. F. (2020). Counselor trainees’ interprofessional self-efficacy after a career development intervention.
Journal of Employment Counseling, 57(4), 146-162.
Jonsson, F., & Goicolea, I. (2020). We believe in you, like really believe in you: Initiating a realist study of (re)engagement initiatives for youth not in employment, education or training with experiences from northern Sweden. Evaluation and Program Planning, 83.
Juanamasta, I. G., Wati, N. M. N., Hendrawati, E., Wahyuni, W., Pramudianti, M., Wisnujati, N. S., & Umanailo, M. C. B. (2019). The role of customer service through customer relationship management (Crm) to increase customer loyalty and good image. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 8(10), 2004-2007.
Kamberidou, I. (2020). Distinguished women entrepreneurs in the digital economy and the multitasking whirlpool.
Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9(1).
Kang, L.S., & Kaur, G. (2020). Personal cognitive factors affecting career aspirations of women working in financial sector in India. Vision, 24(4), 419-430.
Katona, K., & Heltai, M. (2018). Diet composition and food habits of wild boar – A literature review. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 16(2), 65-74.
Kiguli-Malwadde, E., Budak, J.Z., Chilemba, E., Semitala, F., Von Zinkernagel, D., Mosepele, M., Conradie, H., Khanyola, J., Haruruvizhe, C., Martin, S., & Reid, M.J. (2020). Developing an interprofessional transition course to improve team-based HIV care for sub-Saharan Africa. BMC medical education, 20(1), 1-8.
Kim, J. (2020). Occupational credentials and job qualities of direct care workers: Implications for labor shortages.
Journal of Labor Research, 41(4), 403-420.
Kohavi, H., Roded, A.D., & Raviv, A. (2020). Continuity and change in role definitions and training models of school psychologists in Israel. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 154(8), 545-567.
Lamont, M., & Small, M.L. (2008). How culture matters: Enriching our understanding of poverty. In The colors of poverty : Why racial and ethnic disparities persist.
Lee, J.Y. (2018). The effects of job characteristics on the team creativity of distribution companies: Moderating effects of transformational leadership. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 5(4), 161-172.
Lefebvre, J.I., Montani, F., & Courcy, F. (2020). Self-compassion and resilience at work: A practice-oriented review. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 22(4), 437-452.
Leite, H., Gonçalves, V., & Figueiredo, A.C. (2014). A 360 degree program in screening, training and assessing workers in live working. ICOLIM 2014 - 11th International Conference on Live Maintenance.
Li, W., Liu, C., Liu, S., Zhang, X., Shi, R.G., Jiang, H., Ling, Y., & Sun, H. (2020). Perceptions of education quality and influence of language barrier: graduation survey of international medical students at four universities in China. BMC Medical Education, 20(1).
Liff, R., Eriksson, A.C., & Wikström, E. (2017). Attending weak signals: The prevention of work-related illnesses.
Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 7(2), 49-69.
Linnik, A., Amerkhanova, A., Kudaibergenov, N., Sariyeva, Z., & Nurlikhina, G. (2020). Modern aspects of adapting sustainable strategic business planning. Studies case from oil industry and the tourism industry. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 11(8), 2028-2042.
Magnotta, S.R., Peev, P., & Steffes, E. (2020). Everyone’s a Winner: The Initiation and Effectiveness of an Intracollegiate Sales Competition. Journal of Marketing Education, 42(3), 243-256.
Malone, P., & Reid, M. (1982). Industrial social work: Is there a case for the development of an in‐house social work service? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 20(4), 11-18.
Marsh, D.R., Alayan, A.J., & Dik, B.J. (2020). Answered callings, unanswered callings, or no calling: examining a nationally representative sample. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 374-380.
Milica, D., & Milica, J. (2020). Productive employment and working conditions as determinants of sustainable economic development in Serbia. Studies in Business and Economics, 14(3), 84-96.
Miller, E.D. (2020). 2020 Reflections from a mid-career academic psychologist: Select tips for prospective graduate psychology students. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 154(8), 535-544.
Miller, V. (2018). The nicaraguan literacy crusade: Education for transformation. In Combatting poverty through adult education: National development strategies.
Mirzaee, S.M.S., Mirfakhredini, S.H., Sadrabadi, A.N., & Sharifabadi, A.M. (2020). Compiling the strategies of alfa mining company and prioritizing them by waspas method. Logforum, 16(3), 447-463.
Muff, K., Liechti, A., & Dyllick, T. (2020). How to apply responsible leadership theory in practice: A competency tool to collaborate on the sustainable development goals. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(5), 2254-2274.
Mylona, E., & Mihail, D. (2020). Exploring public employees’ motivation to learn and develop in turbulent times. The role of perceived support and organizational commitment. International Journal of Public Administration, 43(16), 1366-1375.
Naval, J., Silva, J.I., & Vázquez-Grenno, J. (2020). Employment effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition.
Labour Economics, 67.
Park, S., Garrison, Y.L., & Liu, W.M. (2020). Career Decision Ambiguity Tolerance of Asian Men in the United States. Journal of Career Development, 47(6), 642-656.
Phillips, R., Milligan, V., & Jones, A. (2009). Integration and social housing in Australia: Theory and practice.
AHURI Final Report, 129, 1-100.
Prabowo, B., Rochmatulaili, E., Rusdiyanto, & Sulistyowati, E. (2020). Corporate governance and its impact in company’s stock price: case study. Utopia y Praxis Latinoamericana, 25(Extra10), 187-196.
Ramanchi, R., Mehta, S., & Vedera, M. (2017). Equity research and valuation: Jet Airways. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 7(2), 1-28.
Ramesh, N., & Ravi, A. (2017). Determinants of total employee involvement: A case study of a cutting tool company. International Journal of Business Excellence, 11(2), 221-240.
Reeder, N. (2020). Organizational culture and career development in the British civil service. Public Money and Management, 40(8), 559-568.
Robinson-Morral, E.J., Hendrickson, C., Gilbert, S., Myers, T., Simpson, K., & Loignon, A.C. (2018). Practical considerations for conducting job analysis linkage exercises. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 17(1), 12- 21.
Rusdiyanto, Agustia, D., Soetedjo, S., & Septiarini, D.F. (2020). The effect of cash turnover and receivable turnover on profitability | El efecto de la rotación de efectivo y la rotación de cuentas por cobrar en la rentabilidad. Opcion, 36(Special Ed), 1417-1432.
Rusdiyanto, Hidayat, W., Tjaraka, H., Septiarini, D.F., Fayanni, Y., Utari, W., Waras, Indrawati, M., Susanto, H., Tjahjo, J.D.W., Zainal, M., & Imanawati, Z. (2020). The effect of earning per share, debt to equity ratio and return on assets on stock prices: Case study Indonesian. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 26(2), 1-10.
Saridakis, G., Lai, Y., & Cooper, C.L. (2017). Exploring the relationship between HRM and firm performance: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Human Resource Management Review, 27(1), 87-96.
Scerri, M., Presbury, R., & Goh, E. (2020). An application of the mentoring framework to investigate the effectiveness of mentoring programs between industry mentors and student mentees in hospitality. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45, 143-151.
Shahsavari-Pour, N., Asadi, H., Asadi-Pasoojani, M., Kazemi, M., Mirzaie, A., & Karami, M. (2017). A new approach for building a strategy map based on digraph theory. International Journal of Applied Management Science, 9(1), 1-18.
Shakur, E.S.A., Sa’at, N.H., Aziz, N., Abdullah, S.S., & Rasid, N.H.A. (2020). Determining unemployment factors among job seeking youth in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(12), 565-576.
Shiferaw, R.M. (2020). Effects of short-term training on pastoral community employment creation and livelihood improvement: a study on selected Ethiopian pastoral areas. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9(1).
Shrotryia, V.K., & Dhanda, U. (2020a). Development of employee engagement measure: experiences from best companies to work for in India. Measuring Business Excellence, 24(3), 319-343.
Shrotryia, V.K., & Dhanda, U. (2020b). Exploring Employee Engagement Using Grounded Theory: Experiences from Best Firms in India. Vision, 24(2), 171-183.
Siebert, A.L., Chou, S., Toubat, O., Adami, A.J., Kim, H., Daye, D., & Kwan, J.M. (2020). Factors associated with underrepresented minority physician scientist trainee career choices. BMC Medical Education, 20(1).
Smirnov, P. (2019). Employee engagement: Types, levels of realization and links with human resource management practices. Organizatsionnaya Psikhologiya, 9(1), 81-95.
Sopha, B.M., Achsan, R.E.D., & Asih, A.M.S. (2019). Mount Merapi eruption: Simulating dynamic evacuation and volunteer coordination using agent-based modeling approach. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 9(2), 292-322.
Stewart, S.M., Gruys, M.L., & Storm, M. (2010). Forced distribution performance evaluation systems: Advantages, disadvantages and keys to implementation. Journal of Management and Organization, 16(1), 168-179.
Strohmeier, S. (2020). Digital human resource management: A conceptual clarification. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 34(3), 345-365.
Sukova, L. (2020). Greiner’s Model and Its Application in Automotive Companies in the Czech Republic. Acta Informatica Pragensia, 9(1), 18-29.
Swiatek-Barylska, I. (2017). Core values and formalization as determinants of individual behavior in an organization: A managerial perspective. In Exploring the Influence of Personal Values and Cultures in the Workplace.
Syafii, M., Ulum, B., Rusdiyanto, Suparman, P., Rahayu, D.I., & Syasindy, N.B. (2020). The effect of financial performance on the company’s share price: A case study Indonesian. European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, 7(8), 1055-1071.
Teimouri, H., Sarand, V.F., & Hosseini, S.H. (2017). Assessment of the relationship between intellectual capital and organisational health through mediator of employee empowerment (case study: Islamic Azad University employees Shabestar). International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 14(1), 11-23.
Ting, L.C., & Datu, J.A.D. (2020). Triarchic model of grit dimensions as predictors of career outcomes. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 348-360.
Townsend, R., & Gershon, M. (2020). Attaining Successful Construction Project Execution through Personnel and Communication. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 146(9).
Toyokawa, T., & DeWald, C. (2020). Perceived career barriers and career decidedness of first-generation college students. Career Development Quarterly, 68(4), 332–347.
Trullen, J., Bos-Nehles, A., & Valverde, M. (2020). From intended to actual and beyond: A cross-disciplinary view of (human resource management) implementation. International Journal of Management Reviews, 22(2), 150-176.
Van Hootegem, A., De Witte, H., De Cuyper, N., & Elst, T.V. (2019). Job insecurity and the willingness to undertake training: The moderating role of perceived employability. Journal of Career Development, 46(4), 395-409.
Veble, K., & Veble, V. (2020). Lifelong learning in the water sector-bioethical observations. Jahr, 11(22), 559-580.
Verma, B.K., & Kesari, B. (2020). Does the morale impact on employee turnover intention? An empirical investigation in the Indian steel industry. Global Business Review, 21(6), 1466-1488.
Wanberg, C.R., van Hooft, E.A.J., Liu, S., & Csillag, B. (2020). Can job seekers achieve more through networking? The role of networking intensity, self-efficacy, and proximal benefits. Personnel Psychology, 73(4), 559- 585.
Wang, Y.L. (2010). Flexible and responsive multi-agent based logistics coordination management. ICIME 2010 - 2010 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information Management and Engineering, 3, 43-47.
Weisfeld, N., & Falk, D. (1983). Chasing elusive competence. Recertification assures competence where continuing education cannot. Hospitals, 57(5), 61–68.
Wickam, M.J., Finley, L.R., & Saeger, K. (2020). Assessing alignment of entrepreneurial spirit to job descriptions seeking business administration or management undergraduates. Journal of Education for Business, 95(8), 527-533.
Wong, S.I., Fieseler, C., & Kost, D. (2020). Digital labourers’ proactivity and the venture for meaningful work: Fruitful or fruitless? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 93(4), 887-911.
Woods, A.L., Luciano, M.M., Aloia, T.A., Gottumukkala, V., & Salas, E. (2020). Functional framework for change leaders: Results of a qualitative study. BMJ Leader, 4(4), 207-213.
Wu, Y.L. (2019). Examining self-perceived employability among immigrant women participating in vocational training in Taiwan. International Journal of Training and Development, 23(4), 313-327.
Xie, S., Mo, X., Hu, S., & Liu, S. (2020). Contributions of climate change, elevated atmospheric CO<inf>2</inf> and human activities to ET and GPP trends in the Three-North Region of China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 295.
Xifré, R. (2020). New development: Eloquent silence-civil service career development in the EU financial assistance programmes conditionality. Public Money and Management, 40(8), 607-610.
Yonglin, J., & Yanhong, W. (2007). Satisfying both sentiment and law: Fairness-centered judicial reasoning as seen in late ming casebooks. Thinking with Cases: Specialist Knowledge in Chinese Cultural History, 31-61.
Yung, B.H.W. (2001). Three views of fairness in a school-based assessment scheme of practical work in biology.
International Journal of Science Education, 23(10), 985-1005.
Zhao, S., & Wu, X. (2020). Motivations and consumption practices of fostered idol fans: a self-determination theory approach. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 38(1), 91-100.
Ziede, J. S., & Norcross, J.C. (2020). Personal therapy and self-care in the making of psychologists. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 154(8), 585-618.
Zuo, Y., Weng, Q., & Xie, X. (2020). Are All Internships Equally Beneficial? Toward a Contingency Model of Internship Efficacy. Journal of Career Development, 47(6), 627-641.