Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 2

Vocational Training Has an Influence on Employee Career Development: A Case Study Indonesia

Indra Prasetyo, Universitas Wijaya Putra Indonesia

Nabilah Aliyyah, Universitas Wijaya Putra Indonesia

Rusdiyanto, Universitas Airlangga and Universitas Gresik

Heru Tjaraka, Universitas Airlangga Indonesia

Nawang Kalbuana, Politeknik Penerbangan Indonesia Curug Indonesia

Arif Syafi'ur Rochman, Universitas Gresik

Abstract

Objective: This paper aims to test the effect employee job training has on employee career development in the company.

Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach with the process of finding the knowledge by using data in the form of numbers as a tool that can be generalized to prove hypotheses. The population in this study was 135 employees by sampling 100 employees using sampling method probability by using random sampling type samples to use slovin formula. Analysis techniques use multiple linear regressions.

Findings: The results showed that job training influences the career development of employees in companies with a significant rate of 0.00 less than α=0.05. Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for company employees to conduct job training as a tool to improve career development. Originality: Previous research has been conducted to test job training on employee career development in large companies; the findings conclude that employee job training affects employee career development. This research researchers try to research medium-scale companies down.

Keywords

Career Development, Job Training, Employee.

Introduction

In today's globalization era, competition between companies is growing much more advanced than before. Business is inseparable from the production, purchase, sale, and exchange of goods and services involving people or companies. Activities in Business, in general, have the aim of generating profit for survival and raising enough funds for the implementation of business activities.

A business is an organization that sells goods or services to consumers for profit. Historically the English word for business is Business, from the basic word busy, which means busy in individuals, communities, or communities. The notion of busy can be explained by doing activities and work that bring benefits. Business, in a broad sense, is all activities by the community of suppliers of goods and services.

Human Resources are part of the advancement of science, development, and technology. Therefore, the era of technology and civilization has been very advanced, demanding competent Human Resources who have a high spirit and discipline in carrying out their roles and functions both for individual and organizational purposes. Therefore, the progress of a country depends on the ability of human resources.

Literature Review

Human Resource Management

Human beings are the drivers and managers of other production factors such as capital, raw materials, equipment, and others to achieve organizational goals; with the development of an organization, the more difficult the planning and control of employees.

Human resource management is a very strategic field of the organization and should be viewed broadly from the traditional view to manage people effectively (Harris & Ogbonna, 2001; Phillips et al., 2009; Bozeman, 2010: Chomkhamsri et al., 2017; Chidiac, 2018). It requires knowledge of human behavior how to manage its knowledge capabilities. Human resource management is a process to acquire, train, assess (Leite et al., 2014), compensate employees for taking care of their workforce, their health, and their occupational safety (Weisfeld & Falk, 1983: Chernichovsky & Bayulken, 1995; Veble & Veble, 2020). Matters concerning the fairness of their work (Yung, 2001; Cain & Wright, 2007; Yonglin & Yanhong, 2007; Lamont & Small, 2008; Dalglish, 2012; Dias, 2013; Hasegawa, 2017; Chiao, 2019 ).

Utilization of several individuals to achieve organizational goals (Malone & Reid, 1982; Wang, 2010; Hall, 2014). Individuals deal with human resource problems and always face constantly changing challenges so that the government is always there, the technological revolution is always new (Clempner, 2019; Cui et al., 2019; Smirnov, 2019; Sopha et al., 2019; Mirzaee et al., 2020; Alkaabneh et al., 2020;). Human resource management is the science and art of regulating the relationships and roles of the workforce to effectively and efficiently help realize the goals of companies, employees, and society (Babaei & Shahanaghi, 2017; Fogarassy et al., 2017; Jenčo & Lysá, 2018; Liff et al., 2017; Saridakis et al., 2017; Teimouri et al., 2017).

Basically human resource management has an understanding of how to manage people to achieve organizational goals ( Katona & Heltai, 2018; Xie et al., 2020; Chao et al., 2020). Managing human resource management is not easy because it is managed by human beings with all their senses and consciences. The definition of human resource management (Alyushin et al., 2020; Barbosa et al., 2020; Bianchi et al., 2020; Muff et al., 2020; Townsend & Gershon, 2020; Wickam et al., 2020) Is the process of conducting planning activities, organizing, personnel preparation, mobilization, supervision of its operational functions in achieving the objectives of the organization (Bokrantz et al., 2020; Fernandez & Gallardo-Gallardo, 2020; Shrotryia & Dhanda, 2020a, 2020b; Strohmeier, 2020; Trullen et al., 2020).

Job Training

Training or training is intended to improve the mastery of various skills and techniques of certain work implementation, detailed, and routine (Gaillard et al., 2020; García et al., 2020; Jonsson & Goicolea, 2020; Kiguli-Malwadde et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; Siebert et al., 2020). As well as preparing employees for the current job. Training according to (An et al., 2020; Bangaru et al., 2020; Cigularov & Dillulio, 2020; Mylona & Mihail, 2020; Naval et al., 2020; Wanberg et al., 2020). New employees need to be given the training to have the skills that fit their needs in doing their work. Training is the responsibility of a manager to develop employees in a company. According to (Al Maani et al., 2020; Gahlawat & Kundu, 2020; Kim, 2020; shakur et al., 2020; Shiferaw, 2020; Wong et al., 2020; Woods et al., 2020), 'Training refers to the methods used to give new employees the skills they need to do the job''.

According to (Alene, 2020; Bäker et al., 2020; Choudhary et al., 2020; Clarke & Lipsig-Mummé, 2020; Fatoki, 2020; Milica & Milica, 2020) Activity activities are designed to provide employees with the learning, skills, and knowledge needed for their current work. Job training has many benefits for the company and employees to develop the careers of employees. For the company, job training will ensure the ability and quality of employees in competing and doing their work effectively and efficiently for now and in the future (Al-Dalahmeh et al., 2020; Asmara & Wu, 2020; Ibrahim et al., 2020; Jabutay & Rungruang, 2020; Kohavi et al., 2020; Lefebvre et al., 2020; Milica & Milica, 2020).

Career Development

A career is all a job or a position that a person has when working. For a wide variety of companies hiring people is a part of a plan that is carefully distorted. For other companies, a career is just a view of fate. Indeed, career planning will not guarantee if it will be successful (Buzzetta et al., 2020; Cadenas et al., 2020; Dipeolu et al., 2020; Johnson, 2020; Ting & Datu, 2020; Toyokawa & DeWald, 2020). Career planning needs to be implemented so that employees are always ready to use existing career opportunities. Successful companies usually develop career planning and then strive to achieve their plans. Career approaches must be managed through carefully supervised and correct planning (Dalla Rosa et al., 2020; Kang & Kaur, 2020; Park et al., 2020; Verma & Kesari, 2020; Wong et al., 2020; Zuo et al., 2020).

Employee development programs should be carefully structured and based on scientific methods and based on the skills the company needs for now and in the future (Collin et al., 2020; Cummins et al., 2020; Issayeva et al., 2020; Magnotta et al., 2020; Marsh et al., 2020; Scerri et al., 2020). This development aims to improve the theoretical, technical, conceptual, and moral ability of employees so that their work performance is good and achieve optimal results. Employee development is considered increasingly important because of the demands of work or position due to technological advances and increasingly tight competition between companies (Berry & Routon, 2020; Hammond, 2020).

Most people's careers are a series of jobs that employees go through from the lower level to the top level of the company (Al Maani et al., 2020; Epping, 2020; Ghosh & Mukherjee, 2020; Kamberidou, 2020; Linnik et al., 2020; Zhao & Wu, 2020). A career can also be a series of jobs or positions that employees have when entering the company. A career is like a fate that can be changed by human effort. Career planning will help employees in organizing their destiny (Al-Jedaiah & Albdareen, 2020; Benati & Fischer, 2020; E. D. Miller, 2020; Reeder, 2020; Xifré, 2020; Ziede & Norcross, 2020).

Employment Training and Career Development Relationships

Training is basically a step implemented by the company to explore the potential or improve the quality of work of employees. To improve their position at this time. To move to a higher position in the company. The development of a closely related career in one company is increasingly clear. Their views and efforts in developing their potential will also be satisfied the employees, and they will not feel disappointed. And the more the spirit of work, the higher their loyalty for the advancement of the company (Cismas, 2017; Hur & Ha, 2019; Van Hootegem et al., 2019; Wu, 2019; Ahmad et al., 2019; Aburumman et al., 2020).

Training is very important for various considerations in conducting assessments before carrying out training, namely employee reaction, employee learning, employee behavior, and results after training ( Stewart et al., 2010; Cohen et al., 2000; Couch et al., 2018; Lee, 2018; Robinson-Morral et al., 2018; Bächmann et al., 2019). At each level, a comparison will be made. See the influence before and after the training. The implementation of training and development programs serves as a transformation process (Goldstein & Hendriks, 2010; Hart & Hart, 2014; V. Miller, 2018; Holst et al., 2020). Untrained employees are transformed into capable employees so that they can be given greater responsibility.

System design begins with a career path connecting one position to another (O2 Makes the Right Connections with Employees: Company among Top Five in UK for Staff Satisfaction, 2007; Ellington, 2012; Swiatek-Barylska, 2017). Career paths can be attributed based on position, position, employee profession. The most complicated process is determining similar positions and finding positions that have similarities and associations to form a career path (Blair, 1959). The design of the cauterization program is formulated after the design of a career path; through this cauterization program, vacant positions can be filled. It can be known employees who are suitable employees to occupy the position. This cauterization program provides information about promotions or mutations that can be experienced by employees (Ayuningtias et al., 2018; Hirsch, 2019; Ishizue et al., 2018; Sukova, 2020; Avadanei et al., 2020). With this information, the company can prepare employees to have individual qualifications in accordance with the new position so that the transfer of employees can be done without compromising the effectiveness of the organization (Baruk, 2017; Ramanchi et al., 2017; Ramesh & Ravi, 2017; Shahsavari-Pour et al., 2017).

Conceptual Framework

To give an idea in this research, the conceptual framework model of the influence of job training on employee career development can be described in the picture as follows (Figure 1):

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework

Training greatly influences an employee to develop his/her skills effectively for the sake of an employee's future career.

Research Methodology

This research uses a quantitative approach based on positive that can be used to research the population and employee samples of companies for data collection using research instruments that have been described before. Quantitative shortness stands on problem formulation, modeling, obtaining data, finding solutions, testing solutions, analyzing results (Juanamasta et al., 2019; Prabowo et al., 2020; Rusdiyanto, Agustia, et al., 2020; Rusdiyanto, Hidayat, et al., 2020; Syafii et al., 2020). One stage does not have to be completed thoroughly before the next stage begins (Table 1).

Table 1 Operational Definition of Variable
Variable Definition Measurement
Scale
Job Training (X) Training is an activity that aims to improve the mastery of various skills and techniques in the implementation of work, detailing each performance routinely of the employees (An et al., 2020; Cigularov & Dillulio, 2020; Mylona & Mihail, 2020; Naval et al., 2020; Wanberg et
al., 2020).
Likert scale
Career Development (Y) Career development is all a job or position that a person has when working. For a wide variety of companies hiring people is a part of a carefully conceived plan (Cadenas et al., 2020; Dipeolu et al., 2020; Johnson, 2020; Ting & Datu, 2020; Toyokawa & DeWald, 2020). Likert scale

Training Variable Indicator (X)

a) Employees

b) The internship process

c) Support system

d) Equipment

e) Executive coach

f) Development

Career Development Variable Indicator (Y)

a) Performance

b) Exposure

c) Leveraging

d) Dedication

e) Mentors and sponsors

f) Education

Results and Discussion

Respondent Description

The number of questionnaires distributed in this study amounted to 100 exemplars, and the number of questionnaires returned amounted to 100 exemplars, which means the rate of return is 100%. Based on the results of the collection of questionnaire answers from 100 respondents employees of the company, there is 1 questionnaire that is considered flawed due to incomplete charging procedures, so that the total questionnaire used as data is as close as 99 exemplars, and here is an overview of the characteristics of respondents that include gender, length of work, last education and working period.

Respondent's Gender

The Table 2 above shows that the study sample of male gender is 84 people or 84% while the female gender is 16 people or 16%. This indicates that the company's employees are dominated by employees of the male gender, adjusting based on data and field conditions.

Table 2 Respondent Characteristics by Gender
Gender Number (Person) Percentage (%)
Male 84 84%
Female 16 16%

Respondent's Age

The Table 3 above shows that the most research samples were respondents with age groups 40-45 years, namely as many as 37 people or 37%, while the second is the age group of 46 - 50 years, that is as many as 29 people or 29%, the third is the age group of 51 - 55 years, that is as many as 23 people or 23%, the fourth is the age group of < 40 years as many as 8 people and the least is the age group of 55 - 60 Years as many as 3 people. From the results above, it can be known that the majority of respondents of company employees who filled out questionnaires which are up to 50 years old or as much as 74% and the rest are over 50 years old as much as 26%.

Table 3 Characteristics of Respondents by Age
Age (years old) Number (Person) Percentage (%)
< 40 8 8 %
40-45 37 37 %
46-50 29 29 %
51-55 23 23 %
55-60 3 3 %
Total 99 100 %

Respondent's Education

The Table 4 above shows that most of the study sample is a group of respondents with high school education level, namely as many as 72 people or 72%, second is the group of respondents with S1 education level of 24 people or 24%, third is the group of respondents with S2 level of 3 people or 3%, while the least is the group of respondents with education level D3, which is as much as 1 person or 1% of the total respondents.

Table 4 Characteristics of Respondents Based on Education
Education Level Number (Person) Percentage (%)(%)
SMA 72 72%
D3 1 1%
S1 24 24%
S2 3 3%
TOTAL 99 100%

From the data above, it can be known that the company's employees are more dominated by employees with high school/vocational education background. As for employees with fewer higher education backgrounds because most of the services provided by the company do not require a higher educational background.

Respondent's Working Period

The Table 5 above shows that the most research samples was respondents with a long working group at intervals of 21 -30 years, as many as 50 people or 50%. While the second is the old working group of 10 -20 years, which is as many as 47 people or 47%, the third group of long working >30 years, that is as many as 3 people or 3% of the total respondents. From the results of the data above can be known that the management of the Company can maintain its workers so that it has a good level of loyalty to the company, and this can be seen from the long work of the employees who sample in this research has worked for decades in the Company.

Table 5 Characteristics of Respondent's Working Period
Working Period (Year) Number (Person) Percentage (%)
10 - 20 47 47%
21 - 30 50 50%
> 30 3 3%
Total 99 100%

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistical analysis was used to provide a statistical picture of the independent variables and dependent variables in this study. The independent variables in this study were Job Training and Career Development. Information contained in descriptive statistics in the form of mean, minimum, maximum and standard deviation values.

The Table 6 above shows that the number of research samples is 99. Companies with the lowest value of job training variables are 18, and the highest score is 88 with an average value of 58.28 and a standard deviation value of 20,475. The lowest rate of career development is 19, and the highest score is 90, with the average value being 58.87 and the standard deviation value is 20,462.

Table 6 Descriptive Statistics
  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Training 99 18 88 58.28 20.475
Career Development 99 19 90 58.87 20.462
Valid N (listwise) 99        

Discussion

Hypothesis test results show that job training has a significant effect on development career. It is said to be significant because the Sig value, the job training variable is smaller than 0.05, namely 0.00 <0.05. And obtained t-count t of 24.583 and t-table of 1.985. It can be concluded that t-count > t-table, then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. The magnitude of the influence of Job Training on Career Development can be seen in the R Square value of 86.2% and the remaining 13.8% is influenced by other variables outside of this study (Table 7).

Table 7 Regression Test Results
Coefficients’
  Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.
Model B Std.
Error
Beta
1 (Constant) 4.802 2.33   2.061 0.042
  Training 0.928 0.038 0.928 24.583 0

The results of this study are in line with previous research. Still, in this study, there is a difference with previous research that lies in the type of variables. The number of variables indicating the relationship between Training and Screening simultaneously affects the development of Employee Careers with a correlation coefficient (r) =0.603. Test-hypothesis analysis obtained calculated F value=12.303> F table=3.21. This indicates that there is a significant relationship between job training and employee career development.

In serving the development of the domestic market for the basic needs of society and consumers. As well as providing quality products and having been accredited by the Quality System Certification Body through ISO 9001 in 2020, the Company provides training schedules. Training is held weekly for 2 days while off from June to September 2020. Among others, training production drivers, service & security K3 in production, Cleaning service production area, and expertise operators setting production machinery, to improve the quality of good production and support the entire production system to run with SOP, which has been determined by the company.

Conclusion

Based on the results of the hypothesis test, it explains that job training has an influence on development career company employees with more job training significance level smaller than 0.05, namely 0.000 <0.05. so that the t count is 24,583 and t table is 1,985. So, it can be concluded that t-count> t-table, then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. The magnitude of the influence of Job Training on Career Development can be seen in the R Square value of 86.2% and the remaining 13.8% is influenced by other variables outside of this study.

The results of this study indicate the relationship between job training and career development of company employees. This shows a strong relationship between job training and employee career development. In serving the development of foreign markets, the basic needs of society and consumers as well as providing quality products and being accredited by the Quality System Certification Institute through ISO 9001 in 2020. the company provides a training schedule for its employees. This training is held every time off from June - September 2020. Production Driver training, K3 security & service in production, Cleaning service production areas, as well as production machine setting operator expertise, in an effort to improve good production quality and support the entire production system so that runs with the Standard Operating Procedure.

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