Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 5
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman,Universiti Putra Malaysia
Noor Azman Ali, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Zuraina Dato' Mansor, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Amer Hamzah Jantan, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Adedeji Babatunji Samuel, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Md. Kausar Alam, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Sharif Hosen, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Academicians, Family Work Conflict, Job Satisfaction, Private Universities and Work Family Conflict.
In Bangladesh, with compare to the public universities, the fundamental objective for establishing the private universities was to create more opportunities for the attainment of higher education. In addition, a number of fresh graduates with good qualifications have on yearly basis, engaged themselves as academicians of different private universities in Bangladesh (Rahman & Chowdhury, 2012). However, the private universities have been experiencing major changes in work practices of the academics in terms of efforts and time, hence, the teaching profession has become more challenging with the continuous and increasing institutional demands, accountability and work pressures (Fang et al., 2011). The work intensification of an academician (50-60 hrs) has become the norm/customs in many private universities and teachers are not satisfied regarding their job (Rahman et al., 2018). W-FC refers to the role conflict in work and family domains which is involved when the stress from the latter cannot be accommodated by individuals (Greenhau & Beutell, 1985). According to Locke (1969), the extent to which an employee’s desires and expectations from the job are matched against what he/she actually receives from the job is Job Satisfaction (JS). As a result of dissatisfaction derived from conflicts, the desires to become an academician by fresh graduates are declining due to students being deprived of quality education (Rahman et al., 2018). In spite of the studies embarked upon in the past to evaluate the influence of W-FC on JS with respect to various professionals such as social workers, hospitality staffs, computer experts etc., the effect is yet to be significantly identified as far as different persons and organisational outcomes among the academicians of private universities are concerned in Bangladesh (Grandey et al., 2005). On a further note, efforts made so far in this area of research had centered on evaluating the key impacts with less focus on the moderating variables effects, even though, the latter through various research work have shown that the results are not consistent, despite their inclusion (Boles et al., 2003). Consequently, many researchers are of the opinion that critical examination has to be evolved in terms of the gender moderating effects on the relationships between W-FC and JS (Kafetsios, 2007). Thus, the objective of this research is to test the moderating effects of gender in the relationships between W to FC and JS/F to WC and JS.
The results of the past study shown how W to FC and JS are negatively associated (Bartram et al., 2009; Beutell, 2010). A meta-analysis test by Michel et al. (2009) on W-FC models show that a negative relationship exists between W to FC and job satisfaction. Concurrently, several researches (Rahman et al., 2018; Casper et al., 2011) examined the associated consequences of F to WC and the result is that job dissatisfaction is one of the consequences of family/work conflict. Based on the findings above, the following hypotheses are formulated:
H1: W to FC has negative effect on JS.
H2: F to WC has negative effect on JS.
Ford et al. (2007) suggested that the relationship among W to FC, F to WC and JS can be moderated by gender. In a like manner, the effect size of W to FC on JS may also be moderated by differences in gender. Hence, the degree of the relationships among W to FC, F to WC and JS may be moderated by the responsibility of each gender. Nonetheless, Noor (2004) conducted a study, and the findings showed that gender does not significantly moderate the relationships between W-FC and JS. This affirms the inconsistency in the result obtained by Ford et al. (2007). In relation to the above literatures, the following hypotheses are suggested as below:
H3: Gender moderates the relationships between W to FC and JS.
H4: Gender moderates the relationships between F to WC and JS.
In this study, W to FC and F to WC are endogenous variables and JS is the exogenous variable while gender acts as a moderating variable. Convenience sampling method was adopted with 290 filled up questionnaires successfully returned. However, 17 filled up questionnaires were discarded because of either inconsistent information or missing data (09) and outliers (08). Finally, the sample size used consisted of 273 academicians. The demographic information revealed that 76% of the respondents were male while 24% were female. Among them, 91% were married with the rest unmarried. Majority (56%) of the respondents were more than 35 years and in terms of job experience, 57% of respondents have 1- 10 years job experience. 37% of respondents stay with their parents while 73% live in a nuclear family. Using AMOS and SPSS software, data analysis was carried out. In the first instance, the descriptive statistics including mean, Standard Deviation (SD), reliability, and correlation analysis were determined using SPSS (Table 1). Subsequently, multi-group analysis was adopted to test the moderation effects. However, the measurement and structural models were found good fit because both of the models have shown the values of χ2/df=1.234, RMSEA=0.029, CFI=0.989, GFI=0.964 and AGFI=0.944.
Measures Of Reliability And Validity, Descriptive And Correlation Analysis
Table 1 shows that the mean value of JS (m=3.59, SD= ± 0.51) of the academicians of private universities in Bangladesh is high and the mean value of WFC (m=2.97, SD= ± 0.66) and FWC (m=2.58, SD= ± 0.58 were in moderate level. Correlation analysis showed that both W to FC (r= -0.339, p<0.00) and F to WC (r= -0.193, p<0.00) have negative relationships with JS.
Table 2 indicates the direct effects of W to FC, F to WC and JS. Overall, W to FC and F to WC explained 11% variance in JS (R2=0.11). Specifically, the results indicated that only W to FC has significant negative effect on JS (β= -0.30, p<0.000), thus, H1 is accepted but, F to WC did not find any significant negative effect on JS (β= -0.08, p<0.290) thus H2 is rejected.
Result Of The Effect Of W To Fc On Js/F To Wc On Js
Moderating Effects Of Gender On The Relationships Among W To Fc/F To Wc And Js
|W to FC||F to WC|
In AMOS, the first step is to test the moderation effect on the overall W-FC-JS model. From the moderation table (W to FC-JS), it is seen that the chi-square (X2) value (31.412, 56.572) of unconstrained model is smaller than measurement residual model (49.896, 82.753) but, both of the models are not significant P>0.05. So, it can be said, that gender does not have moderating effects on the relationships among W to FC, F to WC and JS. Thus, H3 and H4 are rejected.
In relation to the research framework and objective, four hypotheses were formulated, thus the results are discussed. This research showed that W to FC has significant negative effect on JS which is consistent with earlier studies by Buonocore & Russo (2013), Burke et al. (2013) and Huffman et al. (2014) who reported that high level of W to FC conflict is the cause of low JS. The second finding of this research showed that, there is a significant negative relationship between F to WC and JS but F to WC has no significant negative effect on JS. The possible explanation for this inconsistent finding is that less attention is on the multidimensional nature of W-FC (Rahman et al., 2017; Anafarta, 2011; Casper et al., 2011). However, based on the earlier studies, we proposed that the gender may moderate the relationships among W to FC, F to WC and JS. From the previous findings of many researchers it was found that gender may moderate the relationships among W to FC, F to WC and JS (Lilly et al., 2006). But, in this research, it was found that the gender (male and female) does not moderate the relationships between both of W to FC/F to WC and JS which violates the rules in the role theory and gender role theory. Though, we found an inconsistent result which is similar to the findings of (Noor, 2004). The possible explanation for this situation is that due to the need for job retention by both men and women there has been an increase in W-FC in Bangladesh with the resultant effect of gender moderation not being effective.
This current research has added value to the knowledge base with particular reference to W-FC by investigating the relationships between both of the directions of W-FC and JS among academicians of private universities in an emerging nation like Bangladesh with the result that W to FC and F to WC are significantly related to JS and gender does not moderate their relationships. In addition, working as an academician in a private university is very challenging and as an academician of a private university one has to face a variety of difficulties. Since, WFC has a lot of setbacks for workers and their employers, it is important for researchers and corporate leaders to get familiar with the nature of W-FC and its effects on not only the employees but also their establishments, in different professions and beliefs. This new orientation may be helpful to other various decision makers in other entities to the extent that necessary actions can be taken in order to reduce the W-FC and the associated negative drawbacks.
Despite the relevance of this study in making for an important understanding of W-FC and job satisfaction and contributing value in relation to the knowledge base in the field of workfamily issues, there are still some significant questions in terms of what future studies should be concerned with. In the first instance, this study only focused on the private universities in Bangladesh. Hence, the outcomes should not be generously applied to other sectors due to the organizational dynamics that are available there. Furthermore, this study has only identified with the moderating role of gender on the relationships among W-FC and job satisfaction. Therefore, future studies need to address other potential moderators that are significant to the Bangladeshi environment with special reference to moderators like work family supports, leadership style, and personality.
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