Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 3

Awareness and Knowledge to Georgian Qvevri Wine in Poland and the Ways to Its Improvement

Rusudan Beriashvili, International Black Sea University

Abstract

Qvevri wine is something unusual and at the same time very understandable for final customers. What drives such wine to sale? What kind of motivators must be increased in final customers? What inspires customers to buy wine made with oldest known method of winemaking? What do Polish customers know about Georgian Qvevri Wine? All these questions must be answered by wine marketers and the answers are strategically important for Georgian wine producers. Why Poland has been selected as a case for study for the present article? Georgia and Poland has been in closing political, cultural and trade relationships since the Soviet period, therefore the awareness regarding Georgian traditional winemaking is high among polish customers. Qvevri Wine is a new trade product for the Polish market, though; we presume that because Georgian wines are traditionally highly evaluated by Polish people, Qvevri wine, an authentic Georgian traditional winemaking product, would be also welcomed in Polish wine market. However, this commodity is little known for Polish people and needs strong market promotion. The article aims to study the attitude of Polish wine customers towards Georgian Qvevri wine.Research method - the study was conducted in two steps. The literature analysis was done. A quantitative survey was used to measure how wine customers in Poland know Qvevri wine and what inspired them to learn more and buy Qvevri wine exported from Georgia. The survey, originally developed at Manko Association in Krakow, was modified to include questions on wine consumption. The survey included 10 questions using different types of questions. In order to measure the knowledge of the customers to Qvevri Wine, some respondents were invited to online study. Finally 45 respondents, citizens of Poland, living in Krakow participated in the survey. Findings - are special ways to motivate customers to some higher knowledge to Qvevri Wine making can serve as a guideline to future sales.

Keywords

Consumer Awareness to Qvevri Wine, Qvevri Wine Marketing, Salesmen, Wine and Distribution, Georgian Wine, Heritage Wines, Wine Marketing.

Introduction

Grape pips are firstly reported to be found in Caucasus, Georgia, dating back to the beginning of the 6th Millennium BC, in the Shulaveri along the Kura River (McGovern, 1997). As researches showed, cultivated varieties of grapevine originated from wild grapevines from Central Asia and Caucasus which later was spread to Europe (Terral, et al., 2010). It is obvious that Grapes, as an oldest fruit, with olives and grain spread to all over the world, had encouraged great cultural and social meaning for every man and social group (McGovern, 2005).

The oldest winemaking method was very natural and hands-on directed to the Qvevri, Pottery Clay Vessel. At the end of the 19th century, Qvevri Wine was partially forgotten in Georgia when the great Georgian statesmen Ilia Chavchavadze, had risen the question about its effectiveness but not only. If someone will remember Georgian wine it will be Qvevri Winepredicted great poet and statesman, when he criticized those Georgians who already turned into European winemakers and in 1887 published his excellent book “Georgian Winemaking”. This prediction was approved in 21st century when everybody, winemaker or wine connoisseur from different countries visited Georgia to taste phenomenal wine produced in Clay Vessels, buried deeply in the earth, without adding any chemicals, wine fermentation going on in a natural way based on only organic product of Georgian Traditional winemaking (Chavchavadze, 1887).

Nowadays, interest towards Georgian winemaking traditions is high. To stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, some scientific projects are on (Maghradze, 2016).

Having this background Georgian winemaking has chance to great success on new markets, connecting traditions to innovative marketing and sales activities. Georgian wine companies try to use innovative approaches to wine promotion which can take place in social media and digital marketing (Imnadze, 2013). Still Qvevri wine can have small number of loyal customers. Customer loyalty to Qvevri Wine brand can be more emotional (Kumara, 2004). But wine customers are driven by power of country marketing as well, Country's branding for More Attractive Image of Georgia (Djakeli, 2013).

QW, as a totally new product can be promoted in EU market applying the following marketing strategies: raising brand awareness, using different channels of promotion, expending spots of retail shopping, enhancing wine tourism to Georgia (Djakeli, 2018).

Research Methodology

A quantitative survey was used to measure perceived knowledge of Polish customers to one of the oldest wine making method and itself the Georgian wine. This marketing research tried to explain what people know about Qvevri Wine in Poland. Modern models of wine sales among Polish customers and wine promotion were promising. The survey originally developed at International Black Sea University and idea was aspired at Polish association Manko. The study was based on assumption about some portions of knowledge among customers to Qvevris Wine. The questionnaire included questions about Qvevri wine origins and itself structure of wine Wessel done from potter clay. The resulting survey included a total of 10 questions, simple rating ones. In order to measure knowledge to Qvevri wine we asked the following questions to convenience sample of Polish customers in nice city of Krakow in Tables 1-5.

Table 1 The Median Awareness of the Respondents to Questions From 1 To 4
N Questions Respondents median awareness in %
1 Polish customers’ positive attitude to heritage winemaking 40%
2 Knowledge of Georgian historical winemaking method in clay vessels( Qvevri) 35%
3 Experiencing the taste of Georgian Qvevri Wine 20%
4 Information about availability of Qvevri Wines 60%
Table 2 The Ways Potential Customers Could be Interested in Buying Georgian Qvevri Wine
N Questions Respondents median awareness in %
1 Description and Explanation of authentic method of Georgian traditional winemaking 15%
2 Healthy qualities of QW ( Containing anti-oxidants) 75%
3 Live videos with assessments of sommeliers 10%
Table 3 What Can Motivate Potential Customers to Drink Qvevri Wine
N Questions Respondents median awareness in %
1 Taste of Qvevri Wine 45%
2 History of Qvevri Wine 25%
3 Overall characteristics of QW 15%
4 Interest towards new product 15%
Table 4 What Would be Best Retail Sales Strategy of Qvevri Wine in Poland
N Questions Respondents median awareness in %
1 Retail shops ( supermarkets and wine &Spirit shops) 18%
2 Telemarketing 42%
3 Social Media marketing 34%
4 Public space wine testing 6%
Table 5 What Makes the Customer Identify and be Engaged With Wine Brand
N Questions Respondents median awareness in %
1 Testing during wine tourism 49%
2 Logo of the brand 11%
3 Taste of the wine 27%
4 Design of a wine bottle 13%

Figure 1 depicts the first source of information about Qvevri wine? It describes as follows: Internet - 56%, Journal articles - 24%, Friends - 10% and during visiting Georgia -10%.

Figure 1 Respondents Median Awareness to Qvevri Wine in Poland

Figure 2 depicts the ways potential customers could be interested in buying Georgian Qvevri wine. It describes as follows: Description and Explanation of Georgian traditional Winemaking - 15% and Healthy qualities of QW (Containing anti-oxidants) - 75%.

Figure 2 Respondents Median Awareness to Qvevri Wine in Poland

Figure 3 depicts the motivators of wine customers in Poland. It describes as follows: Taste of Qvevri Wine - 45%, History of Qvevri Wine - 25%, Overall characteristics of QW - 15% and Interest towards new product - 15%.

Figure 3 Respondents Median Awareness to Qvevri Wine in Poland

Figure 4 depicts what would be best retail sales strategy of qvevri Wine in Poland? It describes as follows: Retail shops (supermarkets and wine & Spirit shops) - 18%, Tele marketing - 42%, Social Media Marketing - 34% and Public Space Wine Testing - 6%.

Figure 4 Best Channels of Qvevri Wine Promotion

Figure 5 depicts what makes the Customer Identify and Be Engaged with Wine Brand? It describes as follows: Testing during wine tourism - 49%, Logo of brand - 11%, Taste of the wine - 27% and Design of a wine bottle - 13%.

Figure 5 The Memorability to Wine

Results and Discussion

Main Findings of Marketing Research

As research shows, awareness of Polish customers to heritage wines and winemaking traditions is positive, but the awareness of respondents to Georgian Qvevri Wine is still low. This clearly states that people show more interest to wards authentic and traditional approaches.

Only one-fifth of our respondents said that they tasted Qvevri Wine. But customers need some explanation about the nature of Georgian heritage winemaking and especially Polish customers need an enlargement of their knowledge regarding Qvevri Wines. Many of respondents, 56% think that impact of social media marketing is serious in wine industry.

As it has become evident from the answers, polish customers ….. Can inspire Polish customers to become engaged in buying to Qvevri Wine from the question number seven we understand the importance of health habits of Qvevri Wine and the customers want to hear about this phenomenon first of all. Also customers can be motivated and driven by great taste of Qvevri Wine.

When we asked about channels of Qvevri wine promotion respondents were proponents of TV programs about wine and Social Media. But when we asked them about possible memorability of Qvevri Wine they were identified best memory to wine with wine tourism and taste. All this things we translated into policy recommendations. The analysis of the respondents’ attitudes is a clear confirmation of our research hypothesis.

Conclusion

Policy Recommendations about Usefulness of different social media for Georgian Qvevri wine. How Social Media is beneficial to increase the awareness to Georgian Oldest Wine making Methods using Social Media platforms we once again can see from this wonderful example. If company or group of Georgian companies implement digital marketing strategies they can attract interest of European customers towards Qvevri Wine, leading to a huge growth in sales (Cosenza et al., 2015). Georgian family Wine companies can experience how comprehensive campaign can be added to European Wine Subscribers inspire millions of social media engagements within 3-6 months of launching (Thach et al., 2016). The same success we can have in the case of Georgian farmers if they knew usefulness of social media for success. Finally our recommendations are as following:

1. The knowledge to Qvevri Wine sales producing methods is still in low level among ordinary wine customers in Poland. That’s why social media can work very effectively to link wine farmers to their prospect customers in Poland for example and other countries of Europe.

2. Georgian wine makers must know better their prospect customers in target markets, that means that special marketing research companies in partnership with Georgia Wine Associations can do best job to inform winemakers about customer’s priorities;

3. Managers from Georgian wineries can deliver special knowledge about Qvevri Wine making methods and its advantages to wine promoter, wine masters and sommeliers.

4. One of the proven marketing strategies is online wine communication-use of Telemarketing and online retailing;

5. Winemakers from Georgia must carefully check their partners in target markets to make them to learn much more about Qvevri Wine Advantages;

6. Social media campaigns must be planned with participation of wine consumers, a focus group who can suggest many interesting things about consumer habits to wine consumption;

7. Create social Media boosting to increase potential customer engagement in QW Optimization in Poland and in other European countries.

8. Wine Marketing agencies should know well Qvevri Wine Dictionaries and Wine World of Mouth Communications.

If these needed recommendations find optimistic looking proponents among Georgian Wine traditional makers, Qvevri Wine will show its great advantages to customers in Europe, especially in Poland.

References

Chavchavadze, I. (1887). Georgian Winemaking. Tiflis, 40.

Cosenza, T.R., Solomon, M.R., & Kwon, W.S. (2015). Credibility in the blogosphere: A study of measurement and influence of wine blogs as an information source. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 14(2), 71-91.

Djakeli, K. (2013). Country’s Branding for More Attractive Image of Georgia. Journal of Business, 2(1), 15-20.

Djakeli, K. (2018). From Disruptive Marketing to the New Model of Prestigious Branding. Journal Quality-Access to Success, 19.

Imnadze, G. (2013). Georgian wine producer set to grow revenue by 25% following ERP Implementation. Tbilisi.

Kumara V.S.D. (2004). Building and sustaining profitable customer loyalty for the 21st century. Journal of Retailing, 80, 317-330.

Maghradze, D.M. (2016). Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus. Retrieved February 7, 2019, from BIO Web of Conferences 7: https://www.bio-conferences.org/articles/bioconf/abs/2016/02/bioconf-oiv2016_03027/bioconf-oiv2016_03027.html

McGovern, P.E. (2005). The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Gordon and Breach Publishers, 26.

McGovern, P.H. (1997). The beginnings of winemaking and viniculture in the ancient near east and Egypt. Retrieved April 7, 2019, from Penn Museum: https://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/39-1/The%20Beginnings.pdf

Terral, J.F., Tabard, E., Bouby, L., Ivorra, S., Pastor, T., & Igueiral, I. (2010). Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitisvinifera) under domestication: New morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars. Retrieved from PubMed.

Thach, L., Lease, T., & Barton, M. (2016). Exploring the impact of social media practices in wine sales in US wineries. Journal of Direct Data and Digital Marketing practice, 272-283.