Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 4

Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing Communications: A Case Study of Nokia

Rajesh Kumar, Panipat Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

Dr Neha Bankoti, Amity University, Noida, India

Dr Alka Maurya, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

Corporate social responsibility has gained momentum nowadays, but it is not a new term that people can’t reckon with. It is an idea that companies integrate social, natural and moral issues into their business and relationships on a voluntary basis.. CSR is not new to Nokia, and the company is known for its many activities in the area of social and other work. Here in this study, the researcher tries to find out which is the most preferred CSR activities in youth’s perception and what is the most preferred media channel which will be beneficial for its spread to the people. The study has been done with a sample of 200, and the target area was northern India. This research is exploratory, and the help of both primary and secondary data has been taken in this research. Frequency and mean ranking techniques have been used to analyze data, and interpretation has been made under the light of this. SPSS23.0 is used for data analysis in this research work.

Keywords

Corporate Social Responsibility, Exploratory Research, Perception, Communication Channel, Mean Ranking.

Introduction

Starting from a pulp mill in 1865 and travelling through a variety of businesses like rubber and cables, Nokia focused towards telecommunication infrastructure and mobile telephony in the 1990s. A truly versatile company doing business since the last 152 years has seen many ups and downs in its lifetime. The company was viewed as national pride in its heydays, and during its peak in around 2000, the company accounted for around 4% of the GDP of Finland and around 21% of its total exports. The company has been rated 415th largest company in the world by fortune global 500 companies in 2016. The company has a remarkable presence in around 100 countries with approximately 1 lakh employees in the year 2017, and it is 27.88 b$ company in terms of annual revenue (Nokia’s annual report 2016).

In the last 20 years, the studies have increasingly centred on CSR. However, several past studies have highlighted the general influence of CSR activities on either company’s financial performance (Page & Fearn, 2005) or customer reactions, including as general attitudes towards corporate reputation in the organization and consumer opinions (David et al., 2005; Kim, 2011). For instance, previous research has defined consumers perceived motivations about CSR organizations (Bae & Cameron, 2006; Yoon et al., 2006) as factors that affect consumer response in the organization, as well as the accepted definition of the firm’s expertise about the recognized CSR challenges (Lafferty, 2007; Trimble & Rifon, 2006).

These variables, while they can be used for the provision of the efficacy of the enterprise’s results, cannot be used to assess effective CSR communication.

Although it can be argued that if the impact of CSR communication is successful with the organization’s CSR results, we argue that measuring effective CSR communication is to be distinguished from the evaluation of effective CSR behaviour. Effective CSR communication can also be evaluated. We are not capable of accurately evaluating the relative advances of the effective communication itself without differentiating between the “what to communicate” and how to communicate concerning CSR and CSR operations itself in particular as the structure for what makes CSR communication efficient in youth perspective was currently not developed. Thus this research analyses the most favoured CSR behaviours in youth perception as a starting point for developing possible steps for effective CSR communication. By having a selected media channel that helps to spread to the people. The findings of this study offer academics and practitioners practical perspectives about how well CSR contact between young people can be assessed.

Presently Nokia is doing its business under two broad categories by the name of Networks and Technologies. Under networks, it deals in mobile networks, fixed networks, applications and analytics and I.P./optical networks. Nokia, technologies patent and brand licensing, cooperates with HMD. Global on new Nokia devices, developing digital health products like smartwatches and body scales. This study aims to provide practitioners and educators with how and how to communicate" for an effective dialogue on corporate social accountability (CSR). This study investigates what the young people expect from the CSR communications of companies by surveying a random sample. In other words, this research provides practitioners with feedback on successful CSR communication by evaluating stakeholders' points of view.

Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR has pulled into consideration as of late. It alludes to organizations willfully accepting the obligations for the effects of all parts of their business exercises overall society and nature. Issues like global warming, exploitation of workers etc. are some of the issues which are highlighted in the media. It is an idea that offers to the organizations; the chance to treat the natural and social issues as a piece of their business activities. As indicated by United Nation Global Compact-Accenture C.E.O. Study (2010), 91% of CEOs report that their organization will utilize new advances (e.g., sustainable power source, vitality proficiency, data and correspondence advances) to address manageability issues throughout the coming five years.

Definition and Role of CSR In the Telecommunication Industry

There is no one particular definition of CSR as it differs according to one person to another. Some of the definitions are as follows:

The World Business Council expressed that corporate social obligation is the proceeding with duty by business to carry on morally and add to monetary improvement while enhancing the personal satisfaction of the workforce and their families and additionally of the nearby network and society on the loose.

As per the European Commission, CSR is an idea whereby organizations coordinate social, ecological and moral worries in their business tasks and their communication with their partners on a deliberate premise.

Being socially dependable means satisfying lawful desires as well as going past consistency and putting more into human capital, condition etc. (Nihalini & Mathur, 2011). Carroll defines CSR as the economic, legal, ethical and discretionary demands that society places on business.

93 per cent of the respondents said that they accept corporate must do corporate social obligation exercises. In comparison, 65 per cent of the respondents felt that the principle inspiration for corporate to do corporate social duty was to fabricate their notoriety however just 22 per cent expressed that corporate social duty was embraced to help corporate market their items better. Education and environment were the two most highly rated causes under (Lowe Lintas Survey, 2011).

Today, CSR in India has gone past only philanthropy and gifts and is drawn nearer in a more sorted out design. It has turned into an essential piece of corporate methodology. Organizations have corporate social duty groups that outline particular arrangements, methodologies and objectives for their corporate social obligation projects and put aside spending plans to help them. These projects, as a rule, depend on a characterized social theory or are firmly lined up with the organizations’ business aptitude. Some corporate houses are devoted and rehearsing the corporate social obligation as the simple premise of their reality directs them. It is seen that numerous organizations are advancing their corporate social obligation exercises and uses it as an instrument for Marketing. The mindfulness and reception of corporate social obligation are expanding, yet there are as yet noteworthy upgrades to be made as far as usage and contribution. 44.5% of study respondents feel their organizations could be more dynamic around there. (The Association of Corporate Travel Executives (ACTE.) Survey, 2011)

Evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR approach is firmly connected to its political and monetary history, in which four stages can be recognized:

Amid the primary stage (1850-1914) CSR exercises were, for the most part, attempted outside organizations and included gifts to sanctuaries and different social welfare causes. The second stage (1914-1960) was to a great extent affected by Mahatma Gandhi’s hypothesis of trusteeship, the point of which was to merge and enhance social advancement. The change programs included exercises equipped specially to cancelling untouchability, enabling ladies and creating rustic regions. The third stage (1960-1980) was overwhelmed by the worldview of the “blended economy”. In this specific situation, corporate social obligation to a great extent appeared as the legitimate direction of business exercises and the advancement of open area endeavours (PSUs).

The fourth stage (1980 till date) is portrayed mostly by the conventional humanitarian commitment and incompletely by steps taken to coordinate corporate social duty into a supportable business technique. The Indian corporate social duty motivation keeps on being commanded by network advancement exercises, especially in the zone of wellbeing and instruction. While most Indian organizations see their locale advancement extends as critical commitments to the current improvement challenges in their area of activity.

The newest addition to the Companies Bill will make a mention requesting companies to spend up to 2% of their net profits on CSR Still; it may not make corporate social responsibility to spend mandatory. However, the Parliamentary Standing Committee has underlined the need to mandate firms to spend on philanthropic activities (Hindustan Times, 2011).

As A Leapfrog Technology

Technologies of mobile phones are often called as leapfrog technologies because it has saved the developing countries from heavy investments which are required to build a fixed-line telephone infrastructure. Mobile phones, coupled with internet facility, are the effect of ICT revolution (Information and communication technology revolution) that is helping boost the economy and income of emerging countries. Mobile phones are becoming a means of financial empowerment also because it is becoming popular in developing economies where many people do not have a bank account. It can also be used as a learning platform in various Saharan countries where WhatsApp like applications are extensively used for teaching-learning purposes (Koomson, 2018). With the evolution in technologies and infrastructure, technology diffusion has made possible the spread of technology to the various levels of the society in both urban and rural areas. With the spread of technological advancements, every wake of society has influenced. From agriculture to education and form banking and financial sectors to health sector all have reaped the benefits of the evolution of Information and communication technology and advancements in infrastructure. Whether it is an economic activity, political participation or social interactions, the impact of phone diffusion has been found immensely (Haenssgen & Ariana, 2017).

Corporate Gains from CSR

Corporate social responsibility helps in enhancing goodwill. Decent notoriety makes it less demanding to enrol workers. Workers may remain longer, lessening the expenses of enrollment and retraining. Workers are better persuaded and more gainful. It also ensures that companies comply with regulatory requirements (Nihalini & Mathur, 2011). Exercises, for example, association with the neighbourhood network are perfect chances to produce positive press inclusion. There is a wide range of manners by which organizations can decrease the natural effect of their efficient making recyclable items, limiting bundling, purchasing locally to spare fuel costs, working with providers and merchants who find a way to limit their ecological effect. Reduction in use of resources, waste and emissions not only just help the environment but also saves money. CSR helps in increasing customer retention, which further facilitates in building sales and developing relationships with customers, suppliers and networks. It aids in attracting and maintaining a happy workforce and save money on energy and operating costs. It also differentiates one company from its competitors (Violeta & Georgiana, 2007). Indeed, even it produces advancement and enhances business notoriety and gives access to speculation openings by making positive exposure and media openings because of media enthusiasm for moral business exercises. Previous studies (Luo et al., 2006; Salmones et al., 2005; Swaen et al., 2008) suggest that CSR activities emphatically effect on consumer loyalty, unwavering client, advertise esteem and association execution.

CSR at Present In Nokia

CSR is not new to Nokia, and the best example can be cited as its recent selection for the award at National CSR leadership congress and awards in India for its continuous efforts for the protection of children. It has been awarded as the best newcomer to corporate social responsibility (Singh, 2016) for saving the children in India which has started by Nokia in 2014 in 5 states of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Delhi and Tamilnadu covering 350 villages.

Back in 2011 when Nokia announced the layoff of approximately 10000 employees it has started a “Bridge Program” for those employees and offered a wide variety of conceivable outcomes, from customary individual re-business support to speculations that empower enterprise, prepreparing and advancement which can likewise fuel new development for those networks affected (Nokia sustainability report, 2011). The highest priority was given to the reemployment of the Nokia employees, and approximately 4200 people participated in it.

Nokia dependably put accentuation on guaranteeing that all CSR ventures run productively and are compelling in the long haul. Nokia accomplices with NIITI Consulting Pvt. Ltd. to screen and assess extends, and evaluate and review them at customary interims. Assessments of projects depend on the task’s rationale demonstrate, as characterized by the OECD for improvement assessments. The CSR Committee of the Board provides strategic direction, guidance and policy inputs whilst also periodically reviewing the physical and financial progress of deployment of CSR projects across locations against plans.

Spread of CSR Projects by Sector

For building strength in kids and their networks against dangers and fiascos, building a maintainable situation, building a digitally inclusive India

Spread of CSR Projects by Implementation Partner

1. Save the Children

2. I.I.T. - Madras

3. Samridhdhi Trust

4. World Wide Fund for Nature – India

Literature Review

Any company, either manufacturing or service, attracts customers from the society where every product is finally consumed. So, it is the moral duty of any company to do something for the society which will benefit the mass. It is now a day’s followed by almost all the more prominent companies which earn a handsome amount of profit by doing their business. All over the world, there is an increasing trend towards corporate social responsibility and the most vibrant sector like telecommunications are also concentrating on this. In Malaysia, all the cellular telecom organizations have grasped nice looking work in the field of ecological concerns, welfare or philanthropy, network association, items or administrations enhancement and catastrophic events mindfulness programs (Mohamed & Sawandi, 2007). CSR is earlier considered as an elderly activity, but due to increased use of IT and spread of globalization, the trend is changing very fast, and now youth is coming in the front.

It has been found that youth is more concerned with the activities done by the companies, especially the way companies look at their responsibility towards society. There are such a significant number of variables likewise which are transcendently considered by youth when they take a view at the organizations of different nations. Among them, some are as per the following: corporate administration, moral qualities and practices, good managing and straightforwardness, condition security and economic improvement, open welfare, the worldwide standard, social obligation, work welfare, creative innovations, duty towards contenders and sound open connection (Sharma & Sharma, 2011).

Now the competition is so intense that companies are looking at CSR as a business strategy and are trying to take advantage of these activities to take their business to a new height. It can be seen as the fact that they are providing a fixed amount for CSR activities. Most of the companies are doing the CSR activity in the critical areas like economic, cultural, social and environmental issues. However, still, a lot has to be done in areas above. Now in many companies, CSR has been integrated into the own business practices and become more evaluative. The companies and essential areas show stricter accountability and transparency are found to be social, environmental economic and cultural areas (Nihalani & Mathur, 2011). CSR factors affect upgrading consumer loyalty aside from one thing of financial obligation - that is gains to investors. Moral measurement has the most grounded effect on consumer loyalty while charitable part, for the most part, influences devotion (Onlaor & Rotchanakitumnuai, 2010). Now what they have set is a social tint to their every activity that would show their commitment towards the society and ultimately their responsibility. There are several examples that the company is under such business which is by nature not considered suitable for society. Thus, these companies do CSR activity to make other people think that they are also socially responsible and this they do by fulfilling the social and environmental guidelines time to time issued by the government. They work in the social, environmental, ethical and philanthropic areas and are held responsible (Tetrevova, 2011). Therefore, by engaging in CSR activities, companies can not only generate favourable stakeholder attitudes and better support (e.g. purchase, seeking employment, investing in the company), but also, in the long run, build the corporate brand, vital stakeholder–company relationships, and enhance stakeholders support. (Du et al., 2010). So it can also be said that the CSR activities favour companies in improving the company’s reputation, differentiating competitors, getting brand loyalty and keeping the valuable employees.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing Communication

As the companies are considering the CSR as a marketing strategy to popularize themselves as a socially responsible company, they are using the marketing communication techniques to emphasize their work for society. A simple example of this is the changing advertisements which now show and emphasize the CSR activity of a company more than the products they offer or the services they provide. During the time, CSR advertising has increased considerably, and it has linked its CSR print advertisement with the product advertisement to make a greater effect on the consumers (Mogele & Tropp 2010). Now the companies are trying to make a difference in them by doing CSR activity that would ultimately benefit them in building a brand image of their product in the consumer’s mind that if the company is socially responsible, then the products offered by it is also good and reliable.So the future supremacy of any company will depend on the steps of a company taken towards the corporate social responsibility which can be immensely effective at creating a profound and meaningful association with its consumers that changes the loyalty of the consumer to them as a promoter of the company inside their social networks. (Kaur & Agrawal, 2011). It can be said that business organizations have to invest in CSR as their organizational strategy. The extent and the kind of CSR will be tailored according to the type of business to match, and it should be suitable for the stakeholders of the company also. CSR should be used as a corporate asset as well as an ethical, social and environmental initiative.

Time to time, the government make certain rules and regulations which are related to the environment protection, curbing and controlling the pollution of several kinds like water, sound and air pollution and setting a guideline for the organizations that they will carry out their business in the right and correct manner.

Here, self activism and self-motivation of a company come into the fore that how far the company goes following the policies and guidelines and how fast it is implementing these regulations. It is particularly the large companies which to reap the benefit by creating the value by marketing their CSR activities than compared to the small companies. Thus, the future of the marketing communication should be in the direction which will project and promote the CSR initiatives of the organization to generate corporate identity, brand image and reputation and create corporate and market value for the company. Public relations are also an important factor by which a company can convey its message to the society, and its stakeholder’s initiatives towards CSR can be presented to the internal and external stakeholders by effective public relation. It will attract the investment in near future because a responsible and caring company will be the first choice of any investor who wants to keep their money safe and reap the benefit of investments. But here it must be made clear that the implementation of CSR does not consist of the launching of a few programmes and doing some charitable work. It should not like a company starts some environment protection campaign and using employees friendly practices in their organization but the thirst on that it should make such policy framework within the organization that will guide them in the path of their development throughout a lifetime. By doing this, only a company can claim that it has taken social responsibility in a true sense; to do something for the common people also (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004). Once the consumers trusted the corporate social responsibility of the company which it offers as a noble activity without any hidden objective or any other inherent motive attached to it, they evaluate the company more positively and consistently, and this will increase the brand image and value for the company. In a nutshell, we can say that customer’s trust in the CSR programme, enhances the relative attitude towards the company its brand. Suppose a company is emphasizing on its CSR programme. In that case, it should be concerned over the safety of its products and services which are being offered to the customers, its relentless effort to reduce the environmental hazards and its reputation as a good company. To develop a sense of trust towards CSR, programme marketers must pay more attention towards showing communication to the customers and public about the company’s concerns about environment and safety. Secondly, reporting and evaluating CSR programmes periodically and transparently and third is to maintain the company’s good reputation (Darsono, 2009). Now, there is a price concern also that whether the customer is willing to pay more if he is informed of the CSR activity. The answer lies in the fact that he should be well educated, and there is a need to create social consciousness for the consumer to promote CSR practices through the buying decision making (Trapero et al., 2010). So, we can say that marketing plays an important role in the popularization and awareness of CSR programmes in society and make people aware of the products they use or the services they consume. Marketing plays an important role in ensuring congruence between buyers and society’s interest. If used wisely, marketing can protect the social interest and imparting responsible conduct. If consumers are said to be negatively affected by the ads and commercials, the prevalence of social marketing can lead to improved behaviour (Meghisan et al., 2010) and this will be the bright future where customers are more informed and aware about the products they consume and the services they use.

One company cannot establish direct contact with all the representatives of its target groups and therefore, different marketing communication strategies are of extreme importance for building corporate reputation, image and image among various stakeholders (Tamara, 2006).

Research Methodology

Objectives

1. To study the awareness level of mobile users regarding CSR activities.

2. To examine the perception of mobile users about CSR activities.

3. To know the most appropriate media channel preferred by youth.

Sampling and Research Design

A sample of 200 youths of north India was chosen in April 2018 for the study through convenient sampling technique from a leading university representing students from different north Indian states like Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Delhi and Rajasthan (25 from each state). This research is exploratory, and the help of both primary and secondary data has been taken in this research. Frequency and mean ranking techniques have been used to analyze data, and interpretation has been made under the light of this. SPSS 23.0 is used for data analysis in this research work.

Data Analysis

For checking the level of awareness of respondents regarding CSR activities, a set of 12 statements were given to them and their level of awareness is checked that whether they are informed about these initiatives by Nokia or not. Data was analyzed by looking into percentage and frequency of the response. Details were shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Showing Level of Awareness
Sr. No. CSR Activities of Nokia Awareness Level Percentage of Respondents who are not aware
1 Education Low 77.0%
2 Protecting  Natural Resources Low 72.5%
3 Employment Low 68.0%
4 Energy Use Low 77.0%
5 Health and Safety Low 69.5%
6 Human Rights and Ethics Low 79.0%
7 Substance and Materials Management Low 83.5%
8 Environmental Management Low 72.5%
9 Research and Development Low 65.0%
10 Disaster Management Low 91.5%
11 Recycling Low 52.0%
12 Healthy Labour Standards Low 76.5%

From Table 1, it can be concluded that the awareness level of Nokia mobile users regarding corporate social responsibility is deficient. Companies are spending a considerable amount for the benefit of society, but users are unaware.

So, there is a need to take steps and emphasize more on marketing communication to aware of every customer regarding their noble cause as marketing communication. The prime purpose of communication is to imprint something into the consumer’s mind, change an attitude or get the consumer to act. It can create competitive advantage and increase sales and profits, while saving money, time and stress.

It gives strength of loyalty with customers which can shield them from the inevitable threats of competition. In many companies, CSR has been integrated into business practices and become more evaluative. The companies and important areas show stricter accountability and transparency are found to be social, environmental economic and cultural areas (Nihalani & Mathur, 2011).

Respondent’s perception is determined by serving them a set of 14 statements which shows their perception regarding CSR activities done by Nokia. Data analysis has been done by using the mean ranking technique. Table 2 represent the details of this.

Table 2 Showing Youth’s Perception of CSR Activities of Nokia
Sr No. CSR Activities of Nokia Mean Ranking
1 Nokia initiated a recycling scheme for used mobiles devices in almost 100 countries with over 5000 physical take-ups back points 3.91 1
2 Nokia exceeded its target to reduce facility-related to carbon dioxide emissions by 18% in 2010 3.85 2
3 Nokia organize a ‘Love food, hate waste’ campaign and achieved a 15% reduction in food waste 3.82 3
4 Five-year partnership initiate with UNESCO, committing to the goal of education for all 3.76 4
5 Nokia reduced packaging size of their most affordable devices by over 70% 3.75 5
6 Nokia has reduced average no-load power consumption of their chargers by over 80% 3.72 6
7 Nokia created 8% of new energy savings in the technical building maintenance system 3.66 7
8 Nokia Committed to United Nation Global Compact, which provides a framework for anti-corruption and human rights issues. 3.63 8
9 Joined the international union for the conservation of nature  save our species project 3.62 9
10 Reduce Green House Gas emissions in Nokia’s offices by a minimum of 30% by 2020 3.58 10
11 Nokia research centre had 13 strategic partner universities and granted a total of 121 donations to further universities cooperation 3.57 11
12 Nokia Labour Condition standards are based on International Labour Organisations and UN Human Right Conventions 3.49 12
13 Joined hand with Yes Bank and Union Bank of India to encourage people in opening up the bank account as more than 60% of India’s population lack bank accounts 3.50 13
14 Partnership with Oxfam to collaborate in the area of disaster prevention 3.46 14

CSR activities done by Nokia here is ranked according to their mean score that is highest mean score is ranked one, and the lowest mean score has been ranked as last. Thus, in the above table, at the top is the CSR activity regarding recycling activity initiated by Nokia. It comprises of nearly 5000 physical take back points where Nokia products are taken back, and they are recycled to use them back. Thus by doing this activity, the company saves its valuable resources as well as shows its commitment towards the healthy environment.

The company also reduces its cost by this process, and this is a win-win situation for all either it is the company, consumers or nature and environment.

Second most crucial activity, according to youth, is again related to environment protection and that is reducing carbon dioxide emission by these industries and protecting the environment from harmful effects of pollution. The target to reduce the carbon dioxide emission to 18% by 2010 is highly appreciated by the youth.

Third most crucial CSR activity is the reduction in food wastage by initiating a campaign called “Love Food Hate Waste” which has achieves a considerable amount of success by achieving a 15% reduction in food wastage. The idea behind this campaign is that in many places people just die because they don’t have anything to eat and in some prosperous nations and other countries lots of food is wasted. Thus, this campaign helps those getting food which is extremely poor. Other essential activities in the view of youth are initiative taken for education for all for which it has done partnership with UNESCO, using technologies which reduce the consumption of electricity by their chargers by 80%, reducing greenhouse gas emission from their offices by 30% till 2020 and their efforts in saving endangered species. There are other activities also in the mean ranking table, but these are not held high by the youth and not considered very important. They are CSR activities relating to anti-corruption and human right issues activities relating to disaster management and cooperation of universities. Thus the company should try to emphasize those programs which are ranked high in the mean ranking table because these are the activities which are most preferred by the youth and company should use those media in popularizing these programmes which are highly preferred by the youth that is TV and Internet.

To determine the most appropriate media channel preferred by youth a set of 18 statements were given and it has been asked that which among the five media channel (Tv, Radio, Internet, Magazine and Others) you prefer to watch the CSR activities. Details have been summarized under the following Table 3.

Table 3 Showing the Most Important Media Channel Preferred by Youth of North India
Sr. No. Potential Areas Most Appropriate Media Percentage of Responses (Out 0f 200)
1. Immediate attention on deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS, cancer etc. TV 86.0%
2. Transparency in working. INTERNET 57.0%
3. Construction and maintenance of colleges, schools, parks, hospitals etc. TV 63.5%
4. Scholarships, free books and mid-day meals to weaker sections of the society. TV 64.0%
5. Disaster management TV 70.5%
6. Promoting the use of recycled/ renewable products. TV 70.0%
7. Strong research and development for producing environment-friendly devices. TV 65.5%
8. Protection of environment via plantation of trees TV 75.4%
9. Bring down the flow of effluents to reduce the wastage from factories. TV 64.5%
10. Emphasizing on the anti-corruption programme. TV 74.5%
11. Programs for re-enrolment of drop out students in the rural area TV 65.5%
12. Charitable activities. TV 64.0%
13. Healthy labour standards following the International Labour Laws and health standard to protect them TV 65.0%
14. Women upliftment through the innovative income-generating program. TV 75.4%
15. Generate employment opportunities. TV 75.5%
16. Tie-up with organizations to save species which are going to extinct. TV 68.0%
17. Training sessions (for employees) on safety measures. TV 64.0%
18. Strong presence in anti-terrorism campaign. TV 75.9%

Marketing plays an essential role in ensuring congruence between buyers and society’s interest. If used wisely, marketing can protect the social interest and impart responsible conduct. If consumers are said to be negatively affected by the ads and commercials, the prevalence of social marketing can lead to improved behaviour (Meghisan et al., 2010).

From the above table, it is very much clear that the most appropriate media preferred by youth is television. So the company should market their corporate social responsibility activities through this media channel as this is commonly watched by youth. Marketing plays an important role in ensuring congruence between buyers and society’s interest. If used wisely, marketing can protect the social interest and imparting responsible conduct. If consumers are said to be negatively affected by the ads and commercials, the prevalence of social marketing can lead to improved behaviour (Meghisan et al., 2010).

Findings

The top three most important activities of Nokia based on mean ranking are:

1. Nokia initiated a recycling program for old mobiles in approximately one hundred nations with more than 5000 take-back points

2. Nokia crossed its target to reduce facility-related CO2 emissions by 18% in 2010

3. Nokia organized a ‘Love food, hate waste’ campaign and achieved a 15% reduction in food waste.

The above mentioned CSR activities are the most significant as the youth gave more weightage to them as compared to others. In contrast, the least essential activities are disaster management, adoption of international labour standards and encouraging people to open bank accounts.

Television is identified as the most suitable media channel through which people get informed about various activities of the companies, and it is the most preferred channel for information gathering.

Suggestions

1. The company should focus more on those essential activities which the youth perceive, are most important. As mentioned above, three CSR activities are most important suggested by youth. So the company should focus maximum upon these activities along with other activities also. Such programs and events should be organized by the company that will increase the awareness level of youth and increase their participation in CSR activities.

2. As day by day effects of pollution on the world is getting worse, it is the effort of the company that the materials used in the mobile phones should be used and reused to reduce the wastage and promote the company’s commitment towards the natural and environmental preservation so that it’s sustainable use can be done. As the most preferred media by youth is the TV and the Internet, the company should advertise its CSR activity regarding recycling should be done through these two mediums to attract these classes of consumers.

3. Company’s work regarding environment protection is very appreciable, and it should tie-up with various environment-saving programs running worldwide to promote the campaign for the reduction of Carbon Dioxide emission. It should focus on the commitment of industrialized nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emission within the time-bounded manner.

4. The company should campaign in this regard that food should not be wasted in the hotels and restaurants and help those people who are living under deprivation and having malnutrition child. Thus the company should work and aware people that their saving of food in this part will help the poor of the other part of the world. TV and internet are used by millions of people, including youth and old and their slight effort in this area can save the lives of millions of people who are fighting with hunger.

5. The company should focus mainly on governments and the NGOs for offering their help and support to them. They can start children education foundation and can make adult education programs with the help of the government and can participate in this program. It can help with funds in the construction of schools, colleges and technical and vocational institutes for education.

6. Other essential activities considered by youth are reduced packaging size of their most affordable devices by more than 70%, decreased average no-load power utilization of their chargers by more than 80%, new energy savings in technical building maintenance system, Committed to United Nation Global Compact which provides the framework for anti-corruption and human rights issues and many more. These programs are directed towards the improvement of the quality of life of the people.

Conclusion

Thus it can be said that Nokia needs to focus on these suggestions and direct their CSR activities in areas mentioned above more to build its value and goodwill in the eyes of the youth and position itself better by using the most favoured communication channel, i.e. television and internet. It will help it to position its product and services once again into the market, which is facing tough competition from its competitors through its deep penetration into society. It further opens an area of study with a broader view of the involvement of all. It is the time to combine a more extensive section of the society by educating, training and enriching their society by their vast experience, expertise and knowledge resource.

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