Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research (Print ISSN: 1533-3590; Online ISSN: 1533-3604)

Short commentary: 2021 Vol: 22 Issue: 5S

Decision-Making about Marketing Activities

Tayib Awais, Andrews University

Citation Information: Awais, T. (2021). Decision-making about marketing activities. Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 22(S5), 1-4.

Within the overall framework introduced within the initial section of this chapter, decision-making regarding selling activities in a very MNC has two vital dimensions: (1) decision-making configuration, that refers to the placement of varied selling call centers through the planet (geographically centralized or decentralized); and (2) decision-making coordination and integration, that refers to the extent of standardization or adaptation of selling selections internationally.

When centralized decision-making is in situ, most significant call square measure created at the top; if suburbanized higher cognitive process is in situ, call square measure delegated to operative personnel. Another issue is however decision-making is employed to assist the subsidiary reply to the economic and political demands of the country. Sometimes, these selections square measure heavily economic in orientation and will target things like come back on investment for overseas operations. Alternative times, selections square measure a result of cultural variations. As an example, the performance analysis selections of native personnel by expatriate managers square measure greatly full of the expatriate’s cultural values. The most effective thanks to illustrate variations in decision-making designs within the international arena are to allow some comparative examples.

Douglas and Craig (1989) emphasized the importance of coordination and integration problems by relating changes in selling strategic selections to the evolution of a firm’s worldwide strategy over time. They knew 3 main phases within the evolution of worldwide selling strategy with every stage presenting new strategic challenges and call priorities to the firm.

Section One

section one represents the initial stage of international market growth wherever the most strategic selections facing the business embrace the selection of country to enter, the mode of entry adopted and also the extent of product standardization or adaptation.

Section Two

Once the corporate has established a ‘beachhead’ in a very variety of foreign markets, it then begins to hunt new directions for growth and growth, so moving to section 2 of internationalization. The main target during this stage is principally on building penetration in countries wherever the corporate is already placed. In consequence, the growth effort is principally directed by native management with selling strategy being determined on a country-by-country or across the country responsive basis.

Section Three

It’s the third biological process section that is that the most significant within the context of worldwide selling. In section 3 the business moves towards a world orientation. The country-by-country approach to selling is replaced by one within which markets square measure viewed as a group of interconnected and mutually beneficial entities. These square measure progressively integrated and interlinked worldwide and coordination and integration international of worldwide selling becomes essential to completely exploit the competitive benefits to be derived from the company’s global scope. In line with Douglas and Craig (1989) there square measure two key strategic thrusts in section 3 (Fisk et al., 1993).

First, the drive to boost the potency of worldwide operations through coordination and integration. This can cowl each selling activities like development, advertising, distribution and pricing; however additionally connected production, sourcing and management. Standardization of product lines globally, as an example, can facilitate the event of a globally integrated production and supplying network. The second key strategic thrust is that the look for world growth and growth opportunities. This can involve a variety of activities as well as opportunities for transferring product, complete names, selling ideas, skills and experience between countries; the identification international of worldwide market segments and target customers; and worldwide development geared toward global markets. When having conferred and shown the importance of the two dimensions of decision-making that square measure configuration and coordination, we'd like to clarify, now, however these dimensions square measure combined in four differing types of decision-making processes according to the international, international, world and international methods.

International Decision-Making

Initial, we tend to gift decision-making in MNCs having adopted a global strategy. As we've mentioned earlier, a global strategy is based totally on transferring and adapting the parent firm’s information or capabilities to foreign markets. In corporations following this strategy, the parent retains hefty influence and management over selections associated with its core competencies and also the foreign subsidiaries have responsibility over the choices on the way to leverage these competencies by adapting product and alternative selling activities to the wants and preferences of their native markets (Ghoshal & Bartlett, 1998). Carrefour, the French distributor, as an example, uses a regular supermarket format, it adapt from country to country

Multinational Decision-Making

As we tend to already mentioned, an international strategy is adopted once managers acknowledge and emphasize the variations among national markets and operative environments. corporations following such a method focus totally on national variations and adopt a lot of versatile approach to decision-making and selling methods country by country in response to national variations in client preferences, trade characteristics, and government laws. To higher sense and exploit native opportunities, decision-making is suburbanised. What is more, selections associated with the foreign operations tend to be created in AN expedient or unintended manner.

Global Decision-Making

A global strategy needs significantly a lot of central coordination and management than the international or the international methods. In MNCs following such a world strategy, analysis and development, producing, and selling activities square measure generally managed from the headquarters, and most strategic selections are taken at the middle. The role of the subsidiaries is principally to implement headquarters’ selections. In such corporations, call regarding the internationalization method is extremely integrated, market square measure elite and entered in line with a well-crafted world arrange

Transnational Decision-Making

In corporations following an international strategy, selections that require company management superintendence or protection from company undercover work square measure sometimes targeted at the house country company headquarters. These embrace selections like on basic analysis underpinning the firm’s core competencies, treasury perform and international management development responsibility. Another strategic selections square measure targeted in several subsidiaries in a very configuration delineated by Ghoshal and Bartlett (1998) as decentralization instead of decentralization.

Decentralization needs the distribution and specialization of decision-making in such some way that the MNC is ready to take advantage of the comparative blessings of the various countries wherever its operations and at identical time attain scale potency in these operations (Dunning, 1992; Ghoshal & Bartlett, 1998). An MNC, advertising and selling choices is also centralized in London, once choices concerning production coordination square measure targeted in South West Asian, and once choices regarding new development square measure created in geographic region. Different choices, like advertising campaigns and media designing, square measure distributed in individual subsidiaries as a result of the advantages of versatile native responsiveness exceed those of economies of scale. The loss of coordination arising from this distribution of choices is salaried by its potentials for responsiveness to specific national desires and political interests, flexibility, labor disputes, natural calamities and different localized disruptions, and reduction of coordination prices Marvin (1984). The result's a posh configuration of assets, resources, and a capability that centralizes some choices reception, excentralizes some abroad, and distributes nevertheless others among the MNC’s several national operations.


  1. Douglas, S.P., & Craig, C.S. (1989). Evolution of global marketing strategy: Scale, scope and synergy. Columbia Journal of World Business, 47-59.
  2. Dunning, J.H. (1992). Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Addison-Wesley: Essex.
  3. Fisk, R.P., Stephen W.B., & Mary J.B. (1993). Tracking the evolution of the service marketing literature. Journal of Retailing, 69(1), 60-103.
  4. Ghoshal, S., & Bartlett, C.A. (1998). Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Second Edition, Random House: London.
  5. Marvin, B.L. (1984). The learning curve and pricing in the chemical processing industries. Journal of Economics, 15(2), 213-228.
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