Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 1
Sabyasachi Dasgupta, O.P. Jindal Global University
Priya Grover, Brand Mavericks LLP
This research was done to figure out linkages between the digital media strategies being employed to advertise and the consumer decision journey. The main goal of the paper is to understand the impact of digital strategies on consumer decision making process through the five stages customer decision journey. This has been quantitatively measured by using corelation test on SPSS that brings out the linkages. The result of the study shows that social media marketing is a very important tool for the marketers of apparel brands online for trending new fashion, announce sales and most importantly generate positive reviews and word of mouth as these reviews are the most looked for.
Apparel, Online Shopping, Consumer Decision Making, Word Of Mouth, Social Media.
The consumer decision journey that starts right from the awakening of the desire to the post purchase which in turn affects their future purchase and even the other around them. Even prior to the desire is ignited it is important to understand that consumers are constantly consuming content and browsing through the categories they have affinity towards. With the all-pervasive digital medium in to our lives, the way we searched for information before making purchase decisions has changed dramatically. The traditional consumer often depended on word of mouth, recommendations, touch and feel of the product before they invested into purchasing the products. At every stage of the consumer journey are thus many factors that come together and collectively contribute in a small way for facilitate the decision making for the consumer.
Marketing is a field has evolved tremendously over the last decades owing to the opening up of the market, the improved economy of the country, the growing income and growing middle class and most importantly the intervention of the digital medium into our lives. Owing to the changes that are happening consumers have evolved a great deal and are no longer shying away from buying products both online and offline. The basic concepts of the consumer decision making although remain the same but now there are a lot of factors that are playing a crucial role at every stage in the process to assist the consumer in making their mind up.
Looking at the online space right now, the retail category and specifically apparel has undergone a huge change. From how people earlier only stitched clothes which later progressed into buying clothes from trusted brands where the touch and feel of the cloth and looking at the design was considered utmost important. With the online presence, ease of purchasing has now changed a lot and consumer are now making purchases of even the most premium brands for important occasions online The online platform has changed the way people bought their apparel providing comfort, convenience, variety, cash back, trail option and many more such features.
With the rapid growth of online shopping especially in the apparel sector in India, there is a need to address the following issues with respect to impact of digital strategies on consumer buying behavior:
1. Which of the digital strategies affect the customer journey?
2. Which stages of the consumer decision journey do these strategies impact most?
3. What are the implications for the marketers?
4. Are there any gaps in the consumer decision journey which the marketers can leverage on?
The research paper addresses all these issues specifically. Marketers would greatly benefit from such study because it helps them channelize their efforts and funds and invest only on the digital media that would help them achieve the marketing objectives.
1. To analyze how the consumer decision journey has evolved with the digital media strategies especially in apparel sector for online shopping.
2. To Study the factors that make the most impact at the various stages of the journey for the retail category specifically apparel brands.
3. To find out the implications of these for the marketers and how they can use the consumer decision journey to communicate and market better.
Marketing has shifted from the exchange of goods to service, interaction and relationships. Technological advancements and changing media environments has facilitated this shift and companies are forced to think the way they interact with their customers and influence their purchase behavior. The cost efficiency and interactivity of digital platforms has motivated the companies to move towards digital marketing. Marketers can now be in touch with their customers frequently, with a higher level of personalization and interaction, impacting their purchase behavior (Dighton, 2000). But reaching to these digitally inclined target markets is not that easy. Just putting TV ads and print ads won’t help them attain their goals with 3.3 billion people active social media users, companies need to redesign their digital marketing strategies. (Statista, 2018) With the upcoming dynamic trends like Influencer and micro influencer marketing, Interactive Chatbots, Voice search, Artificial Intelligence, Block chain technologies, understanding the millennial consumer decision making abd buying behavior seems challenging for the companies (Shaw, 2018).
“Digital marketing uses the internet and Information Technology to extend and improve traditional marketing functions.” (Urban, 2004) David Chaffey, CEO of Smart Insights defines “Digital Marketing as achieving marketing objectives through applying digital technologies and media.” American Analytics giant, SAS institute opines that digital marketing is a tool to promote products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media and differs from traditional marketing in that it involves the use of channels and methods that enables an organization to analyze marketing campaigns and understand what is working and what isn’t working-typically in real time. (Healy, 2017).
Benefits of digital marketing
The typical monotonous advertising has been replaced by digital marketing. Due to rapidly advancing technologies and fast changing market dynamics, digital marketing has grown phenomenally. (Mort, 2002) Digital marketing specifically online advertising is a very powerful tool to increase traffic and enhance brand awareness. (Song, 2001) Moreover, digital marketing allows the companies to reach their target audience in a more cost efficient and measurable way thus measuring return on investment on advertising. (Pepelnjak, 2008) So, digital marketing offers the customers a lot of benefits ranging from staying updated with latest information, comparative analysis with competitors, 24/7 shopping, instant purchase, greater customer engagement and sharing reviews about the experience. With a global reach supplemented with the touch of personalization, it allows companies to track and measure the effectiveness of their campaign using various online metric tools. (Suginraj, 2017)
Traditional Consumer Purchase Journey
One of the most influential areas in consumer behavior is consumer decision making. Consumers have a complex set of needs and they resort to different decision making processes to satisfy these needs. The complexity of the decisions depends on perception about the product and its comparison with other products. Consumer decision making involves a number of different stages and numerous theories and models have been proposed by researchers over the past years. Cox (1983) proposed a five stage model which is considered the most common model for consumer decision making. This model is more clear and precise as it focuses on motivational factors which influence the consumer purchase decision. (Blackwell, 2006) The recognition of an unsatisfied need depends on personal and situational factors. (Neal, 2006) As per Solomon (2006), the psychological needs arise out of emotional feeling whereas physical needs stem from necessity.
Consumer Buying Journey Online
Social media has revolutionized marketing practices like advertising and promotion. (Hanna, 2011) It has also influenced consumer behavior from information search to post purchase behavior about a product or accompany (Mangold, 2009).
Though the digital revolution has not altered the stages in consumer decision making process but the journey itself has changed. Rather being a traditionally linear path, it’s more of a cycle or even a web (Figure 1). Consumers move through and back between the stages and get influenced by both offline and online factors at each stage.
Retail websites or online shops are the most common source of initial product awareness. But consumers do refer to physical shops too for information. So, an Omni-channel strategy goes in providing a wide range of information to consumers today. The same trend of Omni channel strategy continues at each stage from information search to post purchase behavior.
Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior in the Online Medium
Consumer behavior online is affected by a number of factors like: Personal, Psychological and Social & Cultural. Personal characteristics include age, gender, occupation, status, education and lifestyle. Young individuals have more interest towards new technologies as compared to older people and easily adopt them. Moreover, cross-shopping is more intense in this group. (Vasquez, 2009) Both gender groups are using the internet but as stated by Rodgers and Harris, the men make more online purchases. But in today’s world, this gap is decreasing and an increasing number of women buy online. (Hernandes, 2011) Moreover, individuals with lower income find the online platform riskier for purchases as compared to those with higher incomes. (Hernandes, 2011) Online shoppers are generally not that educated as it is considered an easy activity (Zhou, 2007). Online consumers psychologically deal with themselves, get motivated to look for price or buy online. Perception plays a huge role and consumers assess the security and quality of the website of the product. Personality drives them to websites that best suits to their personal preferences. Attitude is the one marketer is more interested as it can be changed easily (Wu, 2003). For the online consumers, the virtual communities and their opinions play an important role in formulating their purchase decisions (Table 1).
|Table 1: Comparative Analysis Of The Factors Affecting Traditional VS. Online Shopping|
|S.no.||Traditional shopping||Online shopping|
|1||Less number of choices.||Huge variety with the benefit of buyer convenience.|
|2||Time consuming.||Reduces the time involved.|
|3||Authenticity of information provided.||Provides more authentic information.|
|4||Changing consumer tastes and preferences.||Offers a huge variety catering to the varied tastes and preferences of customers.|
|5||Bargaining in an offline store with the shopkeeper.||No chances of bargaining.|
|6||Consumers can feel the tangibility of the products.||Can’t feel the touch of the products.|
|7||Immediate delivery of the products.||Deliveryof products normally take 6-7 days.|
|8||Instant gratification.||Gratification after delivery of the products.|
Source: (Gupta, 2015).
Changing Trends in Apparel Industry worldwide
Apparel brands are facing the challenge of shorter trend cycles and increasing consumer demand for instant gratification. The different social media platforms allow faster diffusion and adoption of new trends and fashion among digitally inclined consumers. But at the same time, platforms like Instagram and Pinterest allow companies to act upon the consumer impulse more than ever. The latest shift in E-Commerce is projecting the growth of Direct-to-consumer (D2C) fashion channels thereby increase in departmental stores. Apparel brands worldwide are using Artificial Intelligence, Big data and wearable technology to understand the consumer buying behavior online and provide a fully customized shopping experience to them (Snipp, 2018).
Indian Apparel market
In the last few years, the apparel industry in the developing countries is witnessing a robust growth. Changing consumer trends and demand, social and environmental factors are influencing drastic changes in the apparel industry with India being one of the preferred destinations. Indian apparel market is expected to grow at CAGR of 13% and is predicted to reach USD 124 billion by 2020 (Indian Apparel Market: The 2020 promises, 2017). Many global brands are entering India and at the same time the domestic brands are strengthening their positions. The support by the government is also boosting the confidence of global and domestic brands. There are some major trends that are changing the Indian apparel industry. The rise in new middle class and its soaring aspirations is leading to increase in preference of branded clothes by consumers. This trend is more visible in Tier-I cities with more population of middle class and affluent consumers but this trend is seen descending in Tier-II & Tier-II cities of India too. The role of women in family decision making is gaining prominence with the growing contribution of women in the family income. With smarter women and thus smarter kids, the Indian apparel industry is witnessing a major change in the way females demand hard core fashion brands and decide buying clothes online. One set of Indian consumers are buying apparel on the basis of their functionality like anti-stain, anti-odor or quick dry while the other are buying motivated by high order needs like sustainable clothing. This is forcing companies to think beyond the predictable consumer needs while buying apparels. There is a return of trend of custom-fit tailoring with basically either made-to-measure or bespoke tailoring.Premium brands like Raymond and Louis Philippe and luxury brands like Armani, Versace, Zegna, Cadini and Canali offer made-to-measure services. Premium brands like Van Heusen’s My Fit and Creyate by Arvind group have introduced the concept of bespoke tailoring. The increasing and fast access to internet devices is enabling to opt for online shopping experience in apparels too. It gives them the benefit of exploring a wide range of products and their prices on a single platform at a time and place comfortable to them. With increasing social media engagements, customer experience and huge discounts on weekends and festivals, online shopping is definitely giving a different shopping experience with enhanced customer satisfaction and engagement. So, online apparel sales are on the rise but at the same time the need to develop digitally driven brands is also emerging in Indian apparel industry (Aggarwal, 2017).
Looking into the rapid growth of apparel sector in India, a detailed research in this sector is of prime importance. The complexity of the consumer decision journey online will force virtually all companies to adopt new ways of measuring consumer attitudes, brand performance and the effectiveness of marketing expenditures across the whole process. The way the Indian Apparel Industry is transforming digitally, it definitely calls for a change in the online strategies adopted apparel companies by studying the changing consumption habits and trends among consumers. A lot of research has been done to study the upcoming trends in Indian Apparel Industry and the changing buying behavior of consumers online. But little research has been done to study the impact of digital strategies on consumer decision making online especially with respect to Indian apparel industry. This research paper tries to study the impact of online strategies on consumer apparel buying online. The research will have immense managerial implications for both companies and academicians. It will help the apparel companies design and change their digital strategies accordingly. It will also give academicians opportunities for future research in this area.
The literature review presented at the earlier reflected on the various aspects of the consumer decision making journey both take offline and online. It also opened possibilities to study the factors that had an impact on both the offline and online consideration and purchase. On a macro level marketing as a field has evolved tremendously over the last decade owing to the opening up of the market, the improved economy of the country, the growing income and growing middleclass and most importantly the intervention of the digital medium into our lives. The methodology involved was quantitative, the method taken into consideration was survey, the tool used was questionnaire and the technique involved in constructing the questionnaire was likert scaling. All the questionnaires were manually administered to the respondents with minimum interference. The male and female will more or less in equal proportions.
Simple random sampling is the technique which was used. It consisted of post graduate students across Pune; these candidates will have the same level of education, similar motivations and decision making pattern. The age group of students were in the age bracket of 22-27 and these will be students from their first to fourth semester pursuing Management studies across institutes.in Pune The sample was thus homogenous with education, lifestyle, their level of adaptability to technology, their digital habits, their motivations and thus consumer decision journey thus their purchase pattern. They will essentially be digital natives and well adept to online shopping which will be made sure from the questions in the questionnaire. This was designed using an appropriate scale preferably, Likert. The Questionnaire that will be administered to the respondents will consist of approx. 15 questions. The questions will include queries related to the their buying experience, the experience with the brands, the features of online apparel, their pre purchase considerations, their during purchase evaluation parameters and their post purchase observations related to delivery, trail, cash back, etc. will persuade the consumer to buy online as opposed to the offline medium.
The different parameters that emerge from the analysis of literature review were built into the questionnaire as valuable inputs to create the questionnaire. Through the questionnaire that will be filled by the respondents online we will try and look deeply into the factors that have affected the consumer decision making journey the most. These factors will then be prioritized according importance at each given stage in the consumer journey. After studying the factors the final step would be to analysis of the data and deriving insights from it. These would also include recommendation to both offline and online retailers to improve their offering and can be the future integrations into their business to improve their offering to the consumer depending upon the factors we explore we can also tell them about the touch points where they should maximize their interaction with the consumer and thus affect the decision making process and their purchase intent.
The Questionnaire was designed while internally has two parts: questions related to the hypothesis and also another set integrated to correlate with the customer journey. Questionnaire was made using Google forms online and was send to the respondents. Customer profile considered include: PG students studying MBA from the top five institutes in Pune. The sample size is 200 with 100 females & 100 males in equal gender representation has been tried to achieve.
Scale used: Likert
The responses have been collected in an excel sheet which was then imported to SPSS. The analysis from SPSS using co-relation will be carried out in the next stage.
Defining the Variables
The independent Variables involved in this research were as follows: Social media, Mega sales, Free coupons, Targeting and Retargeting and Mobile marketing.
The dependent Variables involved in this research were as follows: Trending fashion content marketing, Influencer or Celebrities, Positive reviews, Online reviews, Discounts, Online payment options, Experience with apparel or site.
Below are the set of hypothesis for the research to be undertaken:
H1: Social media content and advertising have a positive effect on leading people to e-commerce apparel sites.
H2: Mega Sales & Discounts encourage purchase of apparel online.
H3: Retargeting has a positive effect on generating traffic to the apparel e-commerce sites.
H4: Mobile advertising have positive effect on leading people to website or apps.
From the test conducted on SPSS we are trying to prove the correlation between the various digital media strategies and the consumer decision making journey. The above independent and dependent factors were run in the test. The findings are as below. The chart showing the Pearson correlation factor is attached at the end as I wanted to present the analysis and the learning from the research first.
Cronbach’s alpha is 0.657, this value implies that the implemented questionnaire is reliable for running the co-relation test and the scale that is questionnaire is built on i.e. Likert scale is valid (Table 2).
|Table 2: Reliability Statistics|
|Cronbach’s Alpha||Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items||N of Items|
The above table suggested that the reliability of the operationalizing variables mentioned in the questionnaire are reliable to conduct the research since the reliability score is <0.6. Hence there is internal consistency among items in the questionnaire.
This Table 3 suggests that there is less deviation among the responses and hence coherency and consistency of responses and data is maintained.
|Table 3: Descriptive Statistics|
|Trend and Fashion Content||3.19||0.822||70|
|Celebrities or Influencer||2.54||1.073||70|
|Positive review or WOM||3.86||0.785||70|
|Online Payment options||3.57||1.084||70|
In terms of the co-relational analysis, the finding of the study suggests:
1. Social Media has a positive impact on Word of mouth (refer to table in appendix A1)
2. Mega Sales has a positive impact on Word of mouth (refer to table in appendix A1)
3. Free coupons has a positive impact on Online Purchase-(refer to table in appendix A2)
4. Targeting has a positive impact on mobile advertising. (refer to table in appendix A3)
5. Mobile advertising has a positive impact on experience opinion (refer to table in appendix A3)
6. Mobile advertising has a positive impact on trending fashion content (refer to table in appendix A4)
From the above findings, it can be concluded that:
1. Social Media has a positive impact on Word of mouth-The more the social media presence of the brand especially on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram-The more the positive word of mouth it yields to.
2. Pearson Correlation=0.419.
3. Mega Sales has a positive impact on Word of mouth-The announcement and advertisements of mega sales, flash discounts for example the great Indian festival by Amazon lead to positive WOM and generates buzz and conversations.
4. Pearson Correlation=0.479.
5. Free coupons have a positive impact on Online Purchase-Rewarding with free coupons from other TG relevant likely needs leads to an increase in online purchases.
6. Pearson Correlation=0.390.
7. Targeting has a positive impact on mobile advertising.-This finding suggests that when a brand would want to target specific audience group, the best medium would be mobile which will be most effective in communicating the message.
8. Mobile advertising has a positive impact on experience opinion-This finding suggests that once a customer has experienced the product or the services, there should be more communication to the person through mobile messaging. This process would enable the person to remember and refer to the brand very often.
9. Mobile advertising has a positive effect on trending fashion content-This means that people are more likely to look for trending fashion content on their first screen i.e the mobile. Hence, testing the hypothesis, the results are:
H1: Facebook/Twitter/Instagram-social media content and advertising have a positive effect on leading people to e-commerce sites.
Hypothesis accepted as we have seen that social media does have a positive effect on leading to WOM and leading people to the online apparel shopping. This is related to the evaluation of alternatives stage and the. Purchase stage subsequently of the consumer decision journey as positive WOM and review have an impact on the purchase.
H2: Mega Sales & Discounts encourage purchase of apparel online.
Hypothesis is accepted as Mega sales and discounts are highly correlated to encouraging on online purchase. This thus affects the consumer decision making journey the Purchase stage. We have also seen that free perks like coupons etc lead to enhanced purchase and lead people into accepting online shopping as a lucrative option.
H3: Retargeting has a positive effect on leading users to apparel e-commerce sites. The hypothesis is accepted as retargeting mostly on mobile phones through messages will have a positive impact on consumer decision making process.
H4: Mobile advertising have positive effect on leading people to website or apps Hypothesis accepted. As we can see from the test advertising on mobile has a positive impact on the trending fashion content. Thus we can say that it lead people to the apparel shopping sites and also has a positive effect on the need recognition and Information search stage of the consumer decision journey.
Implications for corporate and academicians
1. For advertising the new fashion, trends, styles of apparel brands, target mobile as a medium. This the medium people are using he most to look for what’s trending especially more so true for fashion.
2. To generate more positive word of mouth for apparel brands and their fashion, employ social media rigorously. This could be content or promotions on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other social media platforms. This will not only increase brand visibility but also stir conversations with the use of hash-tags and getting the brand trending. Thus if Myntra wants to trend its exclusive Deepika Padukone Tamasha movie apparel range, buzz about it must be created on all social media relevant to the TG and the brand. Content, blogs and reviews from customers should be advertised so that it generates a ripple effect spreading the good word around.
3. To create a buzz and generate conversations or word of mouth, advertising the Mega sales, discounts or other promotions of similar kind will be helpful. Thus if the client is Amazon who has to advertise its Mega sale, I would suggest that it advertises on social media and also employs SEO,SEM. This generates the curiosity among people and stirs conversations. This would then lead people to buy products which they had saved in their wishlist or to be bought in the future carts.
4. To encourage purchase online, giving away coupons (free rides with Cab services/movie tickets) is helpful. Such tie ups with other brands will be trigger purchase provided such offers are packaged in a way that it is relevant to the target audience. More so having theses coupons at the payment gateway stage or just before that could also encourage impulse purchase. Thus if a female consumer purchases an outfit at Jabong, an offer like a coupon to a free haircut at a salon or a free food coupons that can be redeemed at Dominos can be offered.
5. Retargeting by brands i.e. brands that follow consumers while they surf online is something that all consumers would like only on mobile phones. Targeting people based on the content they see like native Advertising and hyper-local targeting does seem to work in case of apparel brand and this can be said from the secondary research done from the topic. Thus if a quantitative study proves the same then the marketers should look at these two routes.
Online shopping has brought about a paradigm shift in the way consumers are shopping in today’s world. Consumer is the epicenter in the process of marketing. This makes it extremely important for marketers to thoroughly understand the way consumer makes decision. With the digital intervention the concept remaining the same consumer often checks the online conversations around the product he is interested in, reviews, goes through content, check the most competitive prices, delivery options, payment and tractions facilities, post purchase amenities. Internet has changed consumers and societies at large through availability of wide information, better social networking and better communication. Social networks are defined as websites that link millions of users worldwide through Blogs, YouTube, MySpace, Face book and similar other social media sites. Online shopping has brought about a paradigm shift in the way consumers are shopping in today’s world. The main objective of this research paper was to analyze how digital media strategies affect the consumer decision making especially in apparel sector for online shopping. A quantitative research was done with a sample of 200 selected though simple random sampling. There was equal representation of male and female in the sample. Questionnaire as a tool was administered. Hypothesis testing was done followed by correlation analysis of several factors affecting the online purchase behavior of consumers in the apparel sector. Analysis was done using SPSS. From the discussion on the hypothesis and its correlation with the consumer decision making journey, the analysis speaks volume of the fact that digital media strategies and its dynamic ways of keeping the consumer engaged have proved to be successful especially in the apparel online shopping sector. Social media through positive word of mouth positively influences the online apparel shopping. So, every brand should work towards building positive word of mouth and strong customer relationships. Moreover, apparel brands look upon mobile medium as a powerful platform to advertise their brands.
The study undertaken does justice to the objective it was set out for. From the resulting correlation test we can see how digital media strategies are correlated in one way or the other (either directly or indirectly) to the customer decision journey. Each stage as described theoretically-Need recognition, Information Search, Evaluation of alternatives, Purchase and Post purchase can be seen to be impacted by the various digital media strategies being employed. It can be suggested that:
1. Mega sales and social media have positive impact on generating positive reviews and thus impact the Evaluation of alternatives and Purchase stage subsequently.
2. It can be concluded that the social media marketing is a very important tool for the marketers of apparel brands online for trending new fashion, announce sales and most importantly generate positive reviews and word of mouth as these reviews are the most looked for. One important hint here is that every apparel brand must invest in building strong CRM i.e. Customer Relationship Management.
3. Another powerful insight that emerged was that apparel brands looking to advertise new trends must look at mobile as a medium and build a strong strategy around it.
4. The number of people who responded yes to shopping online with their frequency being more that 10 purchases a year hold testimony that people especially the youth in the age group of 20-30 which was our test group have readily accepted the online medium as their preferred medium to shop.
5. The youth is spending a considerable amount of money upto 10k on online purchases and for some even more.
6. Flipkart, Myntra, jabong, Amazon emerged pout to be the most frequented site when it comes to online shopping. Thus to take the study further a research in how these companies are effectively using digital media and learning about their strategies will give further insight into this topic.
7. Laptop followed by mobile are the most preferred medium for online shopping of apparel. Thus keeping theses gadgets at the heart of the strategy should be kept in mind by the marketers.
Few numbers of independent variables chosen by me could not cover the whole gamut of digital media strategies. In the robust world of digital media and the number of brands betting on it, apparel sector being one part of it there are many factors that affect the customer decision journey at its subsequent stages. An in depth study thus which all the burgeoning digital strategies to research to the consumer and affect his decision could not be undertaken. The time span for the study taken up also subjected to constraints. Thus in depth search of the variables and the sub-Variables could not take place.
Future research on the upcoming digital media strategies can be taken up. Also this kind of a study would be done best by partnering with an apparel brand having its presence online or one which is planning to sell online soon. This way the study would be much more useful with real time insights to the clients which would help them craft their strategies better. This study could be extended to the concepts of marketing other than the consumer decision journey for example the stimulus-response theory or consumer loyalty model. Another area of research related to this one could be to figure which of the social media and digital platforms will have the maximum impact on the online shopping of apparel brands.
|A1: Inter Item Co-relation|
|Social||Celebrity or Influencer||Positive Reviews or WOM||Online Reviews|
|Sum of squares and cross products||4.800||23.000||11.000|
|Mega Sales||Pearson Correlation||-0.188**||00.479**||0.188|
|Sum of squares and cross products||-9.971||18.571||8.286|
|Free Coupons||Pearson Correlation||-0.147||0.334||0.026|
|Sum of squares and cross products||-11.629||19.429||1.714|
|Sum of squares and cross products||-6.314||-7.286||-11.143|
|Mobile Advertising||Pearson Correlation||0.189||-0.079||0.144|
|Sum of Squares and cross Products||13.886||-4.286||8.857|
|Trends & Fashion Content||Pearson Correlation||0.262*||0.379||0.147|
|Sum of Squares and cross Products||15.943||16.857||7.429|
|Celebrities or Influencer||Pearson Correlation||1||0.162||-0.004|
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
|A2: Inter Item Co-relation|
|Discounts||Online Payment||Experience Options|
|Free Coupons||Pearson Correlation||0.156||0.390||0.185|
|Sum of squares and cross Products||9.057||31.286||9.429|
|Sum Of Squares and cross Products||-9.471||11.143||-5.286|
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
|A3: Inter Item Co-relation|
|Discounts||Mobile advertising||Experience Opinions|
|Sum of squares and cross Products||57.843||21.943||5.471|
|Mobile Advertising||Pearson Correlation||0.349||1||0.411|
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
|A4: Inter Item Co-relation|
|Targeting||Mobile advertising||Trends and fashion content|
|Trends & Fashion Content||Pearson Correlation||0.105*||0.411||1|
|Sum of squares and cross Products||5.471||23.171||46.586|
|Celebrities or Influencer||Pearson Correlation||-0.093||0.189||0.262|
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).