Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Review Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 3S

Impact of Marketization on Women Empowerment: A Proposed Conceptual Model

Shilpa Gupta, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra

Citation Information: Gupta, S. (2021) Iimpact of marketization on women empowerment: a proposed conceptual model. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 25(S3), 1-6.


In India, the contours of gender discrimination and empowerment are little recognized. Economic and social inequality leads to the powerlessness of particular gender. Gender empowerment is discussed in both a social and cultural setting in this paper. The four aspects are identified and quantified in this research study using qualitative data acquired from rural parts of Katra. The dimensions and variables have been measured, allowing for a more accurate reflection of gender empowerment. According to the findings of the study, rural women are entirely supportive of the development and growth of specific areas that have been adversely affected by marketization. The study also implies that similar data might be used to measure gender empowerment at the national level.


The empowerment of any gender is to be called as gender empowerment. In any particular social and political context, the concept focuses on the difference between gender as a role and biological sex and it also talk about the other marginalized genders as well. While considering the human rights and development, it has been observed that empowerment is the main concern. Gender empowerment and gender participation is also been addressed as the main step to overcome the hardships associated with the human rights. Gender empowerment is very necessary topic for a nation to get the desired development. For peaceful, sustainable and prosperous world, gender equality is necessary; it is not merely a fundamental right for humans (UN, 2016). There is tremendous change in the women counterpart when it comes to education, marriage, etc and there are more women who are serving the nation and laws are being reformed to push gender equality.

Women play an uneven role in responding to the virus, it also includes frontline healthcare workers. As a result of closure in schools, the women work related to unpaid care has diligently increased. Women, who worked in the informal economy counts as 60% of the total women, hit harder by the economic impacts of COVID-19 as it constitutes the insecure labor markets. It has also been showed that since the pandemic, violence against the women particularly domestic violence has heightened with great intensity.

Empowerment is an interactive process, for social and personal change which influences the organizations which will again affect their livelihood and community in which they live said by O’Brien & Whitmore, 1989. Kabeer, 1999., coined the concept as the ability to which one can make choices on their own which have been denied to make choices earlier. In many of the studies, the women disempowerment is compared to the men on various positions in the society. According to the Morley, 1995., Economic and social inequality leads to the powerlessness of particular gender. Other researcher coined the women as a inferior and have weak legal status as compared to men (Chafetz, 1990; Kanungo & Conger, 1988. Biasness is gender preferences has also been a major cause for not participation in paid employment and economic activities.

Women empowerment can also be considered as the promotion of women’s self worth, where they can put forward their own choices for others as well as for themselves. The beginning phase of the women empowerment takes place in 19th century and early 20th century. The second phase of the same was about sexual revolution and importance of women in a society. The third phase was all about the feminism which has started in the 1990’s. These are total 13 schemes under the ministry of women and child development.

Literature Review

Marketization refers to the development and growth of the particular area through marketing point of view by changing the small enterprises to the industries. The term “Marketization” is used here in the direction of change process. Marketization of poverty is nothing but depoliticization (Ferguson 1995). Baker, Gentry and Rittenburg(2005), in their research study underlined the vulnerabilities experienced by new mothers and expectants as a result of increased marketization. Some authors argues that the idealized constructions of motherhood is inflected and added by the marketing systems and practices which contribute to vulnerability both within and beyond the market (The VOICE Group). The indicators of rural people showing their high dependence on their villages is their overall life satisfaction highly correlated with satisfaction of village life, more than satisfaction with family (David J. O’Brien, Stephen K. Wegren, Valeri V. Patsiorkovsky). Wellbeing is continued to be defined as on economic parameters till 1980’s but in 1990’s wellbeing is defined on the concepts of non-economic parameters of sustainability and human development (Sumner, 2004). Wellbeing is treated differently in different parts of the communities as well as in the literature. Broadly, it is related to the welfare, health, happiness, comfort, safety & prosperity. QOL (quality of life) is determined by the overall life satisfaction in the various life domains of the consumer wellbeing (Campbell, Converse, and Rodgers,1976 ; Diener 1984, Scott and Srumpf 1984). Transformative consumer research works on the improvement in the consumer welfare and quality of life by supporting, encouraging and publicizing research (Association of consumer research, 2010). TCR generally covers the areas including vulnerable population such as the poor, illiterate, elderly, etc. and also negative consumer behaviors (like smoking, poor nutritional habits, high risk behaviors, etc) and positive consumer behaviors (like environmentally responsible behavior, volunteer work, organ donation, etc.) (Mari, 2008; Mick, 2006).

Research Methodology

The study is carried out with a qualitative approach. Following the research work, a pilot study was conducted in the local community of Katra. There are 10 interviews that are taken into consideration. Convenience sampling is used in this research study. The primary data for this study is collected through unstructured in-depth interviews. Unstructured Interviews are conducted with open ended questions. There are total 10 interviews that are considered for this study. Data is collected from the rural residents that belong to the rural areas. The interviews that are considered in this study converted into a transcription. The demographic profiling of the sampling population ages between 20 – 55 years. Income lies in between 6,000–40,000/-. Family size lies from 4-9 members in each family. Qualification from 5th-12th.

Here Are Some of the Statements from the Interviews

Q: What is the other factors influencing the growth & development despite the tourism sector in katra?

Statement 1:- Govt. is doing its work. Opening up of railway station is the biggest thing in the area of development that we people never think of. Earlier the roads were not up to the mark in katra but now things have been changed and chain of 4 star hotel properties are opening for the people who want to stay in the luxury hotels. Many transport facilities have started, food facilities are also there.

Statement 2:- Govt. need to take the initiative for Jammu tourism. This region should be promoted like Kashmir so that people come here to see the beauty of this place. Otherwise, people are coming to Katra and there is no doubt in it but the there is a need to promote the Jammu region. The infrastructure will also have to be improved. Govt. need to give its attention towards it.

Statement 3:- Govt. is doing nothing for us. There is nobody who listen to the demands of the people. Locals always suffer a lot. Govt. is doing some good things but on another level.

Statement 4:- Govt. should take the right decisions for the betterment of the society. It also helps the disadvantaged and below poverty line people through tourism. The poor people get nothing from the increase and decrease in tourism. On the other hand govt is busy in promoting the Kashmir and Jammu is always left behind.

Statement 5:- There is a need to promote the various potential destinations of jammu region. Places like shiv khori, mansar lake, baba dansar, baba siyarh, shudmahadev, budda amaranth, bahu fort, mahamaya temple, etc. need to be promoted on national level. Kashmir is very popular since 1970’s era. Still Kashmir is very famous for its beautiful and scenic destinations. Jammu also need to be as promoted as Kashmir. Govt. should take necessary steps for growth and development of this place.

Statement 6:- Yes, infrastructure is not proper in comparison to the other states. Tourism will increase only if people will get all the facilities in one place. Govt. should put forward the basic necessities regarding the infrastructure in the jammu region.

Statement 7:- Yes, I think govt. is doing pretty well from the past years. Kashmir is a well known destination comparatively from Jammu. Jammu is known mainly for vaishno devi and other famous temples.

Statement 8:- Govt. should give the medical facility in our area so that we don’t need to rush to the city. Water and electricity facility should be given to us.

Q: What else you do apart from this work?

Statement 1:- I have agricultural land.

Statement 2:- I am working as a beautician in this university. I charged extra money for this.

Statement 3:- Basic income is generated from this job. Other than that we have also our own agricultural land where we produce apples, walnuts, vegetables, fruits, etc.

Q: Are you satisfied with this job now?

Statement 1:- Yes, I am satisfied now, because I am also getting a room including the meals. My salary is increased now. Everyone wants to have high amount of salary. As I am not educated much, I am satisfied in this work. I help my brothers in their studies. Some amount of money goes to my mother, she uses it to fulfill household needs. I am the elder son so I have to keep these things in mind.

Statement 2:- Yes, I am satisfied with my work. It gives me daily earning of 1200-1500. On high demand, earning can reach up to 2000.

Statement 3:- No, I am not satisfied with my income. We have to give a duty of 8 hrs/ day. Our salary should be increased.

Statement 4:- Yes, I am satisfied with my income. I wish that in the coming days there will be more tourists so that my income will increase.

Statement 5:- It depends upon each and every day, sometimes I got customers and sometimes not. I earned rs. 300-500 daily. It is not sufficient for my family. But I don’t have any choice.

Statement 6:- Yes, I am happy with this work. I got 10,000/- per month from here. I work here as a special cook. I enjoy cooking here. I have taken a room near the university. I live there alone. Some Part of my money goes to my mother and father. They do not earn, I give them money so that they can fulfill all their needs. They do agricultural work at home. After 2 to 3 years, I want to have my own business. I will start with a small business. Till that time, I have had experience of 2 years.

Statement 7:- The amount of money I got from this job is very small and is not sufficient to fulfill the needs of your family. Although, I was not capable of earning anything earlier but now I am capable enough to give education to my children. I can help my husband in the household needs. Now, we together earn and this is improving my family conditions

Statement 8:- Yes, I am happy. Earlier, I did not earn money of my own. The money which my husband earned was not sufficient for us to fulfill our daily needs. Now, I also earn and I can buy anything. I am now able to give my children everything they want. I am able to give them education.

Statement 9:- Yes, I am very much happy because I was not able to fulfill my basic needs. Now, I am able to do it with my own money. This gives me more happiness.

Statement 10:- It is not enough for survival but something is better than nothing. After the demise of my husband, I am the only one in the family who is working and earning. It is not about happiness, it is about the survival. If I will not earn then, who is going to pay our bills.

Statement 11:- Yes, I like to cook from my teenage days. The financial situation of my home is not so good so I started working in very small age. I was working as a cook in the birthday parties, wedding parties, anniversary parties, etc. I had also done the work of waitress in catering business.

Q: Do you have any other source of income?

Statement 1:- Yes, I have 3 canals of agricultural land and 2 cows in my home. The produce from the agricultural land is distributed partly and half is consumed by us. There is wheat, corn and vegetables being produced in our agricultural land. We face difficulty to protect our crops from the monkeys. Half of it gets wasted due to these monkeys.

Statement 2:- There is no other source of income. I got 8000/-month and is the only source of income

Statement 3:- Many people have agricultural land of their own. We grow vegetables, wheat, corn, pulses etc. 25% of the grains is used by us and 75% of the total is distributed in the market for selling purpose in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework of the Study

Research Questions

Q. How marketization changes the gender dynamics of a traditional family farms towards salaried jobs?

Q. How marketization impacted the livelihood of the women in rural community?


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