Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research (Print ISSN: 1533-3590; Online ISSN: 1533-3604)

Short communication: 2021 Vol: 22 Issue: 5S

Market and Pricing Strategies: Pricing Methods

Namrata Jain, Indian School of Business

Citation Information: Jain, N. (2021). Market and pricing strategies: Pricing methods. Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 22(S5), 1-2.

Cost-Based Pricing Methods

Cost-Plus rating: Indeterminate rating is that the simplest rating technique. The firm calculates the price of manufacturing the merchandise and adds on a share (profit) thereto price to present the terms. This technique though straightforward has two flaws; it takes no account of demand and there's no manner of decisive if potential customers can purchase the merchandise at the calculated value. This seems in two forms, Full value rating that takes into thought each variable and glued price and adds an interesting markup. the opposite is direct value rating that are variable prices and an interesting mark-up, the latter is barely utilized in periods of high competition as this technique typically results in a loss within the end of the day Lancioni (2005).

Marginal cost rating: Selling price is fastened in such the way that it covers totally the variable or differential cost and contributes towards recovery of fastened prices totally or part, relying upon the market things. This can be additionally referred to as Break-even rating or target profit rating.

Competition-Oriented Rating

Sealed bid rating value quotes invited by governmental and alternative public agencies to confirm objective thought of competitive bids. Interested vendors are formally notified earlier of the request for a bid and should meet a bidding point in time moreover as tight bid format needs. Sealed bids are typically opened in public within the presence of all bidders. All-time low bid is awarded the order.

Going rate pricing: Here the worth charged by the firm is in tune with the worth charged within the business as a full. E.g. once one desires to shop for or sell gold, the prevailing market rate at a given purpose of your time is taken because the basis to work out the worth. Unremarkably the prevailing market rate at a given purpose of your time is taken because the basis to work out the worth.

Demand oriented rating: Demand oriented rating rules imply institution of costs in accordance with client preference and perceptions and also the intensity of demand. So if vender needs to sell a lot of he should cut back the worth of his product, and if he desires an honest value for his product, he may sell solely a restricted amount of his sensible.

Perceived worth rating: Perceived worth rating considers the buyer’s perception of the worth of the merchandise and also the basis of rating. Here the rating rule is that the firm should develop procedures for mensuration the relative worth of the merchandise as perceived by shoppers Morris (1987).

Differential rating: Differential pricing is nothing however value discrimination. In involves commercialism a product or service for various costs in numerous market segments.

Value differentiation depends on geographical location of the shoppers, kind of client, getting amount, season, time of the service etc. E.g. phonephone charges, APSRTC charges.

Strategy Based Mostly Rating

Market skimming: In most skimming, merchandise is sold at higher costs. Skimming is sometimes utilized to reimburse the value of investment of the first analysis into the product ordinarily utilized in electronic markets once a brand new vary, like DVD players, good phones are first off sent into the market at a high value. This strategy is usually wont to target "early adopters" of a product or service.

Market penetration: This can be precisely opposite to the market skimming technique. Here the worth of the merchandise is fastened thus low that the corporate will increase its market share, the corporate attins profits with increasing volumes and increase within the market share Osareh (1996).

Two-Part pricing: The companies with market power will enhance profits by the strategy of 2 half rating. Below this strategy, a firm charges a set fee for the correct to get its merchandise, and a per unit charge for every unit purchased. Amusement homes like country clubs, athletic clubs, golf courses and health clubs typically adopt this strategy. They charge a set initiation fee and a charge, per month or per visit Sharma & Iyer (2011).

Block pricing: Block rating is differently a firm with, market power will enhance its profits. Six illumination unit soaps in an exceedingly single pack or commercialism a definite no. of units of merchandise joined package.

Commodity bundling: Artefact Bundling refers to observe of bundling two or a lot of completely different merchandise along and commercialism them as one bundle value. The package deals offered by the tourist firms, Airlines hold testimony to the present observes. Computer firm supply’s offers PC’s, assembling as per the client specifications and supply them at a bundled value (Smith et al., 1999).

Peak load pricing: This has specific applications publicly merchandise like public urban transportation, wherever day demand (peak period) is sometimes abundant overnight demand (off-peak period). By subtracting the marginal prices of operation from the first demands we discover the marginal advantages of capability that should then be vertically mass and equated to the differential cost of skyrocketing capability.


  1. Lancioni, R.A. (2005). A strategic approach to industrial product pricing: The pricing plan. Industrial Marketing Management, 34(2), 177-183.
  2. Morris, M.H. (1987). Separate prices as a marketing tool. Industrial Marketing Management, 16(2), 79-86.
  3. Osareh, F. (1996). Bibliometrics, citation analysis and co-citation analysis: A review of literature. Libri, 46(3), 149-158.
  4. Sharma, A., & Iyer, G.R. (2011). Are pricing policies an impediment to the success of customer solutions? Industrial Marketing Management, 40(5), 723-729.
  5. Smith, M.F., Sinha, I., Lancioni, R., & Forman, H. (1999). Role of market turbulence in shaping pricing strategy. Industrial Marketing Management, 28(6), 637-649.
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