Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 21 Issue: 6S

Moderating Effect on the Impact of Modelling the Way and Encouraging the Heat over Performance Continuity

Khalifa Mohamed Obaid Almheiri, University Utara Malaysia (UUM)

Abd Rahim Romle, University Utara Malaysia (UUM)

Rusdi Omar, University Utara Malaysia (UUM)

Citation Information: Almheiri, M.M.O., Romle, A.R., & Omar, R. (2022). Moderating effect on the impact of modelling the way and encouraging the heat over performance continuity. Academy Strategic Management Journal, 21(S6), 1-11.


This study has been conducted to understand the role of two basic functions of leadership which are modelling the way and encouraging the heart. The study enriched social exchange theory by adding technology business continuity with the help of system theory. The study has been conducted over the public sector organization in UAE. Simple random sampling was applied to collect the data using pre-determined instruments. The well-developed instruments were adopted from prior studies. The data has been collected using survey research. The findings of the study revealed that modelling the way and encouraging the heart has a significant impact over performance continuity. Likewise the moderating role of technology business analytics has also been found significant. The study supported social exchange theory and advanced the theory with the help of system theory by adding the moderating role of technology business analytics. The study is significant for the leadership of public organizations in understanding that how can they improve performance continuity in their organizations, likewise the study opened the horizons of research for the up coming researchers.


Technology Business Analytics, Performance Continuity, Leadership


Managerial fatcors have become one of the key human features and are closely related to bussiness development and attainment of continuity in performance ( Pham & Kim, 2019 ). This is remarkable explosion of continuity business initiatives and organizational performance continuity has awoke the interest of management researches ( Alharthi & Khalifa, 2019). Besides, in recent years continuity of bussiness has become a critical topic in boardrooms, The benefits of emergency preparedness and bussiness continuity programs, the final stage in the change management process is to make the change part of the organizations culture to institutionalize it in some manner, once an organization commits to the goals of emergency preparedness and bussiness continuity , it begins to assimilate these change into its culture ( Mansol, Alwi & Ismail, 2015 ). The considering possible effects of decision on emergency preparedness and bussiness continuity becomes part of the decision-making process, a habitual perspective , a basic management discipline and a part of the organization character (Keradjaan, Tewal, Lengkong & Sendow, 2021).

Meanwhile, a successful leadership targets to determine what the organizations future looks like to be and assist in bringing together individual with leaders vision and affect each individual to achieve organizational vision regardless of the barries (Mupa, 2015.)In relation to leadership concept researches and many scholars have decided to establish definitions regarding a manager and management in order to find the right ways to present evidence for approaches to leadership effectiveness that managers use an authority and implement the vision and the strategy provided by leaders, coordinates and staffs the organization and deals with the day-today problems.

The business continuity is the minimization of the adverse effects of any disruption to an organizations activities and to ensure a rapid return to normalcy of operations (Mansol, Alwi & Ismail, 2015). Today organizations have to compete in an ever growing and faster moving ecenomy, generally , managers have to make complex decisions much faster and mistake can have huge impacts on an organizations performance (Abualoush, Masa deh Bataineh & Alrowwad, 2018 ). Due to the fact that more and more critical and value producing bussiness process are based on information technology , it is crucial for organizations to ensure a high level of system reliability and availability (Davis, 2020).The organizations in UAE have to compete in an ever expanding and much faster relocating economic climate, efficiency and bussiness methods are based upon information technology, but unfortunately, few organizations know the reality just how crucial bussiness connection strategy and information personnal associted with bussiness continuity. While catering the two core leadership functions, this research comprised a set of knowledge and topics that were accumulated and integrated into this filed . For the said purpose modeling the way and encouraging the heat have been considered as the core of leadership functions which have potenial to develop continuity in performance. Furthermore, the researcher focused on understanding the role of technology business analytics which may have the potenial to moderate the relationship between modeling the way, encouraging the heat, and performance continuity.

The present investigation brings about the understanding of organization performance continuity by evaluating ideas, theory, styles and existing performance of the two leadership functions and performance continuity while considering Technology Business Analytics as a moderator. The study is important to the UAE governance bodies because it explores the Organization Performance Continuity of public organizations for assisting the continuity of work in United Arab Emirate (UAE). Simultaneously, it might have common ramifications to other sectors in the various locations, experts, managers, selection researchers, scholars and makers.

Literature Review

Performance Continuity refer to "acievig sccess today without compromising the needs of the future . Organizational sustainability can be defined as the reduction of organizational risk that increase the likehood that an organizations will survive and thrive in the future, coupled with the mitigation of any harm to the things, and people around it, The continuity of performance define is the bussiness specific plans and actions that enable an organzations to respond to crisis event is a manner such that bussiness functions, sub-functions and processed are recovered and resumed according to a perdetermined plam, prioritized by their critically to the economic viability of the bussiness.

Modelling the Way (MW)

The most necessary individual quality individuals seek and appreciate in a forerunner is actually individual reliability. Reputation is actually the structure of leadership (Grotens, Dijk & Vugt, 2018). If people do not believe in the messenger, they will not think the message. Titles might be actually provided, but management is gained. Leaders Model the Way by discovering their voice and establishing an example. Innovators are actually supposed to justify their ideas, so they 'd a lot better possess opinions to justify. Leaders have to be actually crystal clear regarding their assisting concepts (Anam, Thoyib & Djawahir, 2018). They need to find their personal voices, and afterwards they have to talk their values clearly and authentically. Yet forerunners can't simply impose their market values on others and assume dedication. They need to engage others alike goals (Popescu & Predescu, 2016).

Creating the Way begins with the information of individual worth and entails structure and affirming common worth that all can easily accept (Burke, Shuffler & Wiese, 2018). Eloquent speeches concerning usual worth are certainly not nearly good enough (Matos, 2018). Excellent leaders recognize that it's their actions that earns all of them regard. The genuine exam is whether they perform what they claim, whether their deeds and terms are consistent. Leaders specified an example and construct devotion by means of easy, daily actions that make progress and create momentum (Thien, 2019).

The personal-best ventures our experts researched were actually identified due to the simple fact that each one of all of them required unrelenting effort, focus, steadiness, and competence to information. It had not been the huge motion that had the best long-term impact. Rather it was actually the power of hanging out along with someone, of working side-by-side with co-workers, of saying to stories that brought in market values arrive active, of being actually highly noticeable throughout opportunities of uncertainty, of dealing with important accidents along with poise and self-control, and of talking to questions to obtain individuals to pay attention to priorities and market values (Wesche & Sonderegger, 2019).

Nothing at all discourages workers more than nurse practitioner forerunners that say one point and after that carry out one thing fairly different. When you consider management the words: rely on, reputation, relationships, interaction, and uniformity enter your mind among others (Love, 2018). The significance of attaching your phrases along with activity is important in becoming an accurate innovator (Mestry, 2017). Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner (2007) have actually explored the subject of management for over 30 years. Their Leadership Challenge Model has been actually made and based upon searching for from research studies with hundreds of forerunners in a vast array of industries throughout the world. A crucial takeaway is that followers prefer their forerunners to be truthful, progressive, inspiring, and experienced. Among 5 vital exemplary management methods is Modeling the Way (Zeng, 2019). Creating the means is actually an essential practice since it is actually exactly how leaders gain, construct and sustain trustworthiness. Before innovators can easily model the technique, they need to clarify their very own values.

Encouraging the Heart (EH)

Achieving extraordinary factors in institutions is actually hard work. One of the most essential actions that leaders engage in to aid always keep straight records involved, identified, and hopeful is actually Encourage the Heart (Xu & Shen, 2018). Over and over again, the number one obstacle forerunners have in Encouraging the Heart is decreasing and making the effort to accomplish it (Van Vugt & Smith, 2019). Groups often tend to go coming from one task to another and at times the sentiment ends up being "Another task down, permit's proceed to the following one." In the crazy-paced setting our experts do work in today, it may be quick and easy to obtain mesmerized in the craziness, but it's when traits are very most stressful and the amount of work is the heaviest that individuals require to hear that they are actually appreciated for all the hard work they carry out (Gurley et al., 2016).

In every gaining group, members need to have to experience the rewards of their payments and acquire awareness for their success (Wisniewski, 2019). Wonderful innovators have the ability to carry out merely that through celebrating private distinction on their staffs and generating a community around shared group victories and values (Van Rooij, 2017).

Research Framework

The framework has been developed based on the reviewed literature and with the support of social exchange theory.

In order to cater the leadership functions exemplary leadership theory has been adopted. According to exemplary leadership theory, Leaders Encourage the Heart through acknowledging contributions and commemorating values and triumphes" (Kouzes & Posner, 2008). The leader understands to discuss the limelight and permit others to be actually commemorated through the team. Similarly, Leaders Encourage the Heart by realizing additions and commemorating worths and success" (Kouzes & Posner, 2008). Secondly, Leaders Model the Way by finding their voice and setting an example" (Kouzes & Posner, 2008)."

Secondly in order to support technology bussiness analytics the system theory has been followed. The system theory in bussiness , or the system approach to management , is based on the idea that "everything is interrelated and interdependent ," Chand says . A system is composed of related and dependent elements , which, when in interaction , forms a united whole , Chand says, adding that," A system is simply an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex whole "(Scholz, 2017).

Management would have done well to study the system theory in bussiness , Jolly said, Had management realized that the price of employee stock was related to the slowing growth of People's Express, which was influenced by the slowing growth of the industry as a whole, it could have slowly raised employee base compensation to compensate employees as stock prices decreased . As a result of this oversight , the once high-flying People's Express no longer exists (Scholz, 2017).

The most crucial private quality folks seek and appreciate in an innovator is individual credibility. Reliability is the structure of leadership (Nazarian et al., 2017). If people do not believe in the messenger, they will not think the message. Labels might be actually provided; however, management is actually earned. Leaders Model the Way by finding their voice and establishing an instance. Leaders are actually expected to stand up for their opinions, so they would certainly a lot better have views to stand up for. Leaders need to be actually very clear concerning their leading concepts. They have to discover their personal vocals, and after that they must clearly and authentically talk their values (DeConinck & DeConinck, 2017). Yet forerunners cannot just establish their worth on others and anticipate dedication. They need to interact others alike ambitions. Creating the Way starts with the explanation of private worth and entails structure and certifying shared market values that all can accept. Significant speeches concerning usual values are actually certainly not virtually sufficient. Praiseworthy innovators understand that it's their behavior that gains all of them respect. The actual exam is actually whether they do what they state, whether their phrases and actions correspond. Forerunners prepared an example and construct dedication via basic, regular actions that make progression and construct momentum (Anil & Satish, 2016). A continuous and ongoing performance management device may confine unpleasant surprises, increase employee loyalty, and reduce any kind of going along with defensiveness individuals might possess when viewing reviews. When it is part of daily lifestyle somewhat than at an established date when or twice a year, Performance improvement/development is actually much more probably to take place. Connection is actually the trick (L. Chen et al., 2016). The very most necessary personal characteristic people look for and admire in an innovator is actually personal credibility. Leaders Model the Way through locating their voice and setting an example (DeConinck & DeConinck, 2017) Yet innovators can't just impose their market values on others and assume dedication.

Accomplishing amazing factors in organizations is actually effort. Among the most critical behaviors that forerunners engage in to assist keep straight documents interacted, found out, and enthusiastic is actually Encourage the Heart (Kouzes & Posner, 1999). Over and over again, the number one problem forerunners invite Encouraging the Heart is reducing and making the effort to carry out it. Staffs usually tend to go from one job to an additional and often the sentiment becomes "Another job down, permit's go on to the upcoming one" (Butail & Porfiri, 2019). In the crazy-paced environment our team operate in today, it may be simple to acquire mesmerized in the craziness, however it's when factors are very most fast paced, and the work is the heaviest that folks require to hear that they are enjoyed for all the hard work they perform. In every succeeding staff, participants need to have to believe the rewards of their payments and obtain awareness for their accomplishments (Rashidi, 2018). Fantastic innovators have the ability to carry out just that by commemorating individual distinction on their teams and generating a neighborhood around shared group success and worth. While staff member performance management is traded for performance measurement; an annual metriccentric photo of what was expected and what was actually achieved. This measurement is actually usually intensely driven by an individual, bit-by-bit snapshot of individual performance. Conventional annual customer reviews supply some beneficial information, including employee strong points and weak spots, yet without more action it's meaningless (Jing & Avery, 2016).

Similarly, they seek to qualify and equip their followers to increase their general capability, especially in places that permit all of them to make wise choices for the organization. "Leaders Encourage the Heart through realizing contributions and commemorating triumphes and worths" (Kouzes & Posner, 2008). This method assists generate a sense of comradery among the team as successes are actually publicly celebrated (Mikalef, Pateli & Wetering, 2020). The leader understands to share the spotlight and make it possible for others to be celebrated due to the crew. The party additionally aids strengthen what is valued.

Figure 1:Theoretical Framework


The study is an exploratory empirical investigation to identify the critical leadership functions which are modelling the way and encouraging the heart for improving performance continuity with the support of technology business analytics as a moderator. The study is quantitative based study based on original data collected by well-structured survey as a tool for data collection. The study is very specific to economic development unit in Sharjah- UAE. The data will be collected by using direct collect and web-based survey, available to participants in an online format. Approximately 357 employees participated in the survey anonymously, having the option to withdraw or refrain consent. The survey consisted of many questions. Rather than developing the instrument, the study followed predeveloped instrument. The items for performance continuity were taken from (Alharthi & Khalifa, 2019), the items for technology business analytics were adopted from (Sun, Strang & Firmin, 2017), the items for modelling the way and encouraging the heart were adopted from (Abu-Tineh, Khasawneh & Omary, 2009). The instrument has been analyzed first and then the relationships were tested using Partial Least Square.


Before conducting the analysis of the relationships, it was mandatory to ensure that the instrument used to collect the data was reliable, hence item loadings have been analyzed at the initial step. The results of item loadings are mentioned in table 1.

Table 1
 Item Loadings
Description of Items Encouraging the Heart (ETH) Modeling the Way (MW) Performance Continuity (PC) Technology Business Analytics (TBA)
ETH1 0.862      
ETH3 0.877      
ETH4 0.89      
ETH6 0.751      
MW1   0.869    
MW2   0.853    
MW4   0.795    
MW5   0.791    
MW6   0.807    
PC1     0.805  
PC2     0.733  
PC3     0.766  
PC4     0.861  
PC5     0.804  
PC6     0.822  
PC7     0.785  
TBA2       0.836
TBA3       0.829
TBA4       0.83
TBA5       0.787

After ensuring that the items used to measure the construct are having sufficient loading value next step was to analzye the reliability and validity of the instrument. The results of reliability and validity for all the variables are mentioned in table 2

Table 2
Reliability and Validity
Variables Cronbach’s Alpha Composite Reliability Average Variance Extracted (AVE)
Encouraging the Heart 0.867 0.91 0.717
Modelling the way 0.881 0.913 0.679
Performance Continuity 0.904 0.924 0.636
Technology Business Analytics 0.839 0.892 0.674

The calculated values for the reliability and validity for all the variables are above the acceptable range. Afterwards to be further sure about the items as well as instrument discriminant validity has been checked. The results of discriminant validity are mentioned in table 3.

Table 3
Discriminant Validity
  Encouraging the Heart Modeling the way Performance Continuity Technology Business Analytics
Encouraging the Heart 0.847      
Modelling the way 0.628 0.824    
Performance Continuity 0.636 0.637 0.798  
Technology Business Analytics 0.631 0.616 0.783 0.821

The results mentioned in table 3 confirms that the items used in each variable are discriminant. Next step is to check the direct impacts followed by the moderating roles over the two relationships. The results of the direct impacts are mentioned in table 4.

Table 4
Direct Effects
  Original Sample(O) Sample Mean (M) Standard Deviation (STDEV) T Statistics (O/STDEV) P Values
Modelling the way -> Performance Continuity 0.419 0.425 0.187 2.233 0.018
Encouraging the Heart -> Performance Continuity 0.508 0.502 0.177 2.87 0.004

The calculated values in table 4 ensures that both the variables have a significant influence over the dependent variable. The findings are supported by a sample of 254 respondents using the bootstrapping sample of 5000 samples. The results confirms that Modelling the Way and organization performance continuity have a significant relationship (ß=0.419; t=2.233; p=0.018). Hence it would be right to claim that employees also admire their leaders because they lead by performance continuity and handle difficult situations with complete honesty in organizations (Bass, 2007). Furthermore, leaders also serve as role models for other leaders’ performance. Leaders anticipate incremental achievements while creating employee performance which creates a winning pattern (Marques-Quinteiro, Vargas, Eifler & Curral, 2019). When leaders are unsure of where to go or how to get performance continuity, they place signposts. Similarly, Encouraging the Heart and organization performance also have a significant relationship as supported by a sample of 254 respondents using bootstrapping sample size of 5000 (ß=0.508; t=2.870; p=0.004). As it can be seen from the results that leaders can also celebrate high achievements in the organization to encourage the employee by attaining high continuous performance (Sinaga, Asmawi, Madhakomala & Suratman, 2018; Asad, Muhammad, Rasheed, Chethiyar & Ali, 2020; Asad, Haider & Fatima, 2018). All characteristics of effective leadership functions should be displayed at an optimum level by leaders which containing encourage the heart of a consistent organization performance continuity (Bass, 2007; Gandolfi & Stone, 2018). After ensuring the direct impact moderating variable has been introduced in the model and the results of moderation analysis are mentioned in table 5.

Table 5
Moderating Effects
  Original Sample(O) Sample Mean (M) Standard Deviation (STDEV) T Statistics (O/STDEV) P Values
Modelling the way * Technology Business Analytics -> Performance Continuity 0.54 0.543 0.207 2.597 0.029
Encouraging the Heart * Technology Business Analytics -> Performance Continuity 0.477 0.49 0.195 2.435 0.031

The moderating role of technology business analytics showed significant moderating role between modelling the way and organization performance continuity (ß= 0.540; t=2.597; p=0.029). This shows that leaders must know how they pursue performance continuity, as a result, they affect technological business analytical in organization. They create standards of excellence for their leader’s organization performance continuity because of the technological business analytics (Asad, Altaf, Israr & Khan, 2020; Alkhuzaie & Asad, 2018). Leaders set examples for organization performance continuity to follow up the technological skills. When leaders in modelling the way are unsure about the organization performance continuity (Asad, et al., 2021), they feel that where to go or how to get the technological business analytical setups.

Similarly, the moderating role of technology business analytics over the relationship between encouraging the heart and organization performance continuity is also significant (ß= 0.477; t=2.435; p=0.031). Encouragement from the leaders can celebrate achievement in organization performance continuity while the impact of technological business analytics (Hongdao, Bibi, Khan, Ardito & Nurunnabi, 2019; Owen & Demb, 2004; Asad, Ahmad, Haider & Salman, 2018). They make leaders feel like heroes when they are successful in performing the organization's performance continuity while applying technological business analytics. Effective leaders should be encouraged to appreciate the value of their performance continuity in the organization in a technological environment.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The conclusion of this study has presented more significant indication to increasing the importance of the moderating role of technological business analytics on the relationship between modelling the way, encouraging the heart and organization performance continuity. While various studies have been conducted on the aspects that influence organization performance continuity, however, the present study addressed the theoretical gap by technological business analytics ability as a significant moderating variable for organization performance continuity. The findings of this research showed that Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership functions in UAE organizations as perceived by leaders are practiced moderately. This finding can be explained given the performance and experience in this leadership function in UAE organizations.

Furthermore, it can be revealed that more training technological workshops in Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership model must be organized in UAE public organizations for continuous performance purposes. Likewise, technological skills can be increased which results in improvement with the right continuous performance as well as the practice, feedback, role models, and coaching for leaders. The theoretical framework has been contributed to the field of resource-based view theory and dynamic capability theory by analyzing the impact of modelling the way and encouraging the heart on organization performance continuity while considering the moderating role of technology business analytics implementation.

Despite several contributions to the body of knowledge, there are certain limitations to the current study. The initial limitation is that even though there are several variables that influence organizational performance continuity, this study is limited to only two leadership functions which are modelling the way and encouraging the heart while only considering the moderating role of technology business analytic abilities. Therefore, in future researchers are guided to consider other moderating or mediating variable.

Another limitation in this study is that data was gathered in UAE which might not be simplified. Likewise, this research has been cross-sectional in nature. It involves data collection in 2021 which can be studied as little period due to constrained resources and time. The data was collected during pandemic hence generalizing the findings without considering the influence of pandemic may not be very suitable.


Abualoush, S., Masa’deh, R., Bataineh, K., & Alrowwad, A. (2018). The role of knowledge management process and intellectual capital as intermediary variables between knowledge management infrastructure and organization performance. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 13, 279-309.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Abu-Tineh, A.M., Khasawneh, S.A., & Omary, A.A. (2009). Kouzes and Posner's transformational leadership model in practice: The case of Jordanian schools. Journal of Leadership Education, 7(3), 265-283.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Alharthi, M.N., & Khalifa, G.S. (2019). Business continuity management and crisis leadership: An approach to re-engineer crisis performance within Abu Dhabi Governmental entities. International Journal on Emerging Technologies, 10(1a), 32-40.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Alkhuzaie, A.S., & Asad, M. (2018). Operating cashflow, corporate governance, and sustainable dividend payout. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 22(4), 1-9.

Indexed at

Anam, C., Thoyib, A., & Djawahir, A.H. (2018). Roles and functions of transformational leadership in improving the paskibra high school organization performance. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen, 16(2), 255–263.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Anil, A.P., & Satish, K.P. (2016). Investigating the relationship between TQM practices and Firm’s performance: A conceptual framework for Indian organizations. Procedia Technology, 24(555), 554–561.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Asad, M., Ahmad, I., Haider, S.H., & Salman, R. (2018). A critical review of Islamic and conventional banking in digital era: A case of Pakistan. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.7), 57-59.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Asad, M., Altaf, N., Israr, A., & Khan, G.U. (2020). Data analytics and SME performance: A bibliometric analysis. 2020 International Conference on Data Analytics for Business and Industry: Way Towards a Sustainable Economy (ICDABI) (pp. 1-7). Sakhir: IEEE.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Asad, M., Haider, S.H., & Fatima, M. (2018). Corporate social responsibility, business ethics, and labor laws: A qualitative analysis on SMEs in Sialkot. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 21(3), 1-7.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Asad, M., Kashif, M., Sheikh, U.A., Asif, M.U., George, S., & Khan, G.U. (2021). Synergetic effect of safety culture and safety climate on safety performance in SMEs: Does transformation leadership have a moderating role. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1-7.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Asad, M., Muhammad, R., Rasheed, N., Chethiyar, S.D., & Ali, A. (2020). Unveiling antecedents of organizational politics: An exploratory study on science and technology universities of Pakistan. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(6s), 2057-2066.

Bass, B.M. (2007). Executive and strategic leadership. International Journal of Business, 12(1).

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Burke, C.S., Shuffler, M.L., & Wiese, C.W. (2018). Examining the behavioral and structural characteristics of team leadership in extreme environments. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(6), 716-730.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Butail, S., & Porfiri, M. (2019). Detecting switching leadership in collective motion. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 29(1), 11102.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Chen, L., Zheng, W., Yang, B., & Bai, S. (2016). Transformational leadership, social capital and organizational innovation. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Davis, G.B. (2020). Information systems conceptual foundations: Looking backward and forward. Organizational and Social Perspectives on Information Technology, 61-82.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

DeConinck, J., & DeConinck, M.B. (2017). The relationship between servant leadership, perceived organizational support, performance, and turnover among business to business salespeople. Archives of Business Research, 5(10).

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Ebrahimi, P., Moosavi, S.M., & Chirani, E. (2016). Relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance by considering innovation in manufacturing companies of Guilan Province. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 351–358.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Gandolfi, F., & Stone, S. (2018). Leadership, leadership styles, and servant leadership. Journal of Management Research, 18(4), 261-269.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Grotens, R., Dijk, G.V., & Vugt, M.V. (2018). Leadership practices of council secretaries in turbulent times: A case study. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 15(1), 29-42.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Gurley, D.K., Anast-May, L., O’Neal, M., & Dozier, R. (2016). Principal Instructional Leadership Behaviors: Teacher vs. Self-Perceptions. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 11(1), n1.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Hongdao, Q., Bibi, S., Khan, A., Ardito, L., & Nurunnabi, M. (2019). Does what goes around really comes around? The mediating effect of csr on the relationship between transformational leadership and employee’s job performance in law firms. Sustainability, 11(12).

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Hongdao, Q., Bibi, S., Khan, A., Ardito, L., & Nurunnabi, M. (2019). Does what goes around really comes around? The mediating effect of csr on the relationship between transformational leadership and employee’s job performance in law firms. Sustainability, 11(12).

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Jing, F.F., & Avery, G.C. (2016). Missing links in understanding the relationship between leadership and organizational performance. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 15(3), 107–118.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Keradjaan, H., Tewal, B., Lengkong, V., & Sendow, G. (2021). The effect of business continuity management and technology acceptance model towards lecturers’ performance moderated by servant leadership. Management Science Letters, 11(3), 939-948.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (1999). Encouraging the heart: A leader's guide to rewarding and recognizing others (Vol. 133). John Wiley & Sons.

Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2007). The jossey-bass reader on educational leadership. Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2008). "It's not just the leader's vision. Facilities Manager, 24(4), 22-23.

Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2013). Great leadership creates great workplaces. John Wiley & Sons.

Love, D. (2018). Department structure and leadership functions for advanced practice providers. PhD diss., Walden University.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Mansol, N.H., Alwi, N.H., & Ismail, W. (2015). Managing organizational culture requirement for Business Continuity Management (BCM) implementation using Goal-Question-Metric (GQM) approach. IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS) (pp. 85-90). IEEE.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Marques-Quinteiro, P., Vargas, R., Eifler, N., & Curral, L. (2019). Employee adaptive performance and job satisfaction during organizational crisis: The role of self-leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(1), 85-100.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Matos, A.M. (2018). The effect of leadership functions on team effectiveness of virtual teams. PhD diss.

Mestry, R. (2017). Principals' perspectives and experiences of their instructional leadership functions to enhance learner achievement in public schools. Journal of Education, 257-280.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Mikalef, P., Krogstie, J., Pappas, I.O., & Pavlou, P. (2020). Exploring the relationship between big data analytics capability and competitive performance: The mediating roles of dynamic and operational capabilities. Information & Management, 57(2), 103169.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Mikalef, P., Pateli, A., & Wetering, R.V. (2020). IT architecture flexibility and IT governance decentralisation as drivers of IT-enabled dynamic capabilities and competitive performance: The moderating effect of the external environment. European Journal of Information Systems, 29(3).

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Mupa, P. (2015). Visionary leadership for management of innovative higher education institutions: Leadership trajectories in a changing environment. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(13), 43-50.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Nazarian, A., Soares, A., & Lottermoser, B. (2017). Inherited organizational performance? The perceptions of generation Y on the influence of leadership styles. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Owen, P.S., & Demb, A. (2004). Change dynamics and leadership in technology. The Journal of Higher Education, 75(6), 636-666.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Pham, H., & Kim, S.-Y. (2019). The effects of sustainable practices and managers’ leadership competences on sustainability performance of construction firms. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 20, 1-14.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Popescu, G.H., & Predescu, V. (2016). The role of leadership in public health. American Journal of Medical Research, 3(1), 273.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Rashidi, A.S. (2018). The impact of leadership on organizational performance. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism, 2(2), 10–12.

Sinaga, H.G., Asmawi, M., Madhakomala, R., & Suratman, A. (2018). Effect of change in management, organizational culture and transformational leadership on employee performance PT. AdhyaTirta Batam (PT. ATB). International Review of Management and Marketing, 8(6), 15-23.

GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Sun, Z., Strang, K., & Firmin, S. (2017). Business analytics-based enterprise information systems. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 57(2), 169-178.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Thien, L.M. (2019). Distributive leadership functions, readiness for change, and teachers’ affective commitment to change: A partial least squares analysis. Sage Open, 9(2).

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Van Rooij, S.W. (2017). Extreme teaming: Lessons in cross-sector leadership. European Journal of Training and Development.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Van Vugt, M., & Smith, J.E. (2019). A dual model of leadership and hierarchy: Evolutionary synthesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Wesche, J.S., & Sonderegger, A. (2019). When computers take the lead: The automation of leadership. Computers in Human Behavior, 101, 197-209.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at 

Wisniewski, M.A. (2019). Leadership development for academic chairs: Programs for promoting competence in higher education. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 67(1), 48–51.

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Xu, P., & Shen, Y. (2018). The role of leadership in agile software development. Project Management, 12.

Zeng, Z. (2019). Different functions between leadership and management in today’s enterprises. The Frontiers of Society, Science and Technology, 1(3).

Crossref, GoogleScholar, Indexed at

Received: 25-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. ASMJ-2022-S11-002; Editor assigned: 28-Feb-2022; PreQC No. ASMJ-2022-S11-002 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-Mar-2022, QC No. ASMJ-2022-S11-002; Revised: 16-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. ASMJ-2022-S11-002 (R); Published: 23-Mar-2022.

Get the App