Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 26 Issue: 2

Price Perception & Continued Intention To Buy Organic Food: A Mediated Moderation Model

Priya K.M, VIT University

Uma Pricilda Jaidev, VIT University

Citation Information: Priya, K.M., & Jaidev, U.P. (2022). Price perception & continued intention to buy organic food: a mediated moderation model. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 26(S3), 1-13.


Consumers who initially adopt organic food often fail to continuously purchase organic food products. While many studies look at price as an impediment to continue to purchase organic, the positive role of price has not been sufficiently examined. This paper aims to establish the role of positive and negative price perceptions in the repeat purchase of organic food. The mediating role of health motivation and the moderating role of household income has been tested using data obtained from 226 organic food product consumers. Findings indicate that health motivation mediates the association between positive price perception and continued intention (CI) to buy organic. food. CI is adversely affected by negative dimensions of price perception. We found that consumers with a higher income and positive price perception along with its dimensions – price quality schema. and prestige sensitivity are more inclined to continuously buy organic food. Implications and future study guidelines are deliberated.



Organic Food, Health Motivation, Positive Price Perception, Negative Price Perception, Continued Intention.


Utilization of organic food has seen rapid growth in the recent past due to consumers’ preference for healthy, higher priced quality food . There is no doubt that consumers are increasingly including organic food in their shopping list. The factors that seem to encourage this behaviour are health consciousness, need for food safety, alarm for the environment, safety and welfare of animals and the need to support local economies and businesses. Previous Literature indicates that although consumers’ choice for organic food is determined by an environmental concern and to protect animals, the attitude towards one’s health and the awareness of healthy eating are the main aspects that determines the willingness to pay for organic food (Nuttavuthisit & Thøgersen, 2017); (Ureña et al,2008). According to consumers' attitudes toward organic food are primarily favorable, with expected benefits including superior taste, increase in environmental friendliness, better wellbeing, healthy food, and increased welfare of creatures. On the other hand, the cost of organic food is cited as a justification for not consuming it, as it is typically more (Bunte et al., 2010), observations on the other indicator, expressed concern on the concept that if organic food were less costly, a more significant percentage of consumers would buy it.

However, many studies have stated that price is a dynamic incentive. Many analyses show prices as an outlay for financial power in a broader sense than simply in its negative context. modelled the twin position of the price signal. They discovered that price fairness had a significant harmful effect on buying intent and an unplanned optimistic impact on consumers ' purchase intention. through the quality of product opinions. Higher prices have a negative effect on decreasing purchasing probability, but they may also have a positive impact on increasing purchase probability (Lichtenstein et al.,1993).Price cannot be seen in isolation without understanding socio-demographic factors, particularly the effect of household revenue on organic food buying decisions (Onyango et al., 2007). Income is shown to have a major influence of the purchase decisions of organic food (Melovic et al., 2020)

Consumers' buying intentions for organic goods are influenced by demographic characteristics and behavioral variables (Lodorfos & Dennis, 2008).Several scholars have stated that attitude variables affect a customer's decision to adopt or buy. Attitude and health issues, according to some authors, play a role in understanding organic buying behaviour (Padel & Foster 2005). Organic purchase behaviour is often predisposed by eco- friendly attitudes (Laroche & Bergeron,2001). According to these reports, the most significant explanation for purchasing organic goods is one's attitude toward environmental and health issues. It indicates that health problems are more critical than ecological concerns and that consumer are further likely to purchase organic goods if they are motivated by health consciousness. Few researchers, on the other hand, found that organic goods made locally affect the decision to accept them (Onyango et al., 2007); (Padel & Foster, 2005).

We also test how much of this willingness to continue to buy organic food in future can be attributed to health motivation and therefore the mediating effect between positive price perception and continued intention has been investigated. Since price perception. is our determinant, household income has also been examined for its moderating effect between positive price perception and continued intention to purchase organic food.

Review of Literature and Proposed Model

Multi-Dimensions of Price Perceptions in the Context of Organic Food Purchase

A crucial influence of purchase intention is price perception (Yasri et al., 2020); (Shirai, 2017). Price perceptions among consumers drive purchase intention and product selection .Various papers and studies have been written to better describe the theory of price perception, how it influences consumer behavior. The perception of a product's or service's price, whether high, low, or equal, significantly impacts continuous purchasing intentions and post-purchase experience. Buyers have some assumptions of what a service or product can cost. Their perceptions may or may not be accurate reflections of the product or service's actual cost. Consumers sometimes equate a product's or service's price with its quality. Consumers trust that the organic food products. price is generally higher than that of non-organic food items

(Lang et al., 2020) and, high prices continue to limit organic food consumption. Previous studies have shown that the price of organic food represents a substantial barrier to the overall organic food market.

While few studies used multi-dimensional variables such as price and all other factors to attempt to predict buyers' purchasing decisions (Lichtenstein et al., 1993), many studies, including (Chang and Wildt,1994), found that price can either influence decisions in a positive way or negative way. Several researchers observed that price can be more complex than we might generally understand as to how price cues affect consumers’ purchase intentions. Although consumers might have economic constraints. It is not necessary for them to distinguish precisely in its "negative role". Price can also be indicators of product quality and hence significant number of consumers uses price cues to signal product quality. Therefore, price can be understood to have both positive and negative role. Positive price perceptions and therefore higher prices might positively affect buying intentions (Tellis & Gaeth, 1990). (Lichtenstein et al., 1993) conducted a field study and validated 2 dimensions of price, both positive and negative with five constructs were identified having a negative role in creating price perception and two constructs formed to create a positive price perception. We will now go on to explain the seven constructs and their relationship to health motivation and continued intention to buy organic food.

ContinuedIintention (CI)

Continued intent is defined as "a user's intention to use the current product or service for an indefinite period" (Hong et al., 2013) argues that the attitude headed for organic food has the most significant effect since it is optimistic that it has a high score and the test results that significantly affect purchase intention.

Even though several studies are about intent to buy organic food, there are still not enough studies to determine the continued intention of people to buy organic food.

Positive Role of Price

Two dimensions, prestige sensitivity and price quality scheme make up the construct positive “Favorable impressions of the value signal based on sentiments of importance and status that increased prices indicate to other persons about the consumer” is how prestige sensitivity is characterized. The “generalized perception across product categories that perhaps the degree of the money indication is associated significantly to the excellence level of the product” is characterized as the price-quality schema.

Prestige Sensitivity (PS)

Customers’ see higher costs as a cue for prestige, which drives purchase Intention (Lichtenstein et al., 1993). They trust that price is a determinant of status; a higher price good or service purchase and utilization indicates a higher social status (Balabanis & Stathopoulou, 2021) As a result, prestige-sensitive buyers are willing to spend a higher price for prestige goods in order to impress others. The concept that prestige-seeking buyers are linked with status-consumed consumers has lately been pushed beyond the concept of organic goods (Truong et al., 2008). Furthermore, prestige-sensitivity customers are more concerned with price; therefore they will gather as much information as possible in order to select good quality products. Hence, we propose that:

H1: Prestige sensitivity will positively influence continued intention to purchase organic food.

Price Quality Schema (PQS)

Price and perceived quality have often been found to have a significant relationship (Grewal et al., 1998). Price seeking consumers prefer to pay high prices, as it may reflect on their choice to opt for higher and better-quality products (Rahman et al., 2020); (Tellis & Gaeth, 1990). A consumer with a price-quality schema is one who believes that "you get what you pay for." People who believe in a favorable price-quality relationship choose higher- priced goods (Veeck & Burns, 1995).

Customers may have a universal intuition of a positive association among product price and quality as per central idea of price-quality schema (Tsalis, 2020). Lichtenstein, 1989; (Rodríguez et al., 2020) explains that, more expensive things are generally believed to be of as being of better-quality goods. (Squires et al., 2001) found that those consumers who put a high price on their belongings and are closely linked to their diet are more likely to eat large amounts of organic food. Hence, the succeeding hypothesis is proposed.

H2: Price quality schema will positively influence continued intention to purchase organic food products.

Negative Role of Price

Studies have established that when consumers have lower income or limited budgets, they tend to assign a stronger negative role to price leading to a lower willingness to purchase organic foods (Lichtenstein et al.,1993); (Völckner & Hofmann, 2007);( Zeithaml,1988). This being the case, even higher income consumers or those with no budget restrictions may overestimate the price difference of organic foods from conventional foods Preference for organic food even among higher income consumers may not translate to purchase behaviour because of this price over estimation.

Value Consciousness (VC)

Value consciousness makes a consumer reflect upon quality in relation to the price or monetary value of the product (Singh et al., 2021); (Jin & Suh, 2005). Here quality is not absolute. In the context of food purchases, simply a value conscious consumer may not necessarily purchase the product and service with the best quality proportion because it wouldn't be the best bargain value for him or her (Lichtenstein et al., 1990). Value consciousness consumers generally may not prefer organic products because of the low value they may get in comparison to the money that they may spend. The favorable relationship between behavioral intention and repurchase behaviour is found to be weakened by Value Consciousness (Zheng et al., 2017). Some other studies found that value consciousness moderates the association between low price guarantees and consumer post-purchase search intentions, with the association becoming stronger as value consciousness increases. Organic goods generally incline to be extra expensive than their inorganic complements (Pushka 2019). Considering only the price to quality ratio, even value-conscious consumers may be encouraged to buy inorganic food products, particularly when the prices of organic products are relatively higher than their alternatives and also when the benefits of buying and using organic foods are not easily evident. Only very discerning consumers may show interest in purchasing organic products. Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:

H3: Value consciousness will negatively influence continued intention. to purchase organic food.

Price Consciousness. (PC)

When purchasing the specified products, price-conscious buyers place a higher value on low costs than non-price sensitive consumers (Lemmerer & Menrad, 2019). Buying high priced organic food is propelled by the notion of ‘personal reward’. In the case of organic food such rewards are often distant, and the value is mostly realized in future that too with considerable change in food purchase and use behaviour. A price-conscious buyer would still not be willing to pay for just a product's distinctive characteristics if they consider the price gap for that component is too high (Lichtenstein et al., 1988). The price of organic food products has been shown to have negative effect on purchase intention. Several researchers explained that one of the most significant barriers to organic food feasting is the belief that organic food is overpriced (Ivanova etal., 2020). In a survey among organic food consumers in North India, Dholakia and Shukul (2012) discovered that 71% of respondents revealed high prices as a barrier to purchasing organic products. As a result, it's reasonable to predict that price-conscious buyers on the lookout for special deals are less inclined to buy organic food. As a result, the following hypothesis, is proposed:

H4: Price consciousness will negatively influence continued intention to purchase organic food

Coupon proneness (CP)

Coupon proneness is defined as "an increased propensity to respond to a purchase offers”. Coupons have long been a popular promotion strategy tool among retailers and distributors (Guimond et al; 2001). Generally, coupons are offered to encourage repeat purchase and volume purchase several authors have concluded an inexpensive price discount for a particular product coupon type can result in a more insignificant increase in customer reaction ( Lichtenstein et al., 1990). The value of price versus other product characteristics and coupon proneness may affect purchase organic food products (Rong-Da Liang et al., 2017) found that organic food consumers preferred discounts and free giveaways opposed to other forms of promotions such as member category and limited time offer category. Point out that there is an inadequate execution of sales promotion tools at the organic food market and such promotions are undoubtedly of low attention to the organic food business entities. Hence, those consumers seeking coupon discounts may not find such opportunities in the market. Therefore, the following hypothesis is put forward:

H5: Coupon proneness will negatively influence continued intention. to purchase organic food.

Sales Proneness (SP)

High-sale. -prone. customers are more expected to find an offer appealing just since it is a "sale" and a "discount"; it is also probable that these customers may respond more strappingly to the offer if the concession amount is larger (Gottschalk & Leistner, 2013). Low sale prone people, on the other hand, are more likely to appraise the attractiveness of an offer based on the size of the sale or discount, rather than the fact that a ‘‘sale" or ‘‘discount" is in existence. As a result, organic food marketers are not able to give regular sale offers. Hence, we propose the following:

H6: Sale proneness will negatively influence continued intention to purchase organic food.

Price Mavenism (PM)

Lichtenstein et al. (1993), distinct that the price mavenism in line with the concept of market mavenism as to what extent a person is a basis of pricing data for so many kinds of goods and locations shopped at the lowest price, initiated conversations with others and responded to queries from customers for market value knowledge. Pricing Mavenism is most often perceived as a negative aspect of pricing, which is associated to pricing data and price communication activity. Price mavenism has a negative association to the probability of buying. They claimed that a person's desire to know more about market prices is linked to a negative price perception and hence we propose that:

H7: Price mavenism will negatively influence continued intention to purchase organic food.

Health Motivation

Health motivated consumers are goal oriented, stimulated to engage in behaviors’ that will prevent undesirable health outcomes (Maclnnis, et al., 19910). Significant positive health perceptions have been revealed to impact purchase intents for organic foods research indicates that consumers distinguish organic food products to be natural and of high quality as well as fresher, tastier, and healthy when compared to conventionally produced foods. This argument is supported by other research, wherein consumers broadly agree that organic food is more healthy and safer than conventionally produced food (Padel & Foster, 2005); (Shafie & Rennie, 2012). The reasoning is that a heightened state of motivation around good health will inspire people to do more in that regard. Health and ecological anxieties are potential motivators for organic food consumption Health motivation was found to have a robust direct and optimistic effect on the buying intention of organic food products in a study directed by (Nedra et al., 2015).

Health consciousness affects purchasing intent of organic food in a positive manner stated that human health considerations are an essential motivator to engage in purchase behaviour rather than the attitude towards organic food products and food labelling. (Lee & Yun, 2015), in their study found that respondents gave their highest average rating is for health motivation. Hence, we suggest the next hypothesis:

H8: Health motivation will positively. influence continued intention to purchase organic food products.

Mediation Effects

The mediating influence of health consciousness has been examined in a few studies, proposed that customers' health anxieties were the motivating factor behind the purchase. Intention towards organic food and health lifestyle mediates the association between health consciousness and buying intention towards organic food products; differentiate between independent motivation and meticulous motivation. Independent motivation is said to be inherent and controlled motivation is a function of external contingencies energized by self-esteem and ego involvements. Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:

H9: Health motivation mediates the relationship between the positive role of price perception and continued intention to purchase organic food.

Household Income as a Moderator

Many research studies concluded that increased income has a positive impact on willingness to pay argued that demographic factors such as education and income have a strong impact on perceptions and organic food consumption. Health is a priority for upper-income group people. There are strong evidences to state that higher income groups focus on health and are willing to spend on food products with no additives or preservatives, which are more expensive, but have higher quality. Hence, we examine household income as a moderator between positive price perception and continued intention to purchase organic food. Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:

H10: Household Income moderates the relationship between positive role of price perception and continued intention.

The respondents ‘in this study’s sample comprise of consumers who are aware of and appreciate what organic food is and have purchased organic food. at least a few times Figure 1. We followed a non-probability sampling and distributed the survey forms through an online link through various social media platforms (Facebook, Whatsapp, Twitter). Household income is considered as a moderator for the study. To facilitate moderation analysis, our target was to obtain respondents with income clusters of more or less equal proportion Table 1. Once this was achieved the survey was closed. A sample of 226 respondents was finally involved in the data investigation. Table I consists the profile of the study respondents.

Figure 1: Conceptual Model Method.

Table 1
Respondents’ Profile
  Demographic variables frequency percent
Gender Female
Age Up to 20 years
21 to 30 years
31 to 40 years
41 to 50 years
51 to 60 years
Family size Single
Above four
Grade10 or less
Grade 12
Educational qualification Graduate
Post graduate
Private sector employee
Public sector employee
Employment Self-employed professional Businessman/Business women up to RS 20000/month 46
Household Rs 20000/month up to 40000/month 45 30.1
Income Rs 400001/month up to 60000/month and above 600001/month 54 23.89

Quantitative analysis was conducted in this study to assess the proposed model's relationships. The effect of the independent variables, moderator and mediator on the outcome variable, continued intention was examined using the SmartPLS software. SPSS software was also used to do data analysis. A structural model was evaluated using the SmartPLS3 software and results are presented in the next section.


The main study variables namely, prestige sensitivity and price quality schema (Positive role of price) and value consciousness. price, consciousness, coupon proneness., sale proneness., price mavenism (Negative role of price) were restrained using the scale established by Lichtenstein et al., 1990. Health motivation was measured by a scale adapted from (Moorman & Matulich, 1993). Continued was measured through the scale developed by all of the scales are in the five-point.

Based on the results of the correlation study, it appears that the outcome variable positively correlated with the other variables. For these reasons, it was decided to do a regression analysis of the variables to see if the variance claims can be supported. Health motivation positively influences continuous purchase intention to buy organic food Price quality schema and prestige sensitivity are also positively related with heath motivation.

The model reveals that R (Multiple correlation coefficient) value is 0.923. It measures the degree of relationship among the continued intention. to buy organic food. and the other variables listed above in Table 2. R Square (Coefficient of determination) value was 0.851 indicating that about 85% of the variation.

Table 2
Correlation Matrix
CI 1                
HM 0.869* 1              
PQS 0.801* 0.733* 1            
PS 0.507** 0.437** 0.475** 1          
VC 0.611** 0.512** 505** 0.413** 1        
PC 0.541** 0.462** 0.525** 628** 0.437** 1      
CP 0.263** 0.231** 0.225** 0.220** 0.241** 0.277** 1    
SP 0.409** 0.492** 422* 0.304** 491** 0.367** 0.241** 1  
PM 0.312** 0.226** 0.216** 0.341** 0.387** 0.270** 0.299** 0.288** 1

Several simulations were done using multiple linear regression to investigate the various effects. The summary of the findings from the regression analysis can be found in Table 3. The data in the table exhibits that it was essential for individuals to have an increased sense of personal health motivation to continuously engage in organic food purchase (beta=0.610, P<0.01). The results of the path analysis indicate the health motivation impacted the positive price perception strengthens continued intention is to buy organic foods as outlined in Table 3. It has been found that having a favorable price perception or a negative opinion of the value of the overall cost of health can help or hinder consumer behaviour, allowing continuous organic food purchases.

Table 3
Regression analysis
Coefficients Unstandardized
St. Coefficient T-Value Significance
  B Sd. Error B  
(persistent) -.137 0.069 9 -1.987
HM .610 0.043 .582 14.212
PQS .261 0.038 .283 6.884
PS 0.024 0.031 .207 0.764
VC 0.197 0.040 .170 4.913
PC 0.050 0.031 .059 1.610
CP 0.013 0.025 0.015 0.542
SP -.131 0.032 -.131 -4.066
PM 0.055 0.027 0.061 2.031

Mediation Analysis - Health Motivation as A Mediator

The mediation effect of health motivation in the relationship between positive price perception and continued intention to buy organic food was tested and results show that health motivation fully mediates the relationship between the two variables Table 4. The direct effect of positive price perception on continued intention (T=7.171) is high, whereas when health motivation is entered the effect decreases, indicating full mediation.

Table 4
 Mediation Analysis
Health motivation positively influences Original
St. Deviation
T Statistics
Health motivation->
Continues intentions
0.130 0.135 0.065 2.006 0.045
Positive price perception->
Continues intentions
0.411 0.419 0.057 7.171 0.000
Positive price perception->
Health motivation
0.366 0.382 0.058 6.312 0.000


Household income has a key impact on buying decisions customers with a high income often have a high level of education, which means that their choice is based on the knowledge they receive .Customers with a higher income have less restrictions than customers with a lower income, which encourages customers with a higher income to be more loyal to products and services.

Results of moderation analysis are presented in Table 5. This result is consistent with (Gonçalves & Sampaio's 2013) judgment that income moderates the association between positive price perception and continued intention Figure 2. Customers’ continued intention to buy organic food will increase based on their positive perception of price and higher income. This result corroborates the findings of the studies directed by (Feil et al; 2020).

Table 5
 Income As A Moderator
Health motivation positively influences to Mean(M) (SD) Statistic
Income >CI 0.379 0.103 3.863 0.000
Moderating effect>CI 0.244 0.276 3.431 0.001
PPP>CI 0.252 0.105 2.618 0.009

Figure 2: Structural Equation Model With Mediators.

The hypothesis sought to ascertain the moderating role of income between continuous intention (CI) and positive price perception (PPP). The result revealed that income moderates the relationship between CI and PPP (B=0.253, t=2.618, p<0.001).


This research expands the marketing literature by focusing on consumer. continued intention to buy organic. food. This research is a one among the few of its kind where the positive role of price in relation to continued intention to buy organic food. Several studies have observed the negative effects of price and organic food purchase Table 6.This study contributes by studying the under researched positive role of price. The study also incorporates the role of health motivation for a consumer to continuously engage in organic food purchase.

Table 6
Summary Of Significant Hypotheses
Variable Hypothesis Result
Positive role of price perception H1: prestige sensitivity will positively influence continuous intention
H2: price quality scheme will positively influence continuous intention
Significant at 1% level   Significant at 5% level
Negative role of price perception H3: Value consciousness will negatively influence continuous intention
H4: Price consciousness will negatively influence continuous intention
H5: Coupon proneness will negatively influence continuous intention
H6: Sale proneness will negatively influence continuous intention
H7: price mavenism will negatively influence continuous intention  
Significant at 1% level Significant at 5% level Significant at 1% level Significant at 5% level Significant at 1% level
Health Motivation H8: Health motivation will positively influence continuous intention   Significant at 5% level
Mediation H9: Health motivation will mediate the relationship between positive role of price perception and continuous intention   Significant at 5% level
Moderation H10: House hold income will mediate the relationship between positive role of price perception and continuous intention Significant at 5% level

Theoretical Implications

The major aim of this research was to determine. whether or not consumers have a continuous urge to buy organic. food (Walsh et al., 2018). A substantial amount of earlier study focused on the buying intentions that underpin the purchase of organic food, rather than the continued intention. As a result, the current study attempted to fill a vacuum in the literature. on organic food purchasing behaviour by concentrating on the continued intention, which has yet to be addressed for Indian customers. Price is the biggest influencer to purchase organic food products for Indian consumers, as per previous studie. (Padel & Foster 2005), organic products are viewed as premium products. Therefore, the positive. and negative. roles of price., health motivation as the mediator, household income as the moderators have been examined and interesting findings have been reported.

Practical Implications

The results of this research have some management implications...To begin, consumers' price perceptions must be positively shaped in order to enhance organic food continuous purchase intention. Promotional programmes or advertising campaigns can have a big impact, in establishing a positive price perception toward organic foods. During these pandemic situations, reports indicate the volume of organic food purchases went up because of their health concerns. It’s the best time to promote organic food to consumers through various marketing strategies. Purchase intent was also driven by consumers' readiness to pay premium price, which was determined by consumers' price quality schema belief in organic food. The market for organic food is fast expanding because organic food is seen as a better option with various health benefits (Suciu et al., 2019). Managers can change consumers' perceptions of the difference among organic food products and conventional products, through promoting organic foods as high-value items and transmitting high-quality image. Furthermore, managers and retailers could also take cues on how to convert other customers who look at price as. a barrier to buy organic food. The dimensions of the negative price perception can offer cues to attract a wide range of customers. Organic food of sufficient quality and reasonable price can be made available to price-sensitive buyers. Organic food of excellent quality at a high premium price, on the other hand, should be available to consumers who are unconcerned about cost. A successful marketing campaign will significantly influence consumers’ price perception toward organic food items.

Limitations and Future Scope of the Study

Future study should increase the size of the samples and use random sampling methods to increase the likelihood of generalizing results(Zepeda & Li, 2007). Only three significant factors were looked at (health motivation, positive price perception and negative price perception) in accounting for variation in continued intention to buy organic food. Additionally, future research may test these assertions using behavioral theories because people may or may not behave in a certain way depending on their attitude to organic foods, irrespective of health motivation and role of price. Using qualitative research methods for organic factors (in other words, people's motivations), such as continuous customer experience and loyalty-focused research, can be applied to evaluate the relation between product perception and price. The next step will be to expand the number of longitudinal studies that look at whether long-term organic food purchase intentions increase based on health motivation.


The current study was conducted to research the connection between continued intentions to buy organic food and multi dimensions of price perception. Often, the idea of purchase of organic food is introduced into someone's life by himself being motivated to increase or maintain good health and also motivated by concern for the environment. Furthermore, the researchers hypothesized that such a link relies on optimism and dependence on the positive perception about price. Approximately half of the sample respondents agreed with the above assertions in a study conducted with 226 individuals. For organic customers, quality of food products was also a major consideration. Organic products satisfied customers for a number of reasons. Healthier content took precedence over environmental preservation, as it caters to changing tastes and attitudes of customers, as well as assisting in the maintenance of social status.


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Received: 07-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-11292; Editor assigned: 09-Jan-2022, PreQC No. AMSJ-22-11292(PQ); Reviewed: 22-Jan-2022, QC No. AMSJ-22-11292; Revised: 24-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-11292(R); Published: 30-Jan-2022

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