Review Article: 2022 Vol: 26 Issue: 5S
Lakshmi K. N., Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation (KLEF)
Sekhara Rao K.S., Pondicherry university
Saraswathi A. B., Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation (KLEF)
Citation Information:Lakshmi, K.N., Sekhara Rao, K.S., & Saraswathi, A.B. (2022). Propagation of emotional intelligence: A systematic overview of literature. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 26(S5), 1-6.
Purpose: Sensing the emotion and controlling the emotions are the integral parts of emotional intelligence. Lake of this skill is unbalancing the emotions and causing the decline of performance of the employees. Now a day the employees need to understand their emotions and proper reaction for those emotions to improve their emotional intelligence and their quality of services. Towards this the present study made an extensive analysis on available literature of emotional intelligence and its influence on service quality and the organization’s performance to address the serious problem of decline in service quality. Design / Approach: Both theoretical and empirical peer-reviewed research articles were considered for in-depth literature analysis. The research studies have been collected from various research databases like Scopus, EBSCO, Science direct etc., Findings: Based on the plethora of studies and a systematic literature review on emotional intelligence, it has been identified that, every individual in the organization must be more emotionally sensitive and also should have culture of emotional balance inherently. After having an extensive review of literature on emotional intelligence and its role on improving service quality especially, in the service sector like information technology (IT), it could be understanding that, the researchers given the conclusion of employee work performance and quality of services would be influenced by their emotional intelligence. With the help the conclusions and strategies given by the earlier research studies an employee can, cope up with emerging technology, and competitive market conditions in all sectors. Particularly, in the sectors like information technology (IT) which contains the stress related work atmosphere where emotions play vital role in getting expected outcome of the employee need to sense their emotions and proper reaction to those emotions directly impacts improvement of employee abilities and quality of their output. The study also focused on models of emotional intelligence such as ability model and mixed model to analyze its role on improvement of service quality. The ability model dealt with individual abilities whereas the mixed model of emotional intelligence dealt with the combination of abilities and some behaviors and qualities of the individuals. So, from the analysis of those models it is advised that, service industries such as IT’s/ITE’s, BPO’s, need to adopt and implement the above models of emotional intelligence for the enhancement of employee ability and his service quality
Quality of employee services, Emotional intelligence, Team Commitment, Performance, Competitive Market, propagation of EI, Information Technology (IT).
Emotional intelligence is about the management of emotions. Emotions may be managed for any situation for the desired results. It is an emerging area in the field of psychology and need to explore more. Emotional intelligence has emerged as one of the most important element in the modern business management. According to World economic forum “Emotional intelligence” (EI) is one of the top skills among “top ten skills outlook for 2022” required for any employee working in the organization Future of Jobs report 2018. According to Goleman, EI is a master talent and a capability that has a significant impact on all other abilities inhibiting them. Goleman goes on to say that emotions have intelligence and that intelligence can be introduced to emotions through the senses. There are number of capabilities that nature has consecrated to mankind, emotional intelligence is one of them. Now a day it has gain more importance in the organisations to make the employees emotionally balanced. Presently, the increased stress caused for emotional imbalance and decreased work performance in the industry. To address the problem of decreased work performance and quality of services in the industries, the current study has been undertaken to discuss the role of emotional intelligence on work performance and service quality. Finally, the study has come with some conclusions on the proper education and use of EI among employees for improvement of their services quality.
After reviewing the theoretical and Empirical papers from various database sources the following objective has been framed for the current study.
Objectives of the Study
1. To analyze various studies on emotional intelligence that influences the employee quality of service.
2. To study various models of emotional intelligence and its role on improving service quality of the employees in the organizations.
Emotional intelligence is one of the most significant variables that determinant the Quality of service of an employee with respect to the needs, demands and the behaviors of the customers in any sector which provides quality service to create an effective atmosphere that helps succeed the organization in long run. Emotional intelligence is one prominent variable that supports employees to respond effectively towards their customers/clients in their daily work life. Service quality is one of the ultimate visions for any service industry. The service performance of the employees and their capability to retain the customer is dependent on emotional intelligence dimensions like social awareness, self-regulation and. Social awareness increases the service performance decreases while the capability of customer retention decreases as self-regulation increases. Collectively with management practices a large number of research results have been emerged over past 20 years in the research on emotional intelligence which has attracted the attention of management academia (Wei, et al. 2021). In this context Emotional intelligence influences on the performance of the employee in the banking sector.
Emotional intelligence produces organizational success and cultivates competitive advantage. In the field of service management research, it has been found that, the emotional intelligence of an employee working in the organization has a positive impact on the services provides to the customers or clients (Zhan, 2012; In et al., 2016). According to emotional intelligence infuses public service motivation and it leads high work performance, helps in managing negative emotions, gives success of the individual and the firm Emotionally intelligent employees do extremely well in the work place. These people can skillfully prioritize their task and quickly realize their goals Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of service quality. Organizations that are using emotional intelligence offer far better services than those that do not use emotional intelligence skills in the work place Rd. Adeniyi Temitope Adetunji stressed the need of social and emotional intelligence in understanding oneself and others. Gardner proposed the concept of multiple intelligence for the first time in 1983. He stated that, there were two types of intelligence: intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence, which led to the development of several emotional intelligence models. The importance of regulating one's feelings was outlined by Salovey and in their study. People who can achieve their goals and demands that can control their emotions. Goleman defined Emotional Intelligence by claiming that our understanding and perspective of human knowledge has become overly narrow and tightening. He mentioned that emotional intelligence plays an important role in a person's reasoning decisions and procedures.
Higher Emotional Intelligence helps individuals to connect better, stimulate team strength and problem solve with individuals when needed and promote team effort. Many philosophers and psychologists have discussed about the emotional intelligence. Most of them had declared that, the emotions are complex phenomenon. Emotional intelligence involves the study of the behavioral science. The emotions arise as a result of the situations being exposed, coined the phrase emotional intelligence expressed that it is useful to guide their thinking as well as their actions and also very helpful for analyzing their abilities Dr. Reuven Bar-On detailed on emotional intelligence as a set of emotional and social abilities that determine how well we perceive and express ourselves, develop and maintain social relationships, deal with problems, and use emotional information effectively and meaningfully.
Emotional intelligence impacts on the individual effectiveness by coping with the daily routines of life Individual emotions play a critical influence in determining life decisions and predicting success Goleman, 1998. The importance of workers' social contracts is underlined, and it is suggested that monotony and repetitive jobs cause workers to reduce motivation (Mayo, 1933). Emotions are given more importance because individual performance is considered as the most determinant factor and simultaneously the organizations must understand the emotions of the employee who is performing. The emotional intelligence impacts on performance of the individual in the job performance, job commitment and the organizational commitment. Emotional fatigue is a term used in emotional intelligence to highlight the connection between job performance and emotional evaluations, optimism, and social abilities (Moon, 2011). There are many factors which effect on the employee turnover. The human resource must involve Emotional Intelligence concepts to reduce the employee turnover of the company because the employee turnover leads to reduced profits, increased training demands which directly affects the working of an organizational climate (Vos, 2009). Although it is one of the best indications of cognitive capacity, success and happiness in life are determined by a variety of other criteria such as the ability to relate to others, recognize one’s own emotions, and respond to them.
Emotional Quotient is one of the markers of cognitive capacity said that, ability to relate to people, recognize one's own emotions, and respond to them determine success and pleasure in life.
Emotional intelligence, according to Cooper (1997), is defined as the ability to recognize, analyses, and effectively use emotions as a source of human energy, information, trust, creativity, and influence. Emotional intelligence, according to, is the ability to notice, comprehend, and choose how we think, feel, and act. It is an individual's ability to respond appropriately and productively to a wide range of emotional inputs from the inner self and immediate surrounds. The more skilled a business's management is at creating a favorable work environment for its employees, the more successful the organization will be. Employees with stronger emotional intelligence are more concerned about their employer. They discharge their tasks with seriousness in difficult times because they are more concerned about the organization (Sharma, 2012).
(Dulewicz, 2003) emphasizes that the combined Intelligence and Emotional Quotients are more effective and accurate predictors of success than each of them alone. Emotional intelligence is linked to organizational outcomes and employee evaluations, organizational commitment through emotional dissonance prevention, ethical job role conflict, and work conflict among employees (Abraham, 1999).
There are two prominent and much focused models of emotional intelligence, 1). Ability Model deals on the emotional abilities of the individual 2). Mixed Model of Emotional intelligence that defined as a combination of abilities as well as some personality traits and qualities.
Emotional Intelligence Ability Model
This model proposes four types of emotional capacities spanning from basic to more complicated psychological processes. 'Emotion Perception, Appraisal, and Expression': They teach an individual how to recognize and express emotions in themselves and others. 'Emotional Facilitation of Thinking': They train people to recognize the effects of various emotional responses and to choose the most appropriate one. 'Understanding and Analyzing Emotions': This section deals with the ability to recognize, classify, and acknowledge emotions, as well as the ability to apply emotional information. 'Reflective Regulation of Emotion,' which deals with the ability to guide and regulate emotional responses in order to meet situational demands.
Emotional Intelligence in Mixed Model
In order to conceptualize emotional intelligence, mixed models integrate non-ability attributes (such as motivation, optimism, interpersonal competence, and stress management). The following are the various types of mixed models.
This is one of the most widely accepted mixed models. This model is based on the following personal characteristics:
1. Emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-esteem, and self-actualization are examples of intra- personal skills.
2. Social obligations and empathy are examples of inter-personal skills.
3. Problem solving, reality testing, and flexibility are all examples of adaptability.
4. General Mood encompasses cheerfulness and optimism, whereas Stress Management covers stress tolerance and impulse control.
Many people questioned it since there was no link between non-abilities and intellect. Goleman proposes the most frequently accepted model 1995. He defined emotional intelligence as a combination of personal and social skills. Personal Competence is concerned with how we manage ourselves, whereas Social Competence is concerned with how we manage our interpersonal interactions.
Goleman's 1995 Emotional Intelligence Model
Self-awareness, self-regulation, and motivation are the three dimensions of emotional intelligence. Self-awareness refers to a person's ability to monitor him or herself and notice feelings as they occur. Self-assurance, self-evaluation, and openness to positive criticism are all important aspects of this talent. Self-regulation is the ability to regulate one's emotions and redirect those that can be harmful. This ability includes traits such as trustworthiness, honesty, ambiguity tolerance, and a willingness to embrace change. Motivation is the ability to focus emotions toward a goal by exercising self-control and controlling impulses according to the circumstances. People with this skill are upbeat and dedicated to both organizational and personal objectives. Empathy and social skills are two characteristics that make up social competence. Empathy is the ability to feel and care about others, to see things from their point of view, and to treat individuals according to their emotional responses. People with this talent excel at inspiring and motivating others. The capacity to establish rapport and manage interpersonal connections is referred to as social skills. Persuasion and team management are two skills that people with this competence excel at. People can only properly manage social and work relationships if they can comprehend and control their own emotion and empathize with the feelings of others, according to ‘social skill,' which is the conclusion of the other components of emotional intelligence. Finally, four components of emotional intelligence were identified by Goleman in 2001 they are: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.
Various studies revealed that, emotionally intelligent people perform extremely well in the workplace. They seem optimistic always and manage stress and disagreements. Individuals who are with high emotional intelligence are the result makers. It is revealed by authors through their models like ability and mixed models of emotional intelligence are prominent. Ability model is highly deals with the abilities of an individual whereas the mixed model of emotional intelligence deals with the combination of abilities, some personalities and qualities of the individuals model clearly revealed that, emotional intelligence influence and improves the interpersonal skills of employees. Emotional Intelligence Model also revealed that, self-regulation and self-motivation improve the quality. Now days in service industries like Information technology, BPO’S, are very much struggling with the problem of low self – motivation and low self-regulation that leads ultimately low service quality. From the review of various popular studies on EI, mentioned in the review of literature, it is suggested to industries especially, service sector industries, to implement EI models to improve the self-motivation, self-regulation and interpersonal skills of employees to enhance their talent and quality in their work. With the implementation of these models one can able to know how to control their own emotions and empathize with the feelings of others. After 1995, has proposed another model with four components of emotional intelligence in 2001 such as: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management which can greatly impact the ability of controlling emotions so that, to improve their productivity and quality. The same is needed to some industries in India such as Software, IT/ITE’S, BPO's, to make the employees emotionally intelligent and to improve the overall performance, Quality of the services.
Many psychologists have been discussed the concept of emotional intelligence and its role to foster better service quality. From the thorough analysis of the studies of the emotional intelligence it is concluded that, the individual service quality leads the organizational performance. Based on the studies reviewed by the current research it is also concluded that, organizations using emotional intelligence have far better quality service than the organisations not using.
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Cooper, R.K. (1997). Applying emotional intelligence in the workplace. Training & development, 51(12), 31-39.
Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (2000). Emotional intelligence-A review and evaluation study. Journal of managerial Psychology, 15(4), 341-372.
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Received: 06-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-12135; Editor assigned: 08-Jun-2022, PreQC No. AMSJ-22-12135(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jun-2022, QC No. AMSJ-22-12135; Revised: 22-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-12135(R); Published: 24-Jun-2022