Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Review Article: 2024 Vol: 28 Issue: 2

Storytelling in English Language Teaching: An Essential Pedagogical Approach in Market of Language

Bavajan S, University of Hyderabad

Uma Shankar Yadav, Motilal Nehru national institute of technology, Allahabad

Citation Information: Bavajan, S., & Shankar Yadav, U. (2024). Storytelling in english language teaching: an essential pedagogical approach in market of language. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 28(2), 1-15.


Storytelling has been a part of society since the dawn of human communication as a teaching tool. The study aims to explore the relationship between English language teaching and storytelling. This study further explained different types of storytelling methods and explained how storytelling can be used as a teaching tool for English language teaching. Here, considers storytelling as one of the teaching strategies for student learning outcomes and connecting with students. However, educators may have under-emphasized the power of storytelling as an English pedagogy. This study provides recommendations and limitations for implementing storytelling as an English language teaching method.


Storytelling, English Language, English pedagogy, English teaching.


According to Albert Einstein ‘‘If you want your children to be smart, tell them stories, If you want them to be smarter, tell them more stories and if you want them to be even smarter, tell them more stories!’’ The about examples are enough to show the importance of stories in human life. Children and students have a strong impact on stories. These stories can either make children highly educated or make them anti-social. For example, Jijabai, her son, designed Shivaji as a war hero. Along with it, there is a legacy of Panchatantra stories written by Vishnu Sharma (200 BCE).

So, there is no hesitation in saying that story is ingrained in our heritage. Accordingly, storytelling is considered the foundation of the teaching profession. Moreover, it needs to be clarified how stories can be used (Artika & Saputri, 2018). It concluded that storytelling is a unique teaching strategy. Still, the outcome depends on the effectiveness of this teaching strategy and how teachers use the resources to serve their interests best (Bhosale & Biswas, 2022; Gray et al., 2010).

This review aims to update and present the available evidence about the power of the story. Accordingly, we present findings and related arguments about the pedagogical power of storytelling. We provide a brief overview of the diverse uses of storytelling approaches by educators in collegiate classrooms, followed by the importance of storytelling for the continued implementation of narrative pedagogy (Hew, 2011; Garrison & Vaughan, 2008).

The Art of Story Telling

The art of storytelling dates back to the dawn of humanity. However, when the first attempt at the verbal formulation of the story is made. Only the story developed. Over time it, too, fell into neglect. Stories foster imagination, language, expression, communication and entertainment etc. Thus, the use of the article changes over time. In particular, different countries' cultural identities and cultures are respected throughout the story. Art gives importance to the word narrative. So that he can describe events verbally, real or imagined. (Kaur et al., 2023a; Singla et al., 2023; Yadav et al., 2023a; Rushita et al., 2023; Sharma et al., 2024; Social, 2012; Leier, 2012). At this point, it is necessary to clarify the term narrative. Because there are different opinions on this from time to time. One is oral narrative (storytelling), the narration and transmission of a real or imagined story before a live audience. So, by the definition of the article, this technique is obvious not only in literature or linguistics but also in daily life, where it brings only positive aspects (Miller & Miller, 2012; Rodrigues, 2009).

Stories in Education

Storytelling is a widely used educational strategy in the world. It has become a great educational value in our country, mainly in early childhood education. It became part of the relevant curriculum very early on. In the field of education, the story captures the interest of the audience. It helps to understand the information obtained through this in a nutshell. This is because people easily remember what they learn through a story. Especially if the story relates to the trainee's experience and prior knowledge.

Storytelling in any educational field goes beyond instructional goals, creating a creative and fun learning environment. In addition, it creates an enjoyable and more informal structured environment for students.Storytelling is a combination of education and can influence young people's identities. At the same time, it can focus on the contemporary issues facing the education sector.

The Position of Stories in Pre-school Education

Today, storytellers and teachers have a wealth of narrative material. Teachers today prefer to read a fairy tale and often tell the story. Based on that, teachers design educational activities. The pedagogical value of the fairy tale is that the student joins the narrator, "Once upon a time ...." In this way, children feel that new knowledge and values are effortlessly transferred from the fairy tale.

In this way, the narrator lays the foundations to support understanding life and other important issues. Moreover, the fairy tale is a source of knowledge for children as it introduces them to traditions and cultural elements. Helps improve their vocabulary. Preschool students are transported into a fantasy world using a fairy tale. There they experience mental happiness, optimism, and peace—2008, as indicated in.

Educational Objectives

Stories promote lively imagination on the part of students. When students listen to a story, they create mind pictures, make inferences and predictions, and fill in the gaps. They, in a sense, become involved in creating the story, thus forming a relationship with the narrative. When packaged as a story, the oral delivery of information promotes greater involvement than written language. In order to appeal to different learning styles, it is necessary to transcend the traditional presentation of fact and theory. Stories are concrete; they exemplify concepts better than abstract, non-creative methods (Kaur, et al., 2023a; Yadav et al., 2023a, Rushita et al., 2023). Teaching storytelling also teaches presentation, communication, and writing skills. Using storytelling as a method of instruction and assessment supports educational objectives(Leier, 2012). These include:

1. Improving Listening skills

2. Improving Speaking skills

3. Improving Reading skills

4. Improving writing skills

Storytelling is an effective tool for the teacher because it is a powerful form of communication. Both the student and the teacher benefit from it. Students learn from hearing stories because they pay closer attention, understand the message more readily, and retain key points longer. Teachers become better educators because being able to tell a story effectively enhances the teacher's perception as a leader. A teacher who can adeptly tell a tale reveals an approachable, likable, and human side to his or her personality.

Developing Listening Skills through Storytelling

A teacher can think of many other ways of teaching listening. S/he can come out with his/her listening activities if the textbook does not have enough. For example, the teacher can tell the learners a real or imaginary story, frequently pause while narrating it, and ask them to guess what will happen next."A few nights ago, I was asleep at home as usual. At about three o'clock in the morning.....(what happened?)...A noise suddenly awakened me....(what noise) .....of rushing water....( what was it). It came from the bathroom, so I got up and investigated. (What was it?). I found to my dismay, that the cold water pipe burst and the water was pouring all over the floor...(so what did I do?) So I got a bucket and put it underneath...(what should I have done?) Then I realized what I should have done. I went out into the hall and turned off the main tap." (Tripathi et al., 2022d; Miller &Miller 2000) We want to know what happens next when we listen to a story. So the use of these questions is natural. However, the teacher should see that all the learners participate in discussions. She/he should try to get as many answers as possible. This technique will help the learners develop their ability to predict, which is an important sub-skill of listening.

Situational Conversation

In real-life situations, most spoken language is informal and spontaneous and can contain many features like slurred speech, colloquial vocabulary, and incorrect grammar. Speakers usually know something about what will be said in advance as they expect to hear something relevant to the context in which they find themselves. Some situations may be created in the classroom for the students, who will be asked to talk(Kaur et al., 2023b; Rushita et al., 2023; Tripathi et al.,2022c; Yadav et al., 2023b; Kumar et al., 2023b; Rodrigues, 2009).

Role Plays Role-playing takes place between two or more people, who act out roles to explore a particular scenario. By preparing for a situation using role-play, you build up experience and self-confidence in handling the situation in real life, and you can develop quick and instinctively correct reactions to situations (Tripathi et al., 2022a; Yadav et al., 2022b). This means that you'll react effectively as situations evolve, rather than making mistakes or becoming overwhelmed by events.


Listening to activities based on simulated real-life situations is more motivating and interesting than working through textbook comprehension exercises, which quickly becomes boring. Try the following listening texts and tasks that will likely grab your student's attention.

Formal talk

Listening to texts should be based on discourse that is genuine, improvised, or spontaneous speech. The written text read aloud is likely stilted and will not incorporate characteristics of informal speech, such as spontaneity. Direct speaker-listener interaction: Instead of conventional audio recordings, try to write some of the texts yourself or use a video to contribute to positive listening practice.

• Single exposure: In real-life listening situations, discourse cannot be exactly repeated. So, try to encourage students to learn to extract the information they need from a single hearing. For students to master this ability, information can be provided more than once within the original listening text(Social, 2012; Warschauer & Liaw, 2011; Wu, et al., 2016). As in real-life situations, students can ask for a repeat or explanation of what was said, but the discourse should not automatically be played several times if students do not ask for repeats( Yadav et al., 2023c; Tripathi, et al., 2022c).

• Expectations: Giving students an idea of what they will hear is the same as putting them in a real-life context where they will know what to expect due to the context, they find themselves in.

• Purpose: Explain the listening exercise's Purpose, as this helps students to listen selectively for important information.

Developing Speaking Skills through Storytelling

When teaching English to students, we must remember that what we have in front of us is admixed class with expectations, motivation level, knowledge, and last but not least, different learning styles. Thus, we need to vary our approaches and offer as much opportunity as possible to make the whole class find a little something to hold on to, expand, and grow. A teacher can think of many other ways of teaching speaking. S/he can come out with his/her speaking activities if the textbook does not have enough.

For example, the teacher can ask the learners to tell a story, real or imaginary, and ask them to pause frequently while narrating the story and ask other students to guess what will happen next. Storytelling, the art of narrating a tale from memory rather than reading, is one of the oldest art forms. Storytelling is the original form of teaching and has the potential to foster emotional intelligence and help the child gain insight into human behavior. Storytelling is an activity that enables the students to understand the story and tell the story with their language development (Tripathi et al., 2022b; Yadav et al., 2023d; Singla et al., 2023; Kumar et al., 2022b).

For a speaking class teacher who wishes to use storytelling, it is best to begin by choosing a simple story with only a few characters and an uncomplicated plot. The story should have action, the plot should be understandable to the students, and the events of the story should have a definite climax that leads to a conclusion the students will find satisfactory. In the classroom following activities may be conducted.

Activity 1 Divide the students into groups, and each group prepares a story. Each group member tells two to three sentences, and the next one continues until the end of the story could gradually increase from two to three minutes. Before the lesson, the students could divide their tasks in advance and practice their parts (Singla et al., 2023; Yadav et al., 2023c; Kaur et al., 2023a). They could also be given a few minutes to practice in class the whole story if necessary. The teacher moves among the groups and chooses two or three groups to present their stories before the class. Because the students have enough time to prepare and work together, this helps them build confidence and create a lively and brisk atmosphere.

Activity 2 Divide the students into four to five groups, and each group is given an opening of a story and asked to finish the story in about 20 minutes. Then select one student from each group to tell their story in the class, and the best one wins 10 points for their group. To get everyone fully involved and avoid the liability that each group asks their best storyteller to do the job, the storyteller is selected by drawing lots instead of being chosen by them. This also helps enliven the atmosphere of the classroom. So each group must work together to make the story as interesting as possible (Tripathi et al., 2022a; Kumar et al., 2022a; Yadav et al. 2022a). An alternative way is to ask each group member to tell a part of the story and make it whole. Activity 3 Ask each group to hand in an incomplete story and redistribute them among the groups. Give the students 20 minutes to read their stories and finish them. After each group presents their story, compare it with the original one: the most interesting one and the one closest to the original win (Kumar et al., 2023).

Activity 4 the teacher gives the first sentence to the class, and then each student adds one more sentence to make a whole story impromptu. Because there is no preparation and nobody has an idea about what the next person will say and where the story is going, there are often lots of fun and surprises in the game.

Dialogue Method

The dialogue method is also quite helpful in enhancing the speaking skills of students. A teacher can create various situations by utilizing the dialogue method. In this method, small dialogues may be given to the student at the start of the conversation, and later on, the whole conversation may be built up.

Speech Games and Contexts

Ask the students to begin their story with the given opener, building a story and extending it however they wish. This will help them think creatively and give them fluency in language speaking. Question for exercise

1. How does the storytelling method help in developing speaking skills? Explain.

2. What is the role of role-playing in enhancing the speaking skills of students?

3. How is role-play different from simulation? Explain.

Students should say whether the sentences are the same or different and award points to one of the groups. They respond by raising their hands if the sentences are the same and keeping quiet if they are different. Those who make a mistake are out of the game. The teacher shows an object or draws a picture on the blackboard and says a sentence is relevant Students should respond by raising their hands or keeping quiet. These games enhance the student's listening comprehension.

For example, the teacher can ask the learners to tell a story, real or imaginary, and ask them to pause frequently while narrating the story and ask other students to guess what will happen next. Storytelling is an activity that enables the students to understand the story and tell the story with their language development (Yadav et al., 2022a).

Situational Conversation

In real-life situations, most spoken language is informal and spontaneous and can contain many features like slurred speech, colloquial vocabulary, and incorrect grammar. Speakers usually know something about what will be said in advance as they expect to hear something relevant to the context in which they find themselves. Some situations may be created in the classroom for the students, who will be asked to talk.

Role Plays

Role-play is commonly regarded as a useful activity for developing oral skills. Role-playing occurs between two or more people acting out roles to explore a particular scenario. By preparing for a situation using role-play, you build up experience and self-confidence in handling the situation in real life, and you can develop quick and instinctively correct reactions to situations (Kumar et al., 2022b). This means you will react effectively as situations evolve rather than making mistakes or becoming overwhelmed by events. Role play has high appeal for students because it allows them to be creative and to put themselves in another person's place for a while.

To role-play

Add details.

Assign roles.

Act out the scenario.

Identify the situation.

Discuss what you have learned.


Simulation is very similar to role-plays but makes simulation different from role-plays because they are more complex. In the simulation, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, he brings a microphone to sing. The simulation encourages students to actively participate in the teaching-learning process because this activity creates a rich communicative environment where students actively become part of some real-world systems and function according to the predetermined roles as members of that group. Simulation increases students' self-confidence because, in simulation activities, students have different roles and do not speak for themselves. It means that they can take on different responsibilities (Kumar et al., 2023; Yadav et al., 2023e). By using simulation, students are expected to be able to speak English actively, creatively, and confidently.

The student activities are so dynamic in the learning process because the students are involved directly, and the student can become accustomed to understanding the story or the real problem. This is called learning implementation based on contextual learning. Grouping learning can make personal relationships well and also can increase their imagination.

Speech Games and Contexts

Games are quite helpful in developing speaking skills among small children. Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students can use language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners focus on the message, not the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of negative evaluation and the concern of being negatively judged in public, which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of others. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced, and speech fluency is generated. Thus, communicative competence is achieved. There may be various games, but here we will learn about a few.

Story Starters

Prepare a list of opening sentences or phrases. For example: 'It was a dark and stormy night, 'In 20 years I will be ...', 'It made me yell', 'Something is wrong ...', 'This is the secret I have never shared before, 'I never knew what happened ...', 'Sometimes I just want to ...', 'You know it is Summer when ...', 'Happy birthday, happy birthday to you.

Continuous Story

This is best done with a group of people. Each person gets up and might speak for anywhere from 20 seconds to a minute and then start telling a story. Furthermore, when their time is up, the next person has to get up, and they have to continue the story. So, each person does not know what the person before them will say, so they have to continue the story. The goal of this is to make the story make sense. This game helps people engage in listening and learn to be creative enough to make the story continue and make sense.

Ask the students to begin their story with the given opener, building a story and extending it however they wish. This will help them think creatively and give them fluency in language speaking. Question for exercise

1. How does the storytelling method help in developing speaking skills? Explain

2. What is the role of role-playing in enhancing the speaking skills of students

3. How is role-play different from simulation? Explain.

Developing Reading Skills through Storytelling

The main purpose of reading is comprehension, i.e., understanding the meaning of words and the relationship between ideas. There are six types of reading which lead to comprehension. They are loud, silent, intensive, extensive, supplementary, and library reading.

Loud Reading

Loud reading is also known as oral reading. It is introduced two months after the student learns to read his textbook. It enables the student to read with expression. It helps the teacher to evaluate the student's knowledge of spoken words, phrases, and sentences. It aids the student in reading with understanding and paves the way to silent reading.

The Objective of Loud reading is as follows.

To enable students to read with correct pronunciation, articulating, intonation, stress, and rhythm.

To test the students, knowledge of speaking words, phrases, and sentences.

To enable students to read with expression.

To prepare students for effective silent reading.


The teacher reads aloud any particular passage, paying attention to correct pronunciation, articulation, rhythm, etc. The passage is selected, considering the students' comprehension capacity. This was followed by the students reading aloud the same passage. After the student has finished reading, the teacher corrects pronunciation, articulation, etc. At the junior level, accuracy in reading is stressed, and speed is emphasized at the senior level. Word-by-word reading should not be encouraged while word recognition can be developed.


1. The loud reading should be given only if the teacher has given model reading.

2. Before loud reading pronunciation drill is essential.

3. Weak students should be given special attention.

4. In the beginning, speed should never be emphasized.

5. The teacher should check the students’ posture while reading.

6. Only those passages should be read which can be understood and appreciated.

7. The paragraph reading should be a manageable length.

8. Necessary instructions must be given before silent reading.


The student learns to read properly. He develops the skill of speech and can learn elocution. Mistakes in pronunciation, articulation, and stress are corrected early. The various ensure organs such as ears, eyes, and mouth are trained simultaneously.

1. It saves time and energy.

2. It develops the ability to read with interest.

3. In later life, it has immense value because it is used in public places and in higher classes.


This method's disadvantage is that some students may not enjoy reading aloud. It needs to help a deep understanding of the text. In later life, silent reading is preferred if a student becomes used to reading aloud and cannot become an extensive reader. The other student in the class is distracted when one student is reading aloud. Thus only a few students benefit from this.

1. It cannot be checked whether the student is reading or not.

2. The mistakes made by students during silent reading cannot be corrected.

3. Sometime students cannot understand some parts of the passage, but they cannot take the help of teachers.

Developing Writing Skills through Storytelling

Out of the four skills in learning a language, 'writing ' is very important, as it serves as the medium through which we communicate our ideas, thoughts, or feelings to distant people. Language learning is complete with acquiring writing skills. For a second language learner, writing in a second language is used for specific purposes, but his mother tongue is used for all other general purposes (Xiang, et al., 2016).

We know that the teaching of writing is a complex process involving many activities like initial probing into experiences, organization of ideas into meaningful sentences, and expression of thoughts and feelings by students with confidence and ease. The student may be asked to write only those sentences and words they practiced orally. Writing should be taken up just after the completion of word recognition exercises (Yadav et al., 2023c; Kaur et al., 2023b; Singla et al., 2023; Kumar et al., 2022b; Tripathi et al., 2022d; Warschauer & Liaw, 2011; Wu et al., 2016). There are various advantages to doing so. First, writing reinforces oral and reading work. The language items learned already get firmly fixed in the students' minds. Second, writing provides a change of activity and thus helps in reducing monotony. Finally, it encourages pupils to take up creative writing.

Why do we have to learn how to write? Learning to write in English is a mode of communication. It is essential to remember that language activity – listening, speaking, reading, and writing- is integrated into communication. Of the four activities, writing develops the slowest. The process of writing is often described as consisting of three major activities or groups of activities:

Pre-Writing- Before putting pen to paper, the skilled writer in real life considers two important questions.

What is the Purpose of a piece of writing? This first question is done with function. For example, is it a report the writer hopes will be persuasive and stimulate action? Is it a letter of invitation to some friends or a letter applying for a job? The Purpose of the writing will influence the choice of organization and language.Who am I writing this for? The second question has to do with the audience. The reader may be an individual you know well, a group of colleagues, an institution, an examiner, or a tutor. Thinking about the eventual reader(s) helps the writer select what to say and how to present it in the most appropriate style- formal, friendly, serious, and tentative.

The answers to these two questions provide the writer with a sense of Purpose and audience, in other words, a writing context that significantly influences the first stage of the composition process, which consists of exploring possible content and planning outlines.

The good writer generates plans for writing at this stage, though, as we have seen, the amount of planning varies. We could draw a scale from comparatively automatic writing to very carefully planned writing and place different kinds of writing in an appropriate place on the scale.

Writing and Rewriting- The second activity stage is the writing itself, and with good writers, this consists of making the first draft. However, writing the first draft is often interrupted as the writer stops to read over the review, get an idea of how the text is developing, revise plans bring in new ideas, or process the old ones. There is a good deal of recycling from planning to drafting, reviewing, re-planning, revising, etc. Good writers concentrate on getting the content right and leave details like correcting spelling, punctuation, and grammar until later.

Revision involves assessing what has already been written and deciding the points like these:

1. Am I sharing my impressions enough with my reader?

2. Did I miss out on any important points of information?

3. Are there any points in the writing where my reader must make a "jump" because I have omitted a line of arguments, or I have forgotten to explain something?

4. Does the vocabulary need to be made stronger at any point?

5. Are some sentences that do not say much or are too repetitive and can be missed?

6. Can I rearrange sentences to make the writing clearer or more interesting?

7. Do I need to rearrange any paragraphs?

8. Are the links between sections clear?

Do they guide my reader through the writing, Editing- The post-writing stage consists of reading through and applying a reader's perspective to assess how readers might follow the ideas. The editing process makes the final readjustment and checks accuracy so that the text is maximally accessible to the reader. Some poor writers tend to refrain from editing but assume that their writing is clear to others because it is clear to them. Alternatively, poor writers may concentrate throughout the whole writing process on accuracy in grammar, punctuation, etc., without considering whether the overall structure is clear.

Short Story Writing: A good short story writer should have the following three characteristics:

Setting and Time: Use your five senses- sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to describe an interesting place and time. Use colorful adjectives. Some examples of interesting settings are a deserted beach, an empty classroom, and a crowded festival.

Character: Use interesting expressions to describe the people in your story. What do they look like? What kind of personalities do they have? Tell the personal backgrounds of the people. Try to have interesting relations with people. For example, what would happen if your English teacher and mother.

Plot: Will you write a mystery story? An action story? Science Fiction? is a historical story. A standard plot line features the main character facing and overcoming a major problem. Try to have nail-biting emotional situations! Try to incorporate humor into your writing! (Humor is important.) Anybody can write high-quality fiction if he or she tries.

Poetry Writing: Poetry writing requires no license, no education, and no experience. All teachers must get the students started with a pen and some paper. However, a big difference between writing and good poetry must be properly understood. All poetry is believed to be good because anything that comes from the heart or speaks the truth is good.

Diary Writing: Diaries often give us a glimpse into the innermost thoughts and personal feelings of individual or even historical figures. They are capable of providing an unbiased recollection of events occurring at the time in which they were written. A teacher should encourage his students to write a diary because it can give regular practice in writing skills, which will build students' confidence. H/She should give the students with following tips:

Be as honest as possible – open up and put your soul on the page while making a diary entry.

Write to the world - Do not start the entry with personalized words like 'dear'. Instead, write for someone else's eyes.

Keep things in order - Chronological order is the best way to construct a diary entry.Spell-check your entries – poor grammar and spelling make it difficult to decipher the entry once you attempt to read it again.

Give details – Diaries are all about personal reflection. Being very detail-oriented is the key.

It is easy to write a great diary. The only requirement for this Purpose is to be willing, open, and honest

Following these simple, quick tips, students can write a great diary

Notice Writing: A notice is a short piece of writing generally formal in style. Schools use it to announce events and celebrations, appeal to, and issue different information. A notice should give complete information and be written in clear, lucid, and easily understandable language.

Dialogue means "conversation normally between two or more people" Dialogue –writing has gained a reputation as a very useful form of composition, especially for third-world countries in general and India in particular. Writing an effective dialogue requires some dramatic power as the writer has to see both sides of a question and put himself, so to speak, inside to imaginary person to make them express their opposite opinions naturally. Thus writing Dialogue requires careful preparation. It is always advisable to make a rough outline of Dialogue.

Some important points to remember while writing Dialogue

Sparing such interruption in written Dialogue is permissible as this adds to its naturalness.

The Dialogue should begin interestingly.

Proper use of interjection for surprises, pleasures, irritations

Speech Writing: The basic speech format is simple. It consists of three parts:

a. an opening or introduction

b. the Body where the bulk of the information is given

c. and an ending (or summary)

Write Like You Talk- Remember that you are writing a speech, not an essay. People will hear the speech, not read it. The more conversational you can make it sound, the better. So, try these tips:

Do not use big words that you would not use when talking to someone. · Concrete details keep people interested. For instance, which is more effective?

Always read your speech aloud while you are writing it. You will hear right away if you sound like a book or a real person talking!

Get Your Facts Together- You want people to believe you know what you are talking about! So you will need to do some research. For instance, let us say your big issue is the environment. You promise to pass a law that says all new cars must run on electricity, not gas. That will cut down on air pollution! So how much pollution will be cut every year? Use the library or the Internet to do research.

Persuade with a Classic Structure- In a speech where you are trying to persuade someone, the classic structure is called "Problem-Solution.

Letter Writing

Letter writing is an important activity in the life of an educated person. Everyone writes a letter- personal, social, official, or business. These include letters one writes to relatives, friends, and acquaintances and invitations. Students should learn how to write clear, readable letters. Official letters include applications, business letters, and letters to local civic authorities and newspapers.

It is good to remember the person or the audience to whom one is writing a letter. It will give the necessary motivation to write. F.G. French says, 'It should be a real letter written to the real uncle, asking for real money to pay real school fees. In light of this principle, we can understand the lack of realism in most of the topics given to pupils to write letters. Different letters have different forms. However, some apply to all the letters, like those given below.

1. The Heading is the address and

2. A polite greeting or salutation

3. The subscription or the courteous leave-taking

4. The signature

5. The superscription or the address on the envelope

6. The date can be written as 12.06.2009; June 12, 2009; June 12, 2009.

Divide the Body of the letter into some paragraphs. Use simple and short sentences. Keep the person you are writing the interview with and write what you want to say directly. Write the letter neatly. Mind the marks of punctuation.

Official and business letters may be formal and begin as

Dear Sir,

Dear Sirs end as

Yours truly,

Yours faithfully,

Report Writing: Report writing has been incorporated as a writing skill at different levels. A report is different from an essay, a fact usually overlooked. It involves using several research techniques and methods of collection, tabulation, analysis, representation, and drawing inferences from the data. A report is thus an accurate description of occurrences written in a fixed format.

Collection of data: Collection of data can be done through the schedule, questionnaire, interviews, observation, telephone conversation, and from secondary sources already available. Scientific tools should be used to collect primary data.

Tabulation of data: Data collection through schedules, questionnaires, field visits, etc., should be followed by their tabulation. Unless they are put in a proper table, they cannot be analyzed.

Figurative Representation: Collected data can be presented through different figures like a graph, histogram, bar chart, pie chart, etc. This helps in a visual presentation.

Analysis of data: The data can be analyzed through comparison and contrast, using statistical tools like mean, mode median, chi-square test, etc.

Features of a good report: A good report needs to be objective, analytical, and representative. It must be presented in the required format with the structural components divided into the front, middle, and back parts. Correction of Writing Exercises: Despite all the initial oral preparation and blackboard work, students may make mistakes. Teachers should correct them in a way beneficial to the students. It is no use filling the pages of notebooks with red ink.

Generally, pupils rarely look at the corrections but turn to the last fresh page for the next exercise. Teachers should plan their correction work. It is tedious, no doubt, but it is rewarding if done methodically. Teachers should have an encouraging attitude towards their students. Harsh criticism will not help them learn. Teachers should point out the weaknesses as well as the strengths of the pupils. They may occasionally read out good writings written by good people. Students need to correct their language as well as the content. Before they set pen to paper, the teacher should discuss the topic orally. Oral responses expose their mistakes, which can be corrected the moment they are made. The correct forms may be drilled orally till they become a habit with them. A list of common errors made by all of them may be written down on a chart, and the correct forms may be pointed out in each case. If they are content words, they may be quickly used in self-explanatory sentences so that the students may learn how to use them in the future.


Storytelling can be an important form of pedagogy. Stories impose, at a minimum, a temporal logic on the content of a course or lesson. That temporal logic offers students a metric to judge the progress of the story and lesson content, making them more engaged. Because humans are natural storytellers, we immediately pay attention to the structure of a story and often become subconsciously emotionally involved in the story. This emotional involvement aids content retention, with obvious benefits to grades, class rank, and job prospects. There are certain risks and critiques of storytelling as a pedagogical method. Stories are not objective because the storyteller has lived them (often, the listener has recently had a similar experience, spurring the story). This lack of objectivity should not be a barrier, however. Because stories are told using emotion and elicit emotion from the listener, they often remain fresher in the listener's mind than a peer-reviewed study or doctrine would. Telling pedagogical stories is not for the slipshod preparer, however. The complexity and indirectness of stories mean that the storyteller must be exceedingly well-prepared, even beyond the scope of the material, and able to rapidly adjust to the demands of the listeners and ensure they do not lose either the story or the content it is communicating.

Storytelling has a place in professional education, outside the classroom and inside. Stories fill the gaps between the codified professional knowledge—peer-reviewed and doctrine—and rapidly changing current circumstances or best practices. Not every circumstance of a professional’s education can be covered in codified material, so it is up to the senior members of that profession to share their knowledge in a non-directive, non-judgmental fashion to pass the knowledge down to the next generation.


Artika, W., & Saputri, M. (2018, September). A self-evaluation technique in improving teacher’s professional development: the use of “realia” media and “wait time” strategies. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1088, No. 1, p. 012022) IOP Publishing.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Bhosale, P. D., & Biswas, R. (2022).Relationship between a student’s social media use and academic performance at a University course in Thailand. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2471, No. 1). AIP Publishing

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2008).Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles, and guidelines. John Wiley & Sons.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Gray, K., Annabell, L., & Kennedy, G. (2010). Medical students’ use of Facebook to support learning: Insights from four case studies. Medical teacher, 32(12), 971-976.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Hew, K. F. (2011). Students’ and teachers’ use of Facebook. Computers in human behavior, 27(2), 662-676.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Kaur, H., Sodhi, D., Aggarwal, R., & Yadav, U. S. (2023a).Managing Human Resources in Digital Marketing. In Digital Transformation, Strategic Resilience, Cyber Security and Risk Management 155-162.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Kaur, H., Sood, K., Yadav, U. S., & Grima, S. (2023b). Sustainable Solutions for Insurance and Risk Management. The Impact of Climate Change and Sustainability Standards on the Insurance Market, 359–372.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Kumar A., Yadav, U. S., Yadav, G. P., & Tripathi, R. (2023).New sustainable ideas for materialistic solutions of smart city in India: A review from allahabad city. Materials Today: Proceedings 34(3),23-3

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Kumar, A., Mandal, M., & Yadav, U. S. (2022a). Motivation and Challenges in Career Choice and Well Being of Women Entrepreneurs; Experiences of Small Businesses of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 10890–10906.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Kumar, A., Mandal, M., & Yadav, U. S. (2022b). Business and entrepreneurial strategies for development of Indian small industries (MSME) during post-pandemic COVID-19 Indian artisans as entrepreneurs. Empir Econ Lett, 21(4), 153–162.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Leier, V. (2012).Facebook used in a German film project. The EUROCALL Review, 20(1), 104-108

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Miller, S. M., & Miller, K. L. (2000). Theoretical and practical considerations in the design of Web-based instruction. In Instructional and cognitive impacts of web-based education (pp. 156-177).

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Rodrigues, J. J. (Ed.). (2009).Health information systems: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (Vol. 1). Igi Global

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Rushita, D., Sood, K., & Yadav, U. S. (2023). Cryptocurrency and Digital Money in the New Era. In Digital Transformation, Strategic Resilience, Cyber Security and Risk Management (Vol. 111, pp. 179-190). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Sharma, P., Sharma, R., & Yadav, U.S. (2024).Unveiling the nexus: exploring the impact of workplace stress on job performance among marketing professionals. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 28(S1), 1-9.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Singla, N., Sood, K., Grima, S., & Yadav, U. S. (2023).Target 8.8: Protect labor rights and promote a safe working environment. The Impact of Climate Change and Sustainability Standards on the Insurance Market, 373.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Social, T. V. (2012). Second-screen viewing: the stats in 2012

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Tripathi, M. A., Tripathi, R., & Yadav, U. S. (2022a). Prospects of Impending Digital Platform Economy: Rise of Gig Work. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 14(3).23-34

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Tripathi, M. A., Tripathi, R., Yadav, U. S., & Shastri, R. K. (2022b).Gig Economy: A paradigm shift towards Digital HRM practices. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(2), 5609–5617.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Tripathi, M. A., Tripathi, R., Yadav, U. S., & Shastri, R. K. (2022c).Gig economy: Reshaping strategic HRM in the era of industry 4.0 and artificial intelligence. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 3569–3577.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Tripathi, M. A., Tripathi, R., & Yadav, U. S. (2022d).Identifying the critical factors of physical gig economy usage: A study on client’s perspective. International Journal of Health Sciences, 6, 4236–4248.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Warschauer, M., & Liaw, M. L. (2011).Emerging technologies for autonomous language learning. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 2(3)

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Wu, I. L., Chen, K. W., & Chiu, M. L. (2016). Defining key drivers of online impulse purchasing: A perspective of both impulse shoppers and system users. International Journal of Information Management, 36(3), 284-296.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Xiang, L., Zheng, X., Lee, M. K., & Zhao, D. (2016). Exploring consumers’ impulse buying behavior on social commerce platform: The role of parasocial interaction. International journal of information management, 36(3), 333-347.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

 Yadav, U. S., Tripathi, R., Tripathi, M. A., Ghosal, I., Kumar, A., Mandal, M., & Singh, A. (2023a).Digital and innovative entrepreneurship in the Indian handicraft sector after the COVID-19 pandemic: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12(1), 69

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Yadav, U.S., Sood, K., Tripathi, R., Grima, S., Yadav, N. (2023b).Entrepreneurship in India's handicraft industry with the support of digital technology and innovation during natural calamities. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 1777-1791.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Yadav, U. S., Tripathi, R., & Tripathi, M. A. (2022c). Adverse impact of lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic on micro-small and medium enterprises (Indian handicraft sector): A study on highlighted exit strategies and important determinants. Future Business Journal, 8(1), 1-10.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Yadav, U. S., Tripathi, R., Tripathi, M. A., Kumar, A., & Mandal, M. (2023d).Evaluation of factors affecting entrepreneurship: a case of Indian women in the handicraft industry. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 10(1), 1-17.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Yadav, N., Yadav, U. S., Singh, A. B., & Yadav, G. (2022e).Antecedents and Consequences of Public Interest Litigations in Sustainable Environment Protection in India. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 1057, No. 1, p. 012004). IOP Publishing.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Received: 26-Sep-2023, Manuscript No. AMSJ-23-14042; Editor assigned: 27-Sep-2023, PreQC No. AMSJ-23-14042(PQ); Reviewed: 30-Oct-2023, QC No. AMSJ-23-14042; Revised: 29-Dec-2023, Manuscript No. AMSJ-23-14042(R); Published: 12-Jan-2024

Get the App