Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 26 Issue: 2

The Impact of Ethiopian Culture, Oromia Subculture and Cross Culture Western/European on Consumer Behavior

Duba Malicha Guyo, Bule Hora University

Mohammed Arshad, Bule Hora University

Citation Information: Duba M. and Mohammed A. (2022). The Impact of Ethiopian Culture, Oromia Subculture and Cross Culture Western/European on Consumer Behavior. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 26(2), 1-9.


The aim of this review is to assess the Impact of culture Ethiopia, sub-culture Oromia and cross culture western/European on consumer behaviors. The analysis is conducted supported a scientific review makes an attempt to collect all available empirical inquiry and a meta-analysis is that the statistical method of analysis use. The main objectives of this article are to clarify the size of the impact on consumer behavior of Ethiopian cultures and Oromia subculture like language, food style, dressing vogue, marriage, religion and history within the method of Westernization, there's an interaction of cultures and there's a borrowing and transmission of cultures among societies. This is often in itself common. A common is that the domination of one culture over the opposite. This is often true of globalization that has generate a lot of argue with regards to the increase of a world culture. within the rise of a culture, Western norms are step by step being transport across the world as acceptable method of behavior and Ethiopia or Oromia is one in every of African countries affect during this regard. Those some valued endemic Ethiopian culture is total settle for culture absolutely. however, Oromo or Ethiopian endemic cultures are dilute and a few of them are totally off. Ethiopian is quick running the chance of cultural atrophy sequent of the present logic of Westernization. If pressing measures aren't taking, maybe indigenous Ethiopian cultures can shortly run into extinction within the future.


Westernization, Ethiopian cultures, Impact, Oromia sub-culture, Culture, Consumer Behavior.


European culture is that the root of Western culture, that traces its lineage back to ancient Balkan state and ancient Rome (Lewis 1960); Covert (2011). The autumn of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and also the resulting Migration amount marked the tip of Europe's ancient history and also the starting of the center ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the trendy era. Since the age of discovery, started by European country and Kingdom of Spain, Europe contends a predominant role in international affairs. Between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries, European powers inhabited at numerous times America, the majority of continent and Oceanica, and also the majority of Asia.

The EU originated in Western Europe however has been increasing eastward since the autumn of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the EU Union, the euro, is that the most ordinarily used among Europeans; and also, the EU's Schengen space abolishes border and immigration controls between most of its member states and a few non-members states. There exists a social movement affirmative the evolution of the EU Union into one federation encompassing a lot of the continent.

According to Ethnologies, there are ninety individual languages spoken in Ethiopia. The general public within the country speak Afro-Asiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. The Oromiffa, spoken by the Oromo people, and Somali, spoken by the Somali people; the latter includes Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people, and Tigrinya, spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people. Together, these four teams’ structure regarding three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Different Afro-Asiatic languages with a major range of speakers embrace the Cushitic. English is that the most generally spoken foreign language and is that the medium of instruction in secondary colleges. Amharic was the language of school instruction, however has been replaced in several areas by regional languages like Oromiffa, Somali or Tigrinya. Whereas all languages fancy equal state recognition within the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia, Amharic is recognized because the official operating language of the national. The varied regions of Ethiopia are liberated to confirm their own operating languages, with Oromiffa, Somali and Tigrinya recognized as official operating languages in their various regions.

In terms of writing systems, Ethiopia's principal writing system is Ge'ez or Ethiopic. Utilized as an abugida for many of the country's languages, its 1st came into usage within the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. as an Ethiopia to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language. Ge'ez currently is the religious rite language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches. Alternative writing systems have additionally been used over the years by totally different Ethiopian communities. The latter embrace sheikh Bakri Sapalo's script for Oromo.

The Oromo are among the eastern Cushitic speaking peoples within the horn of continent (Lewis, 1960). They're best-known not just for being the biggest constituent in Ethiopia country or (34.5%) of the population of the country (Population Census Commission, 2008), however additionally for being the possessors of a comprehensive socio-political establishment referred to as Gadaa (1999) System (Asafa, 1993).

By making and maintaining advanced social systems, institutionalizing and up practices, developing beliefs regarding the globe, and act the meanings to different humans and ulterior generations, culture embraces many emotions, attitudes, values, preferences, beliefs and behaviors, shared and socially learned as a collective mental programming of the individuals in the surroundings (Triandis, 2018; Clark, 1990).

Rice (1993) introduces culture as values, attitudes, beliefs, artifacts, and different valuable symbols delineated within the pattern of life adopted by people that facilitate them interpret measure and communicate as members of society and each have an effect on and describe their behaviors.

The cost of ignoring the customs, traditions, taboos, tastes and preferences, etc., of individuals can be terribly high. Lim et al. (2016) stressed that the shopping for and consumption habits of the individuals, their language, beliefs and values, customs and traditions, tastes and preferences, and education are all factors that have an effect on business. For a business to achieve success, its strategy ought to be the one that's acceptable within the socio-cultural surroundings.

Studies that target the subculture level, considering elect social teams. to search out higher explanations for social realities as totally different life-styles or consumption patterns (Schouten & McAlexander, 1995).

According to the argued that economic process is Western using, notably American imperialism that seeks to impose its political system on different defeated and exploited nations threat of economic, culture, political or military coercion.

The dynamism of culture casts doubts on the likelihood of a worldwide culture. a part of this dynamism is that every culture has its own temperament. The very fact that, we tend to are all humans doesn't mean that we are all a similar. The challenge is that whenever we tend to influence individuals from another culture—whether in our own country or globally—we expect individuals to behave as we do and for a similar reason. Culture awareness most typically refers to having an understanding of another culture’s values and perspective. Then this study was on Impact of culture (Ethiopia), sub-culture (Oromia) and cross culture (western/European) on consumer behaviors.

More of literatures confirm that native cultures are joined by a number of extra cultural forms from abroad, presenting individuals with a confusing array of mode choices from that to choose. Established identities and ways in which of life are giving way to new sorts of hybrid 'identity' composed of components from contrastive cultural sources.

Thus, Ethiopian young nowadays may still be powerfully influenced by western cultures and western in style, culture has earned a huge international following. In Ethiopia, it's common to envision that the majority adolescent living style which has approach of dressing, talking, dancing, eating; beliefs etc. are extremely changed to western cultures. Most of youth’s cell phones with audio and video player have wide numerous western cultural products. Thus, the exposure to those western cultural product makes the youth hate their own indigenous culture.

The specific objectives of this review were to assess the impact of Ethiopian culture, sub-culture Oromia, and cross Western culture on language, food style, dressing style, marriage, religion and history.

Literature Review

Culture and Consumer Behavior

Triandis (2002) attracts an easy, general and nevertheless advanced image of culture: ?culture is to society what memory is to people. It refers to tools and concepts that are shared and transmitted to succeeding generations as a result of they were once sensible at some purpose in time. For the aim of understanding the word in marketing, a society’s personality. It includes each abstract concept, like values and ethics, and material objects and services, like the vehicles, clothing, food, art, and sports a society produces. Place otherwise, it’s the buildup of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among the members of a corporation or society.


Several teams are defined by ethnicity, gender, generation, religion, or different characteristics with cultures that are distinctive to them. A social group may be a group of individuals with a culture (whether distinct or hidden) that differentiates them from the larger culture to that they belong. In step with subcultures assemble similar people who feel neglected by social group standards and permit them to develop a way of identity.

Culture in today’s context is completely different from the normal, additional singular definition, used notably in Western languages, wherever the word usually implies refinement. Culture is that the beliefs, values, mind-sets, and practices of a gaggle of individuals. It includes the behavior pattern and norms of that group—the rules, the assumptions, the perceptions, and therefore the logic and reasoning that are specific to a group. Cross-cultural understanding needs that we tend to reorient our mind-set and, most significantly, our expectations, so as to interpret the gestures, attitudes, and statements of the individuals we tend to encounter. We reorient our mind-set; however we tend to don’t essentially change it.

Consumer Behavior

Many of the variations in preference, product usage, and get and generally client behavior is influenced by cultural values. Also, national wealth can be thought to be an explaining variable and distinction in financial gain level can be influential (De Mooij, 2004). There also are dozens of variables rooted in disciplines as economics, social science and ecology that will end in attitudinal or activity reactions by a person; nevertheless, once analyzing client selections and reactions, most ways that finish to psychological traits and cultural values are impressive players during this game.

How individuals behave and what motivates them is basically a matter of culture. however, they relate to every alternative in shopping for method, whether or not their selections are individual or cluster selections, however their emotions drive market selections, are among all influenced by the culture to that they belong. Consequently, theories of consumer behavior don't seem to be culture-free. To call some attainable sides of cultural influence on completely different aspects of consumer behavior.

Indeed, the numerous realities concerning African cultural history is that the convergence upon the endemic tradition of the two external influences—the Arab-Islamic and also the European-Christian—to that the continent has been exposed for run over a millennium. The values and lifestyles related to these traditions are assimilated and to an oversized extent indigenized on the continent. This observation provides a broader perspective on the development of westernization in continent, an observation created as early because the late nineteenth century by the good African cultural intellect Edward Wilmot Blyden and summed up within the late twentieth century by Ali Mazrui as “the triple heritage”.

Language may be a prime space wherever the impact of globalization/westernization has been existing. for instance, according to the estimation of English cultural council, the number of individuals round the world who are learning English reaches one billion and concerning 1.5 to 2 billion people are in touch with English. By 2050, half the world’s population are skillful in exploitation English.

According to Afsaneh (2013), the globe may be a home of 7,105 living languages; among them 1,481 are in bother and 906 are dying. As some statistics indicate, it's estimated that if nothing is done half these languages spoken these days can disappear within the future. Seemingly, with the extinction of unwritten and undocumented languages, humanity would lose not solely a cultural wealth however also vital ancestral data embedded, specifically, in endemic languages. Among of these languages English is that the solely language that is spoken by additional people as a second language than a first language.The extinction of language has been existing from the traditional time. However, the matter is currently on a daily basis its scale is larger and speed faster. in step with others studies, because of cultural imperialism half of the languages can disappear in middle 21st century. This is often why some countries like France pay a hundred million U.S.A. dollars to push French culture each year.

French scientists are clearly alert to things. They assert that either they publish their articles in English, or die with French quietly. Thus, the non-English speaking countries are moon-faced with a dilemma, to integrate into the globe to be modernised or to isolate them to keep up national character. So as to be modernised, it's necessary to integrate into the globe, however this may actually bring some changes to ancient culture.

Countries like China have an awfully strict rules relating to f foreign media contents. “China has issued severe tips for tv programs, as well as those supported foreign formats and television shows ought to portray Chinese culture". Because it is mentioned by an equivalent author, solely self-innovated TV programs with Chinese cultural inheritance and characteristics will higher carry the Chinese Dream themes, the socialist core values, furthermore as nationalism and Chinese fine traditions. Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, South Korea and Republic of India are among the countries that obligatory restrictions on western media imports that might damage their culture and identity.

The Oromo of Ethiopia have lost their ancient approach of administering themselves throughout the last twenty years of the nineteenth century as a result of Menelik’s conquest supported by the great European powers: GB, France, Italian Republic and Russia (Asafa, 1993; Jemjem & Dhadacha, 2011). This happened throughout the colonisation of African countries by the great European powers of the time. Hence, the Oromo had moon-faced two suppressing powers: the great European powers (Britain, France and Italy) that had nice interests to manage the horn of continent and therefore the then regimes within the North led by Menelik II who were increasing their territory toward the southern components of the region by capture the native peoples of the region as well as the Oromo.

Finally, this state of affairs of Western culture is resulting in cultural imperialism or dominance of one nation’s culture over others that are closely associated with world communication. It's regarding imposing a culture of a superior country over less powerful societies. Thus, cultural imperialism is that promoting and imposing a culture, sometimes that of a politically powerful nation over a less powerful society and antagonistic individuals from their native culture (Albrow & King, 1990).


A systematic review tries to collect all obtainable inquiry by exploitation clearly outlined, systematic strategies to get answers to a selected question. A meta-analysis is that the statistical method of analyzing and mixing results from many similar studies. However once choosing a subject for the meta-analysis, it's essential to confirm that varied} studies present knowledge that may be combined Systematic review; findings from various individual study are analysis statically by strict procedure.

This paper relies on secondary sources of data from different inquire regarding publications and unpublished literatures, magazines, Google Scholar, Science Direct, analysis Gate, springer and books. Analyzed by Meta analysis.

Results and Discussion

When I was reviewing regarding the impacts of English on native languages some literatures aforesaid that because of the western education and victimization within the past some cultural values are destroying. For instance, the native languages for instance (Gee’ez language in Ethiopia) became obsolete due to its displacement by English that is presently the foremost efficient medium of education particularly at secondary and tertiary education. Throughout colonialism, human development became valuable only it absolutely was noninheritable within the colonial power’s language and talent became solely valuable to the national development effort if it noninheritable within the colonial master’s language like English, etc. Thus, exploitation influenced the globe and altered radically in terms of culture, education, science, communication etc. The British victimization introduced English within the countries dominated by the British and currently it's become a world language with the roots of the British imperialism within the past and also the fashionable imperialism of western.

The influences of English over others languages become increasing from time to time. For instance, currently a day’s instructional qualification in Ethiopian language became less worth than qualification within the colonial language (English) as a result of the influence of westerns due to their science supported civilizations. The introduction of English step by step eroded the place of Ethiopian languages in education. Even, typically it becomes troublesome to search out people who are additional fascinating to use their maternal language particularly at urban areas than English. Rather than using their mother tongue, they're extremely attention-grabbing to use English that isn't native for them due to the explanations that English is taken into account as valuable and extremely necessary than different native languages of Ethiopia. This is often why some Ethiopian languages (such as Gee’ez) are at the stage of dying.

Others studies add, it's been established that a lost language could be a lost culture, a lost culture is priceless knowledge lost. In fact, the influence of English dominance on non-English speaking countries like Ethiopia could also be contrary to the influence on English speaking countries. Its negative impact could also be over positive impact. The advantages brought by English are that individuals from different countries will communicate with one another freely. However, language isn't simply a communication tool; it's additionally the carrier of culture and signs of identity. Moon-faced with the resistance of English dominance, several non-English speaking countries could feel helpless, and should additionally feel troubled regarding the culture invasion brought by English dominance. Though the impact brought by English dominance is invisible and intangible, they so exist and can’t be modified during a short time. Different same that even the present things of using English than any others native languages shows that there's a cultural imperialism that is the continuation of colonial policy, however the means that is comparatively civilized up dated. Particularly for those minority languages, the dominance of English may be devastating, and it's going to even mean for death of some language, culture and identity. The death of language has been existing from the traditional time; however, the matter is currently on a daily basis its scale is greater and speed faster.

In Ethiopia, English has been educated as a theme for college kids beginning in elementary school since 1994, once a new education policy was enforced. Additionally, most universities in Ethiopia use English as the language of instruction as a result of 90 p.c of educational resources we have a tendency to get in Ethiopia return from the West and this can be virtually done in English, Bogale (2009). Thus, English is often considered the language of world, and thus, English proficiency may be a necessity for achievement at the tertiary level. However, Bogale, exploitation qualitative analysis ends up in many regions of Ethiopia, argues that inconsistent teaching practices and below resourced academics build the effectiveness of English acquisition within the younger grades typically inconsistent. These inconsistencies will build success within the higher levels of college harder for students, as a result of they are doing not have English language skills necessary to succeed. Despite these challenges, Bogale reports that population surveys reveal that each student and their oldsters acknowledge English as the language of education. During this sense, there's a powerful shared understanding of the importance of English acquisition (Bogale, 2009).

Ethiopia, one among the oldest independent nations that have its well-developed language of Amharic, additionally has used English as a language of instruction at high faculties and postsecondary colleges since fashionable education started within the country after 1920. What makes the Ethiopian use of English distinctive is that as a number of literatures aforementioned, as an example in Oromia region English was given as a second language from grades one to eight, and once students transfer to grade 9 and higher than, the language of instruction are changed to English and this can be continued all the way to schools and universities whereas Ethiopia’s working language remains Amharic. On the opposite hand, this caused for low educational performances of scholars at school (ibid).

In order to determine whether or not English may be a killer language or not, we've got to look at language death generally. Whenever the language of a dominant nation is introduced into a less powerful society, the native population might regard the new language as additional prestigious than their native tongue (i.e., people that speak the previous fluently have additional access to authority) and thus bit by bit turn bilingual. The country’s native language is in time abandoned or incorporated into the foreign one that's English. Further, ‘the minority language then, becomes applicable to be used in fewer and fewer contexts, till it's entirely supplanted by the incoming language and also the minority language then shift or the act of dying are happening within the future.

Food Style

The main foods of Oromos are animal product like, Foon (meat), Aanan (milk), Baadu (cheese), Dhadhaa (butter), and cereals that are consumed as Marqaa (porridge) and Biddeena (bread). Oromos drink occasional, Daadhii (honey wine), and Oromoo learn Faarso (beer) from Western civilization and Cigarettes. Some Oromo are chew chat (a stimulant leaf).

The special dish of Oromos is Ittoo (made with meat or chicken, spices, hot pepper, and different ingredients) and Biddeena bread (made from xaafi or millet). typically, Mariqaa or Qincee (made from barley) is consumed for breakfast. Ancootee (a food made of the roots of bound plants) could be a special food in some components of western Oromia.

More of literature said concerning impact of western on food style, they aforementioned that the intake sorts of Ethiopian societies are dynamical because of Westernization. By cultures most Ethiopians were consumed organic food than inorganic that are costly and genetically changed foods that are foreign. On the opposite hand, intake a lot of cultural diets rather than high-priced and genetically changed foods that clean foreign is healthily important. Additionally, a rise on consumption of Ethiopian cultural foods can change state and increase international interchange such commodities, and therefore serving to economically empower Ethiopian individuals.

Many Ethiopians are waved with western food style like pizzas and burgers that weren't legendary in culture. Currently a day’s Ethiopian individuals like better to eat pizza pie than Injera and drink different alcohol and drinkable than water. Generally, the foremost common and cultured food habits had been dynamical to western cultures because of the impact of Westernization.

Religion and History

Religious Beliefs. There has been spiritual freedom for hundreds of years in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is that the oldest sub-Saharan African church, and therefore the 1st masjid in continent was inbuilt the Tigre province. Christianity and Islam have coexisted peacefully for many years, and therefore the Christian kings of Ethiopia gave Muhammad refuge throughout his abuse in southern Arabian Peninsula, inflicting the Prophet to declare Ethiopia exempt from Muslim holy wars. It's not uncommon for Christians and Muslims to go to every other's house of worship to hunt health or prosperity.

Oromos acknowledge the existence of a God or Creator that they call Waaqa. They have 3 major religions: Original Oromo religion (Waaqa), Islam, and Christianity.

The Original faith sees the human, spiritual, and physical worlds as interconnected, with their existence and functions dominated by Waaqa. Through every person's Ayyaana (spiritual connection), Waaqa acts within the person's life. 3 Oromo ideas justify the organization and affiliation of human, spiritual, and physical worlds: Ayyaana, uuma (nature), and Safuu (the moral and ethical code).

Uuma includes everything created by Waaqa, together with Ayyaana. Safuu could be an ethical and ethical code that Oromos use to inform unhealthy from good and wrong from right. The Oromo spiritual establishment, or Qaallu, is that the center of the Oromo religion. Qaallu leaders traditionally compete necessary spiritual roles in Oromo society. The Ethiopian colonizers tried to ban the Oromo system of thought by eliminating Oromo cultural consultants like the raaga (Oromo prophets), the Ayyaantuu (time reckoners), and oral historians.


Ethiopia has to keep up its culture because of its goodness and richness since ancient times. For instances, Ethiopian culture is good regarding sex except the silence about it. Women should be faithful to their husbands, and only opposite sexes should marry each other. But women should not do sex with many people like that of the Western women and young girls should remain virgin until they marry to their permanent husbands as it is normal in culture. These days, it is risky to do sex with many people. Girls are victim in this regard. They may get pregnant, infected with HIV and other sexual transmitted disease. They need to be cautious about this. It is better to value virginity, sticking to the old tradition of our society.


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Received: 09-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-10882; Editor assigned: 11-Jan-2022, PreQC No. AMSJ-22-10882(PQ); Reviewed: 25-Jan-2022, QC No. AMSJ-28-10882; Revised: 27-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-10882(R); Published: 29-Jan-2022

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