Review Article: 2023 Vol: 27 Issue: 3
Prabha Kiran, Westminster International University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Rumki Bandyopadhyay, KK University, Nalanda, Bihar
Puja Chhabra Sharma, Gurugram University
M.R. Vanithamani, Karpagam College of Engineering
Monika Gadre, Dr Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University
Gautam Bapat, Dr Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University
Citation Information: Kiran, P., Bandyopadhyay, R., Sharma, P.C., Vanithamani, M.R., Gadre, M., & Bapat, G. (2023). The impact of social media marketing use towards the psychological well-being of university students. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 27(3), 1-9.
Purpose-Fears regarding the effects of social media marketing on users' mental health have emerged in tandem with the phenomenon's meteoric surge in popularity. “This paper’s main objective is to shed light on the effect of social media marketing use on psychological well-being.” Incorporating insights from other areas of research, it offers a more in-depth examination of the phenomena by focusing on a variety of moderators, such as different forms of social capital (such as bonding and bridging social capital), social isolation, and smartphone dependence. Methodology- The report comprises a quantitative analysis utilising structural equation modelling (SEM) on a sample of 433 social media users who are students from the Delhi/National Capital Region. Findings- The results suggest that social media marketing use has a favourable indirect effect on mental health, most likely as a result of the benefits gained from increased social capital through connecting and bridging. Social implications-Practitioners interested in mitigating the harmful effects of social media marketing use on mental health would do well to take note of these results. Negative effects on mental health have been linked to social media marketing use, such as smartphone addiction and social isolation. However, these effects may be mitigated if social media marketing promotes and facilitates relationships with both strong and weak ties. Originality-This work helps to resolve the contradictions identified thus far in the literature by providing actual evidence and robust statistical analysis showing that both positive and negative impacts coexist.
Marketing, Psychological, Students, Social, Media, Users.
“The use of social media marketing has grown substantially in recent years. Social media marketing refers to “the websites and online tools that facilitate interactions between users by providing them opportunities to share information, opinions, and interest.” In addition to these more obvious uses, people often use social media marketing for other purposes, such as networking and gathering information (Fashmitha, 2021). The time that teenagers and young people spend using social networking sites, electronic gaming, texting, and other forms of online and mobile communication is growing steadily. Some authors have even claimed that social media marketing has changed the ways in which people engage with one another in groups and the ways in which they act as individuals and as a community all over the world (Pütter, 2017).
And thus, there's been a rise in concern about the mental health consequences of too much time spent on social media. It has been noted by a number of authors that an individual's excessive use of social media marketing , driven mostly by FOMO (fear of missing out), can lead to smartphone addiction (Varghese & Agrawal, 2022). Anxiety, loneliness, and sadness, as well as "phubbing," the practise of using or being distracted by a smartphone during in-person conversations, have all been linked to heavy social media use (Goyal, 2018).
Use of social media marketing, on the other hand, helps users feel more connected to people in their lives, which may help mitigate the effects of social isolation. Indeed, social media offers a number of channels for communicating with both strong (i.e., blood) and weak (i.e., work) relationships (e.g., acquaintances, acquaintances at work, and complete strangers) (Murtaza, et al. 2021). Thus, there are growing numbers of studies emphasizing the positive aspects of social media marketing as a new form of communication despite concerns about the potential detrimental effects of social media marketing use on well-being, highlighting how it can help one establish themselves in the world, build relationships, and exchange ideas with others, all of which may have a positive effect on one's social support system. Intriguingly, new research suggests that the effect of smartphone use on users' mental health varies with the time spent using different kinds of apps and the kinds of things they do when using them (Voramontri & Klieb, 2019).
Social Media Marketing
Social media marketing (SMM) (also known as digital marketing and e-marketing) is the use of social media—the platforms on which users build social networks and share information—to build a company's brand, increase sales, and drive website traffic. In addition to providing companies with a way to engage with existing customers and reach new ones, social media marketing (SMM) has purpose-built data analytics that allow marketers to track the success of their efforts and identify even more ways to engage.”
In terms of how social media marketing affects its users, the literature gives conflicting signals, stressing both potential harmful effects and positive social enhancement (Hajek & König, 2021). “This study argues, in accordance with views on the necessity to further investigate social media marketing usage, particularly regarding its societal ramifications, that it is vital to further understand the influence of the time spent on social media marketing on users' psychological well-being (Jordan & Troth, 2020).”
This paper takes on social capital theory as a lens to examine the topic from a variety of angles. Previous research has utilized social capital theory to examine how frequently using social media influences one's mental health (Abbas & Mesch, 2018). While statistically acceptable, the models of connections offered in the existing literature so far are incomplete and whereas they do help shed light on the breadth of social networks, the framework presented in this research offers a more complete picture of the phenomena(Pang, 2018). Furthermore, the divergent opinions, indicating both beneficial and harmful effects of social media on mental health, have not been well investigated (Li & Chen, 2014).
In the first place, it expands on previous research on the impact of social media on mental health and investigates the conflicting signals produced by various methods(Holliman et al., 2021). Second, it suggests a theoretical framework for studying the direct and indirect results of social media participation (Madaan & Singh, 2019). Third, it helps clarify discrepancies in the literature by providing empirical evidence and strong statistical analysis to support the idea that positive and negative impacts coexist (Ostic et al., 2021). Finally, this research offers suggestions for mitigating any negative consequences of social media use by showing how this type of usage enhances social capital and, by extension, one's sense of psychological well-being (Jeong, et al. 2016; Jiao, et al. 2017; Kircaburun, et al. 2020; Mou, et al. 2017).
The primary goal of this work is to fill this knowledge vacuum by providing evidence that social media marketing use negatively impacts mental health. In the following section, we'll discuss how the article investigates “the mediating role of bonding and bridging social capital. To give a whole picture, it also takes into account factors like smartphone addiction, social isolation, and phubbing, which have been shown to have an impact on the correlation between social media use and mental health in other studies. In this paper, we use structural equation modelling (SEM) to assess a set of research hypotheses based on the results of a quantitative study of 433 social media marketing users who are also students in the Delhi/NCR area.”
Objectives of the Study
• To identify factors that impacts the use of social media marketing and thereby influences the psychological well-being of students.
• To quantitatively assess the impact of social media marketing use towards the psychological well-being of students
Hypothesis of the Study
H1: Use of social media marketing is strongly influenced from isolation at social domain.
H2: Use of social media marketing is strongly influenced from social capital at bonding level.
H3: Use of social media marketing is strongly influenced from addiction of smart phone.
H4: Use of social media marketing is strongly influenced from social capital at bridging level.
H5: Use of social media marketing is strongly influenced from psychological well-being.
H6: Use of social media marketing is strongly influenced from phubbing.
H7: Psychological well-being is strongly influenced from phubbing.
Students from several Delhi/National Capital Region (NCR) universities were chosen at random for this study. Because of these factors, we decided to recruit individuals from colleges and universities. Before everything else, it is generally agreed that students provide the best sample for research into e-commerce and social media marketing. Second, it's widely assumed that college students have a serious smartphone addiction. Third, this research made sure that the people who participated were knowledgeable about the risks associated with social media and smartphone addiction. Due to time and money restrictions, a convenience random sampling strategy was used to narrow the pool of potential participants from 500 to 433 university students in the Delhi/National Capital Region. In addition, a quantitative empirical study was done to test the model; data was gathered using an online survey. The conceptual model also framed(Figure 1):
Table 1 documented the measurement summary of factor loadings, Cronbach Alpha, Composite Reliability and Average Variance Explained. The entire values of the constructs in case of Cronbach Alpha are greater than .60. Which is greater than the acceptable threshold limit of CA? Therefore, internal consistency among the constructs is present. In case of Composite Reliability entire constructs estimated value is greater than .70. Therefore, again internal consistency is found. In case of factor loadings, entire statements’ value is greater than .60. Which is acceptable? In case of Average Variance explained, the entire constructs value is greater than .50. Therefore, further SEM (figure 2) can be performed.
|Constructs||Statements under study||Factor
|Cronbach Alpha||Composite Reliability||Average Variance Explained|
|Isolation at social domain||Nobody is available to play with me.
Being around other people makes me feel uncomfortable.
I can't rely on anyone”
|Social Capital at bonding level||My interactions with others have led me to; I am able to keep up with current events and fashions with relative ease.
The more people I talk to, the more I want to know about the world beyond my own.
I'm happy to volunteer my time for community events and causes.
Sometimes I meet folks who are completely different from me.
|Smartphone addiction||The constant buzz of my phone is never far from my ears.
My phone is my stress reliever.
When I make an effort to limit my cell phone usage, I get antsy or impatient.
No matter how hard I try, I just can't put down my phone for more than a second.
As a result, I find it difficult to limit my usage of mobile devices.
|Social Capital at bridging level||The happenings in my online network fascinate me.
The people in my online social network make me happy.
Interacting with people on social media makes me want to try new things
Being socially active on the internet has given me a sense of belonging to a worldwide group.”
|Phubbing||“Disagreements arise while I am on the phone with other people.
I'd rather pay attention to my phone and engage in conversation with them.”
|Psychological well-being||“Thanks to social media, I have a fulfilling and meaningful existence.
My online friendships are encouraging and fruitful.
My day-to-day social media activities keep me interested and involved.
I try to make other people's lives better and brighter through my posts on social media.
With the help of social media, I have hope for the future.
|Use of social media marketing||In my daily life, I use social media.
I can no longer imagine my life without my social media.
When I don't check my social media accounts for a few days, I start to feel disconnected from the world.
That's why the end of social media would make me sad.”
Table 2 stated the correlation matrix and found the entire constructs understudy are positively correlated with each other. “Social media marketing use is positively correlated with social isolation, bonding social capital, bridging social capital, smartphone addiction, phubbing, psychological well-being.” Likewise, entire constructs are positively correlated with each other.
|Bonding social capital||0.565||0.899|
|Bridging social capital||0.023||0.243||0.121|
|Social media marketing use||0.223||0.440||0.174||0.343||0.244||0.256||0.675|
Table 3 tests the hypothesis and stated that in all the cases of correlation the structured equation modeling is fit and accepted. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected in all cases and alternative hypothesis are accepted.
|S.No.||Association among constructs understudy||Coefficient of path||Standard deviation||Estimated value of t||Decision|
|H1a||Use of social media marketing → social capital at bonding level||−0.051||0.027||20.953*||Fit|
|H1b||social capital at bonding level → Psychological well-being||0.223||0.029||4.985*||Fit|
|H2a||Use of social media marketing → social capital at bridging level||−0.068||0.025||2.010*||Fit|
|H2b||social capital at bridging level → Psychological well-being||0.244||0.027||6.241*||Fit|
|H3a||Use of social media marketing → isolation at social front||0.234||0.029||4.985*||Fit|
|H3b||isolation at social front → Psychological well-being||−0.051||0.025||2.010*||Fit|
|H4a||Use of social media marketing → addiction of smart phones||0.435||0.029||6.241*||Fit|
|H4b||addiction of smart phones → Psychological well-being||−0.987||0.025||2.387*||Fit|
|H5||addiction of smart phones → Phubbing||0.123||0.036||7.555*||Fit|
|H6||Phubbing → Psychological well-being”||0.235||0.028||4.938*||Fit|
|H7a||Use of social media marketing → social capital at bonding level → Psychological well-being||0.332||0.032||20.953*||Fit|
|H7b||Use of social media marketing → social capital at bridging level → Psychological well-being||0.127||0.031||4.985*||Fit|
|H7c||Use of social media marketing → Isolation at social front → Psychological well-being||0.439||0.028||2.010*||Fit|
|H7d||Use of social media marketing → addiction of smart phones → Psychological well-being||0.561||0.027||6.241*||Fit|
While interesting, this study does have some restrictions. This study, for instance, employed a convenience sampling method to interview a sizable sample of participants. The results can only be extrapolated so far because the research was only done in the Delhi/National Capital Region; Therefore, it is important for future studies to take a cross-cultural approach to examining the effects of social media use on mental health and the mediating function of hypothesized constructs (e.g., “bonding and bridging social capital, social isolation, and smartphone addiction”). Respondents tended to be educated and female, which might be seen as a flaw in the study's sample distribution. While online surveys might be a convenient way to reach people who use social media, the fact that this study used one does not prove that the participants are truly representative of the public at large. As a result, it is important to be cautious when extrapolating the results and to consider conducting the study again, preferably with social media marketing users from different countries and cultural backgrounds. Students at a university in Delhi/NCR were surveyed for this study. Most of the respondents were educated women; This means that the results are a snapshot in time. However, the impact of social media use is growing due to COVID-19 worldwide, and it is highly unpredictable over time.
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Received: 18-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-13159; Editor assigned: 19-Jan-2023, PreQC No. AMSJ-22-13159(PQ); Reviewed: 25-Feb-2023, QC No. AMSJ-22-13042; Revised: 10-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AMSJ-22-13159(R); Published: 12-Mar-2023