Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 3S

The Theoretical Comparative Analysis on Digital Women Entrepreneurship

Prerna Katoch, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University

Syeda Shazia Bukhari, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University

Citation Information: Katoch, P., & Bukhari, S.S. (2021). The theoretical comparative analysis on digital women entrepreneurship. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 25(S3), 1-4.


The rise of digital entrepreneurship in developing markets is examined in this article. The author uses the idea of institutional voids as our analytical lens since these economies lack a well-developed institutional structure. Social and women's entrepreneurship have become two rapidly rising areas of entrepreneurship study in recent years. Previous literature suggests that women are best suited to manage social ventures in the form of social entrepreneurship. However, the importance of gender in the field of social entrepreneurship is understudied, necessitating additional analysis, which is the focus of this report. We examine how women entrepreneurs participate in social entrepreneurship systems in unstable Base of the Pyramid environments using a multiple case study strategy involving four companies from two developing markets �?? India and South America. We explore the entrepreneurship journey and decision-making logics used at different levels of venture growth using the effectuation prism. Woman social entrepreneurs are strongly inspired to address social problems, according to the findings. During the business production stages, woman founders often exhibit a subtle transition between the two methods of cause and effectuation. This research focuses on the unique obstacles that women entrepreneurs face in developing markets, as well as the inclusive tactics they use to boost socioeconomic growth.


Social Entrepreneurship, Women Entrepreneurship, Inclusive Business Bop, Emerging Economies.


C. K. Prahalad invented the word Bottom/Base of the Pyramid (BoP) and was one of the first scholars to recognize the economic promise of developing markets' large rural and impoverished populations (Prahalad, 2005). The growing relevance of developing markets and the BoP population has drawn the attention of researchers and practitioners all over the world since then. Social enterprise and inclusive growth are two concepts that have gained traction as main forces for creating and introducing innovative technologies and resources that have the ability to engage vulnerable and marginalized members of society (Bruton et al., 2015; George et al., 2012). In order to allow disadvantaged communities to engage not only as potential consumers, but also as providers and manufacturers, social entrepreneurs targeting developing markets use inclusive techniques such as the development of work openings, as well as the enhancement of skills and productivity (Heeks et al., 2014; Kahle et al., 2013).

As a result, this report seeks to explore the entrepreneurship trajectory of women entrepreneurs as they navigate through the complexities of developing markets in order to promote research on women entrepreneurs in developed economies. This thesis specifically answers the research issue, how can women participate in the social entrepreneurship phase in a BoP world that is uncertain?

The research uses a multiple case study method to examine four social ventures established by women entrepreneurs in South America and India. FTSE has classified both of these countries as attractive emerging markets (FTSE Country Classification, 2018). Furthermore, the healthcare field was chosen for the analysis because of its strong links to socioeconomic growth and poverty reduction (Rosca et al. 2018; Prabhu & Jain, 2015). All four of the selected cases are in various stages of growth and were created by local women. The local element was deemed significant because it was more likely to reflect the emergence of new opportunities, as opposed to cases where multinational entrepreneurs working far away from the field often outsourced the consumer-facing functions to locally rooted organizations (Duke, 2016).

Objectives of Research

The research objectifies study the socio-economic environment affecting the women entrepreneurship with the identification of the motivators for women entrepreneurship in the digital era. And the study also claims the opportunities and challenges faced by women entrepreneur in Table 1.

Table 1 Recent Literature Reviews on Women Entrepreneurship.
Authors (Year) Identified Research Gaps
Gundry et al. (2002) Cross-comparison studies in different sectors, industries, cultures are needed, particularly research that explores women entrepreneurship in emerging markets.
Bruin et al. (2007) There is a need to explore the unfamiliar contexts of transitioning/developing economies.
Vita et al. (2013) Significant amount of research has been focused on the analysis of characteristics of women entrepreneurs in developed markets.
Yadav and Unni (2016) Studies are restricted within national boundaries mostly in developed countries. Transnational studies are required for further enrichment of the field.
Moreira et al. (2019) The current understanding is primarily based on Western settings and might not be true for women entrepreneurship in developing countries and hence this needs further exploration.

Persistence (George et al. 2012; Si et al. 2015).

Research Strategy

A numerous case study concept methodology is used to resolve the analysis goal. The case study method is particularly well suited to research streams in the early stages of growth, as well as research questions involving the words how and why (Yin, 2003). Individual women-led businesses and the concrete actions and events taken during the entrepreneurship path from company initiation to the most recent level are the unit of study. The chosen architecture allows for a thorough analysis of the venture production processes as well as a thorough examination of qualitative data for each scenario (Eisenhardt, 1989). The use of a multiple case study design in two separate institutional settings in emerging markets is beneficial since it allows for a contrast of different methods used by women entrepreneurs to develop social influence by economically sustainable businesses in turbulent institutional settings. We selected two projects from two separate emerging economic areas in one sector to meet the criterion for selecting special instances (Yin, 2003) that can be expanded later.

Theoretical Contributions

In many areas, our thesis relates to the area of entrepreneurship and gender research. We extend effectuation theory by showing how female social entrepreneurs switch between effectuation and causation logics at various stages of venture growth, resulting in inclusiveness at the usage and impact levels. Women entrepreneurs begin with causation, then move on to formulation and resource acquisition, before returning to causation for scaling up. Women social entrepreneurs are inspired by the need to solve a pressing challenge that they have personally encountered. As a result, they begin with a strong desire to solve a particular challenge, just like conventional entrepreneurs. In comparison to conventional entrepreneurs, female social entrepreneurs in developing markets use the effectuation logic to seize every opportunity. They begin with a small range of resources, which are often constrained by resource limitations, and rely on low-cost loss, strategic alliances, and collaborations in order to grow and commercialize the commodity, leverage environmental contingencies, and try to control an uncertain future (Perry et al., 2011). This agrees with Becker et al. (2015), who contend that a linear entrepreneurship model is not the norm; rather, a concurrent and sequential growth process is the norm.

In addition, this study adds to the limited literature on female entrepreneurship in the developing world by providing detailed insights into the enablers and obstacles for women social entrepreneurs. One important finding is that women entrepreneurs are overwhelmingly inspired by social issues that they are passionate about. They are less affected by external forces (such as finances) and are more connected to the cause than male entrepreneurs. Personal networks and family support play a major role in deciding their effectiveness, according to Lindvert et al. (2017). This is particularly relevant in BOP settings, where negotiating governmental procedures and obtaining financial aid from traditional sources is difficult owing to women's low status. Our results, which contribute to the body of knowledge on women's entrepreneurship journeys in developing markets, indicate that the emphasis and versatility was placed on identifying revenue sources and distribution platforms rather than product creation. Defining an open and reliable delivery channel is a top priority for these entrepreneurs in developing markets, where connectivity is the biggest problem for the BoP population. Working with locals or providing products/services across distribution networks has a good effect. Women entrepreneurs often concentrate on developing a local environment in order to improve societal growth. Mutual value generation, as a central value of the collaborative network, is critical for achieving successful corporate, business, and social outcomes. Other research, such as Moreira et al. (2019) and Bruin et al. (2019), have called for a more comprehensive view of the fostering forces of female entrepreneurship in emerging markets (2007).

This study also establishes a connection between women's entrepreneurship and poverty reduction. Scholars also stressed the importance of including locals at all levels in the supply chain in order to drive socioeconomic growth in the poorest parts of society (Knorringa et al., 2016; George et al., 2012). On the one side, this research demonstrates how women entrepreneurs use inclusive tactics, especially during the opportunity abuse stage, such as coordinating education and training camps, providing job openings, and establishing a local ecosystem. In the other side, it seems that real BOP buyers are just a minor part of the product production process. Women social entrepreneurs take a top-down strategy, with little chances for BoP consumers to participate in co-creation. Furthermore, the findings show that, regardless of the venture's stage of growth, all four cases could only achieve a certain degree of inclusiveness, as described by Heeks et al. (2014). Is there a similar barrier for female social entrepreneurs? This is an open topic that merits more study.


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