Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Review Article: 2024 Vol: 28 Issue: 2S

Unraveling the Mediating Impact of Uncivil Behaviour on Employee Commitment & Self-Efficacy: Marketing Strategies to Mitigate Workplace Incivility among Indian Academicians

Ekta Jain, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan

Charu Dhankar, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan

Kriti Vashishtha, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan

Citation Information: Jain, E., Dhankar, C., & Vashishtha, K. (2024). Unraveling the mediating impact of uncivil behaviour on employee commitment & self-efficacy: marketing strategies to mitigate workplace incivility among indian academicians. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 28(S2), 1-12.


The purpose of this study is to investigate how uncivil behavior in the workplace affects an employee's level of commitment to their organization, in comparison to their level of self- efficacy. Additionally, the research explores effective marketing strategies to address and mitigate workplace incivility. Several important factors can influence the transition from being a self-sufficient employee to becoming a committed one, and uncivil behavior can play a role in mediating this transition. The study took a quantitative approach and collected primary responses from 300 academicians in India who had been working for a minimum 2 years. Although self-efficacy is important for achieving high productivity in the workplace, the direct relationship between self-efficacy and organizational commitment was found to be insignificant, but the inclusion of the mediator i.e., uncivil workplace behaviour generates a significant impact of the predictor in the dependent variable. This shows that there is a full mediation generated by the variable of uncivil workplace behaviour on the relationship between self-efficacy and organizational commitment. Overall, the indirect effect of uncivil behavior on the relationship between self-efficacy and organizational commitment is significant, accounting for 90.94% of the mediation.


Uncivil Behaviour; Organizational Commitment; Behaviour; Academicians; Self-Efficacy; Marketing Strategies.


The strength of any community is in its teachers. Because of their imperial and delicate enhancement in nation building, teachers play a crucial role in the advancement of any community. Every single member of society is created and molded by the generosity of instructors. The limitations of the teachers dictate the elements of education. Because of this, instructors are seen as an essential component of every educational system. The teacher is the foundation of the educational system. The caliber of teachers is the single biggest indicator of whether education is growing or declining. Therefore, teacher educators face many challengeable tasks in life and in professional career for developing the teachers and during this phase, they face lots of stress in their professional part. The demands of the educational institutions increase the workload, role ambiguity, of the teacher educators, for filling the demands. They have uncongenial working conditions, lack of job commitment, lack of self- efficacy, very low salaries, and no scope for professional development.

Workplace behavior is a crucial attribute that is sought after in any industry as maintaining a level of harmony and amicability among employees that can enhance effectiveness at work. Several research studies have identified negative impacts of workplace incivility on decreasing levels of self-efficacy. While the examination of various aspects of workplace behavior has been studied before in literature, this study aims to find the relation between workplace incivility, self-efficacy, and organizational commitment.


Self-efficacy is the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action Required to manage prospective situations.” (Bandura & Walters, 1963). Self-efficacy is defined as a person's confidence in their own capacity to perform activities or succeed in particular circumstances. Bandura (1986) established the idea of self-efficacy in his social cognitive theory. With the use of self-efficacy theory,(Bandura, 1999) outlined the benefits of self-efficacy. According to this theory, those who exhibit self-efficacy traits are more task-oriented and persistent in the face of challenges. Self-efficacy in the context of education refers to instructors' ability to behave effectively and positively in the classroom. Based on behaviour that could affect the organization's long- term, ongoing progress, performance, and the effectiveness of the teacher can be assessed.

Since self-efficacy is domain-specific, it might differ in many spheres of life. An individual might, for instance, have great self-efficacy for academic activities but poor self- efficacy for social ones. These perceptions are impacted by four main information sources:

• Experiences with mastery: Self-efficacy is significantly influenced by individual successes and accomplishments. When a task is successfully performed, self-efficacy rises; conversely when failures or setbacks occur, it falls.

• Vicarious experiences: One's own self-efficacy may be affected by witnessing others win or fail in similar situations. Seeing someone succeed who is similar to oneself can boost self-efficacy, whereas seeing someone fail can lower it.

• Social persuasion: Others' approval, rebuke, and encouragement can affect one's sense of self-efficacy. Constructive criticism can boost self-efficacy, whilst demoralizing remarks can lower it.

• Physical and emotional states: One's level of self-efficacy may be impacted by stress or concern. High levels of stress or anxiety can lower self-efficacy, but serene, optimistic emotional states might raise it.

"Behaviour is judged with the help of perceived self-efficacy (an individual view point about his skills) over original successes," according to (Pajares, 2002)). Self- efficacy defines how an individual uses their skills and expertise. The apparent self- efficacy resulting from actual talents is quite different from attitude. While some people are overconfident about what they can accomplish despite having qualifications and knowledge of the abilities, other successful people may have extreme self-doubt for a little period but are still more than capable of accomplishing and excelling at the work set to them. These are issues with beliefs about self-efficacy and self-concept (or self-esteem). But the two locations stand for quite distinct self-beliefs and very different things. "Beliefs in one's own capacity are what self-efficacy is all about; they are assessments of one's capacity to carry out specific activities. Self-efficacy is, in other words, a context-specific evaluation of one's capacity to carry out a particular task or set of tasks in a certain domain. Examples of standard self-efficacy claims include: "I am confident that I can write an essay without making any spelling mistakes." I know I can figure out those math issues. Frame of reference effects do not significantly influence self-efficacy judgements since they are focused on the specific ability to complete the important task (Bandura, 1999).

Figure 1 The Conceptual Model

Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment demonstrated that maintaining a high level of organizational commitment is one of the most important predictors of many desirable organizational outcomes. It is also widely accepted that committed employees work harder and they are more likely to exert an extra effort to achieve organizational objectives.” (Meyer&Allen, 2004).

Our world is made up of various organizations. Organizations of all kinds, whether they are formal or informal, long or short, economic, religious, governmental, educational, social, and political, have an impact on us. Organizations are the social structure, and inside them, social laws control all of the actions.

Schools, colleges, universities, fall under the category of educational institutions, which can also be referred to as organizations or social systems set up to accomplish particular objectives. An essential factor influencing how an employee behaves towards his employer is organizational commitment. It is the employees' commitment to the company's goals, strategies, practices, morals, and philosophy. Identification of a person with the position is a sign of organizational commitment. The traditional notion of commitment is expanded upon by organizational commitment. It demonstrates the staff's larger spectrum of active devotion to the company. It is hoped that faculty will contribute their individual viewpoints to the organization's success. Organizational commitment of the teachers means commitment and involvement of the teachers to the institution. It shows the dedicative participation and interest of the teachers in institutional tasks for the all-round development of the institution. Hence it directly relates to the accomplishment of educational or organizational goals. It implies identification of the teachers with the profession. Developing the commitment toward institution among the teacher educators is important because the faculty which shows more commitment spends more time in the institution and give active participation in completion of work. Teacher educators who are less committed to their organization are likely to show less interest in their classes, as compared to other teachers. It affect the process of teaching and learning, lack of commitment is also responsible for the highest turnover, they did not take part in research work, not enhancing teaching skills, and toward their experiences at jobs.

Dimensions of Organizational Commitment

Affective Commitment: - The term "employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization" is used to describe affective commitment. Employee makes this commitment to the company out of personal motivation. The demographic parameters that can influence this commitment include age, work tenure, sex, and education, but they are neither significant nor consistent. Although these features are visible, it is difficult to characterize them precisely. (Solinger et al., 2008)

Normative Commitment: - This is the staff's promise to remain with a company out of duty. Employees continue to work for the company because they believe it to be morally and ethically correct. The need to make up for the abuse they received from their school may be the reason why teachers with high levels of normative commitment continue to work for the organization/school. (Cohen, 2007; Mathieu & Zajac, 1990)

Continuance Commitment: -It is the understanding of the costs involved in quitting the organization. Employees or teachers who believe that quitting their employer or school would be more expensive and who must therefore stay due of financial obligations. Others work for the company because they have no other options (Meyer & Allen, 2004). Therefore, CC entails calculating the cost of leaving the company or a worker's evaluation of the investment made in the company.

Workplace Incivility

Incivility as a minor form of mistreatment that can significantly affect an employee’s attitudes and behaviour towards the organization” (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). In today's rapidly evolving work environment, understanding the factors that influence employee commitment to their organization has become a critical area of research. One such factor is uncivil behavior in the workplace, which encompasses a wide range of disrespectful, rude, and aggressive interactions between colleagues. Uncivil behavior not only affects the individuals involved but also has the potential to ripple through the entire organization, impacting employee well-being, job satisfaction, and ultimately, their commitment to the organization.

Incivility in academia can manifest in various forms, such as disrespectful communication, belittling comments, exclusionary behavior, or undermining colleagues' work and accomplishments.

Understanding how uncivil behavior and self-efficacy influence employee commitment can provide valuable insights into the complex dynamics within organizations. High levels of uncivil behavior can create a toxic work environment, eroding trust, and damaging relationships. This, in turn, can negatively impact an employee's psychological state, leading to reduced commitment to the organization. On the other hand, self-efficacy has been associated with increased resilience, motivation, and overall job satisfaction, all of which can contribute to higher levels of commitment.

Dimensions of Workplace Incivility

Hostility: - refers to acts of aggression, intimidation, or threats directed towards others in the workplace. This can include yelling, personal attacks, physical confrontations, or creating a hostile work environment through constant hostility and tension.

Privacy Invasion: - It occurs when someone deliberately intrudes upon an individual's personal space or violates their privacy rights in the workplace. This can involve unauthorized access to personal information, reading someone's emails or messages without permission, or spreading personal or confidential information without consent.

Exclusionary behaviour:- involves intentionally leaving certain individuals or groups out of work-related activities, social gatherings, or decision-making processes. This can create feelings of isolation, marginalization, and a sense of not being valued within the organization.

Gossiping: - is the act of spreading rumors, discussing others' personal matters, or engaging in negative conversations about colleagues behind their backs. It can create a toxic work environment, erode trust among team members, and damage professional relationships.

Operational Definitions

Self-efficacy: - these are the abilities of the teacher educators which motivate them to maintain position at their occupation.

Organizational commitment: - it is the attachment of teacher educators towards the institution, which makes them to feel satisfied under the prevailing working conditions and which reduce the turnover of the organization.

Workplace incivility: - it is the rude or bad behaviour that is perceived or faced by the academicians in the institution.

The study aims to analyze the role of uncivil workplace behavior in the transition from being self-sufficient to becoming a committed employee, with uncivil behavior acting as a mediator in this process. The study will employ statistical tools and primary data to establish the exact relationship among the three concepts. The research questions addressed are:

(1) Does uncivil workplace behavior significantly contribute to the transition from being self-sufficient to becoming a committed employee?

(2) What is the level of impact that uncivil behavior has on this transitioning process? The study will undertake a systematic approach to answer these questions, and the next section will present a detailed literature review of the current body of knowledge.

Review of Literature

(Adil et al., 2020) studied uncivil behaviour at the workplace, examining the role of organizational support and self-efficacy as mediators. The study involved 212 participants and used structural equation modelling to analyze the results. The findings showed that organizational support affects work engagement, while incivility at the workplace has a minimal impact on work involvement. The study also found that employees with higher levels of creative self-efficacy are more engaged in their work.

(Irum et al., 2020) investigated “the relationship between workplace incivility and knowledge hiding”. The study found that incivility generates negative emotions in the victim, leading to knowledge hiding, employee mistreatment, disrespectful behaviour, and incivility (Guo & Qiu, 2019) investigated “the impact of workplace incivility and insider status on affective organizational commitment among employees of Chinese Universities”. The study involved 417 participants and used regression analysis to analyze the results. The findings indicated that “affective organizational commitment mediated the relationship between workplace incivility and organizational identification.”

(Jha & Sud, 2021) investigated “the impact of abusive supervision on subordinates' work and proposed a framework to highlight the consequences of such actions”. The study suggested that abusive supervision can lead to uncivil behaviour at the workplace and create a politically charged and unjust work environment.

In a study conducted by (Loi et al., 2021) about uncivil workplace behaviour, emotional intelligence, and its influence on the behaviour of managers were investigated. The study involved 113 managers who completed a survey, and the results showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with indulging in uncivil behaviour. Negative emotions were found to increase the likelihood of engaging in uncivil behaviour. Thus, emotional intelligence was identified as a factor associated with uncivil behaviour at the workplace.

(Luthans et al., 2006) found that employees who have a high self-efficacy level are more dedicated towards their company. Researchers (Tsai et al., 2011) showed that employees' self- efficacy had a considerable beneficial impact on organizational commitment.

(Murphy, 2013) examined “the relationship between teacher efficacy and organizational commitment” using a sample of 168 active special education teachers from across the state of Massachusetts. The findings revealed no connection between organizational commitment and teacher efficacy among Massachusetts' special education teachers. But the results showed a positive relationship between one's ongoing commitment and their own teaching effectiveness and a negative relationship between those two factors and their commitment to the norm. He does admit that how effective someone feels in their work environment affects their devotion to the firm.

(Taşkaya & Aksoy, 2021) explored incivility in the workplace among nursing professionals through bibliometric analysis. The study found that incivility is prevalent in nursing work environments, affecting productivity and employee health.

(Guo & Kumar, 2020) investigated how workplace rudeness affected organizational outcomes, using psychological capital as a mediating factor. The study's statistical examination of the findings revealed a detrimental effect of workplace rudeness on workers' organizational commitment. Additionally, there was a bad correlation between rudeness and psychological capital. However, it was discovered that psychological capital was positively correlated with organizational commitment and work satisfaction.


The results of the literature study highlight the need for more research into the issue of how uncivil behavior in the workplace affects an employee's level of commitment to their organization, in comparison to their level of self-efficacy. There is a need for greater research on academicians or university teachers even though studies have found a substantial association between teacher efficacy and commitment in the field of education (Hoy & Spero, 2005). Several studies have found that self-efficacy has a direct effect on organizational commitment. (Akhter et al., 2012; Law & Guo, 2016; Liu & Huang, 2019; Sinha et al., 2002) But there are very few studies that has been conducted on university teachers; all the studies have been conducted in companies, hospitals, schools, etc. There is no study which studies the mediating effect of uncivil behaviour on the relationship between self-efficacy and organizational commitment.

This study aims to contribute to the existing literature on incivility in the workplace by examining the Indian economy's growing academic sector. The study will focus on exploring the relationship between employees' general self-efficacy and their level of organizational commitment, and the mediating role of uncivil workplace behaviour.

Research Methodology

The study aims to use a quantitative approach to achieve its objectives in a systematic and unbiased manner.


1. To examine the relation between General Self-efficacy & organizational commitment.

2. To understand the impact of uncivil workplace behavior as a mediating factor on the relationship between General Self-efficacy & Organizational Commitment.


H1. There will be a no relationship between General Self-efficacy & Organizational Commitment among academicians in the growing economy of India.

H2. The relationship between General Self-efficacy & Organizational Commitment is significantly mediated by uncivil workplace behavior.

Tools used

Organizational commitment: - Developed by “Upinder Dhar, Prashant Mishra and D.K Srivastava in the year 2002”. It consists of 8 items. The reliability of the test is 0.60.(Dhar et al., 2002)

Self-efficacy: - The test was developed by “Matthias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer in the year 1995 ”. It consists of 10 items and is a self-report inventory. The reliability of the test is between 0.76 and 0.90.(Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995)

Uncivil Workplace behaviour Questionnaire: - Developed by “Martin and Hine in the year 2005”. It consists of 20 items. It is a 5-point Likert scale. The reliability of the test is 0.80. (Martin & Hine, 2005)

Sample Size and Sample Technique

The study's population includes individuals who have at least two years of teaching experience. Based on statistical requirements, 300 responses were collected using non- probabilistic methods such as judgment and convenience sampling.

Statistical Analysis

Mediation analysis and multiple linear regression will be primarily used to analyze the data and obtain the study's results.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

This section in the paper is dedicated towards providing a detailed data analysis and interpretation method using the SPSS platform. The scales and the relevant descriptive related to them are being provided in this section, however, the first step includes providing a representation of the demographics of the respondents used in the study Tables 1-8.

Table 1 Frequencies of Gender
Gender Counts %of Total Cumulative %
Female 144 48.0% 48.0%
Male 156 52.0% 100.0%
Table 2 Frequencies of Age (in Years)
Age (in years) Counts % of Total Cumulative %
25-34 192 64.0% 82.0%
35-44 66 22.0% 86.0%
45-54 42 14.0% 100.0%
Table 3 Frequencies of Educational Level
Educational Level Counts % of Total Cumulative %
Post graduate 96 32.0% 32.0%
Doctoral 204 68.0% 100.0%
Table 4 Frequencies of Marital Status
Marital Status Counts % of Total Cumulative %
Married 144 48.0% 48.0%
Unmarried 156 52.0% 100.0%
Table 5 Mediation Estimates
Effect Estimate SE Z P %Mediation
Indirect -0.7595 0.0767 -9.900 <.001 90.94
Direct 0.0757 0.0849 0.891 0.373 9.06
Total -0.6838 0.0874 -7.825 <.001 100.00
Table 6 Path Estimates
      Estimate SE Z P
Self-efficacy Uncivil Workplace Behaviour 0.5421 0.0401 13.520 <0.005
Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Organizational Commitment -0.14011 0.0964 -14.535 <0.005
Self-efficacy Organizational Commitment 0.0757 0.0849 0.891 0.373
Table 7 Independent Samples T-Test- Gender
    Statistic df P
Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Student’s t 5.67 298 <0.005
Self-efficacy Student’s t 6.16 298 <0.005
Organizational Commitment Student’s t -11.81 298 <0.005
Table 8 Independent Samples T-Test -Marital Status
    Statistic df P
Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Student’s t -11.14 298 <0.005
Self-efficacy Student’s t -9.29 298 <0.005
Organizational Commitment Student’s t 1.33 298 <0.005

The gender division of the academicians being investigated shows an almost equal division. There are 52% male and 48% female respondents considered.

The age group consist of majority respondents in the age group of 25-34 years with 64% while the second highest are from 35-44 years of age group.

The education level consists of two sections, one is the post graduate level with 32% of the respondents and the majority is of 68% from the Doctoral level of education.

Lastly, the marital status includes 48% of married, and the remaining 52% are unmarried. The above demographics have been considered with close representation of the actual scenario of academicians in the country.

The mediation model constructed below includes the self-efficacy parameter as the predictor variable, the organizational commitment as the dependent variable and the uncivil workplace behaviour as the mediator.

The above table clearly reflects that the direct effects of the relationship between self-efficacy and organizational commitment is not statistically significant with a p-value of more than 0.05. Hence it is concluded that high self-efficacy can have a diverse effect on the level of commitment of the academicians towards the organization. The indirect relationships however are found to be statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0.01.

The percent mediation shows a high degree with 90.94 percent mediation caused. Hence our H1 and H2 are proved correctly.

This table shows the path estimates across the variables and it is seen that while self-efficacy and organizational commitment do not have direct relationships similar results were seen by (Murphy, 2013) that among Massachusetts' special education teachers, there was no discernible relationship between organizational commitment and teacher efficacy. But in our study the inclusion of the mediator i.e., uncivil workplace behaviour generates a significant impact of the predictor in the dependent variable. This shows that there is a full mediation generated by the variable of uncivil workplace behaviour on that of the relationship between self-efficacy and organizational commitment. The negative relationship between uncivil behaviour and organizational commitment is seen in the estimates.

The conceptual model from the analysis is being shown below.

The mediation analysis has been able to generate the importance of uncivil behaviour on the relationship between the two, now using t-tests and One Way ANOVA the influence of the demographics on these three variables are being shown below.

The independent t-test is conducted for the two variables with an exact of two levels, i.e., gender and marital status. It is seen that for both the demographics, there is a significant mean score difference across the three variables considered in the study. It is quite interesting to note that in case of marital status and age-group there is no difference in mean scores for any of the three variables are being found. This section, therefore, shows the relationship between the three factors considered here for the purpose of the study. In the next two sections, a detailed discussion on the findings and the outlook is being shown.


The purpose of the study is to consider three important aspects of an employee i.e., self- efficacy, uncivil behaviour and organizational commitment and apply it in the growing economy of India across the educational sector. There have been several research which focused on industries such as nursing, corporates etc. when talking about incivility at workplace but those focusing on academic institutions are less in number. Although it is assumed that the amount of incivility at academic institutions would be comparatively lesser. The study focused on a quantitative approach and used 300 primary responses from academicians in India with minimum 2 years of experience. The data is collected using a structured questionnaire where 20 items measuring uncivil behaviour, 10 items for self-efficacy and 10 items for organizational commitment are being asked to the respondents. The data collected has been analyzed specifically to determine the mediating role of uncivil behaviour in a relationship between the other two. Self-efficacy is an important element in achieving high productivity at workplace however, when it comes to contributing towards organizational commitment, the direct relationship is found to be insignificant. Now, as the third variable uncivil workplace behaviour is included in the study, here, its relationship in between the two has been analyzed. The mediation analysis showed clearly that the relationship between self- efficacy and uncivil behaviour is significant and has a positive estimate indicating the chances of increasing uncivil behaviour with self-efficacy levels being increased. On the other hand, there is a negative relationship between uncivil behaviour and organizational commitment significant with 90.94% mediation caused by the uncivil behaviour. The demographic upon being analyzed with the variables have shown that gender based and marital status-based differences in levels of self-efficacy, uncivil behaviour and organizational commitment agreement mean score levels do exist. This shows the importance of demographics in the process and that it needs to be considered when considering its implementation at the academic institutions.

Conclusion and Scope for Future

The study emphasizes the crucial importance of maintaining a productive and mentally satisfying work environment. However, it may not always be feasible, as workplaces consist of individuals with different personalities that can often lead to disputes. Several researchers have established the negative impact of incivility at the workplace on employee productivity. This study also incorporates the role of uncivil behavior as a highly effective mediator. It shows that transitioning from being self-sufficient to becoming a committed employee for the organization can be hindered by uncivil behavior at the workplace. Although organizations desire their employees to reach high levels of organizational commitment through self- sufficient levels, the existence of uncivil behavior may affect this. Additionally, achieving high levels of self-efficacy can lead to perceiving high uncivil behavior at the workplace, which must be controlled through effective rewarding methods to avoid chaos. If uncivil behavior is not addressed, it can hinder the achievement of organizational commitment levels. Effective policies must be designed to prevent self-sufficient employees from becoming dissatisfied, and gender-based methods must be used to generate the right results. The study concludes that achieving organizational commitment can be done from a minimum level, but it requires a productive and respectful work environment. The achievement of organizational commitment can be done from minimum workplace uncivil behaviour and effective scrutiny must be considered from time to time.

Marketing strategies to Mitigate Workplace Incivility

1. Encourage a Culture of Civility and Respect

• Encourage a climate that values civility and respect among all academic community members, including faculty, staff, and students.

• Encourage positive and inclusive interactions by promoting understanding, empathy, and valuing diverse perspectives.

2. Establish Clear Policies and Procedures

• Develop and communicate explicit policies and procedures that address uncivil behaviour, harassment, and bullying within the academic environment.

• Ensure that policies are widely known and easily accessible to all members of the academic community.

3. Training and Education

• Provide comprehensive training programs to raise awareness about the impact of uncivil behaviour and to equip academic staff and students with the skills to recognize, prevent, and address such behaviour.

• Provide seminars or workshops on emotional intelligence, effective communication, and conflict management.

4. Encourage Open Channels of Communication

• Encourage an atmosphere that encourages honest and fruitful dialogue among academics.

• Implement mechanisms, such as suggestion boxes or anonymous reporting systems, to facilitate reporting of uncivil behavior without fear of reprisal.

5. Effective Conflict Resolution Mechanisms

• Develop and implement effective conflict resolution mechanisms, such as mediation or arbitration, to address conflicts and disputes in a fair and unbiased manner.

• Train key individuals, such as department heads or designated mediators, to facilitate conflict resolution processes.

• Ensure confidentiality and impartiality in handling complaints related to uncivil behavior.

Leadership Role Modelling

• Encourage academic leaders to set a good example for others by acting respectfully, such as department heads or administrators.

• Offer leadership development courses that emphasize the significance of inclusive and respectful leadership techniques.

• Hold departmental or academic unit leaders responsible for fostering a culture of respect and civility.

Programs to Support Employees

Establish support programs, such as counselling services or employee assistance programs, to provide confidential support to academicians who have experienced or witnessed uncivil behaviour.

• Communicate the availability of these resources and promote their utilization.

• Foster a supportive and empathetic environment that encourages individuals to seek help when needed.

Regular Evaluation and Feedback Processes

• Incorporate assessments of respectful conduct and professional behavior in performance evaluations.

• Provide regular feedback to individuals regarding their interpersonal skills and their adherence to codes of conduct.

• Use feedback as an opportunity for growth and development, offering resources and support to address areas of improvement.

By implementing these marketing strategies, academic institutions can create an environment that promotes respect, civility, and professionalism among academicians. These strategies contribute to fostering a positive work and learning atmosphere, which ultimately enhances the well-being and productivity of all individuals within the academic community.

Future Scope

The study has identified several opportunities for future research. While the current study was quantitative in nature, future research could expand into the qualitative domain to identify more intricate details that could aid in the policy-making process. Further studies could focus on exploring the detailed relationship between uncivil behavior and self-efficacy, and how the impact of such behavior increases over time. Additionally, the role of technology and social media in instigating uncivil workplace behavior could be investigated. As social media allows employees to constantly stay connected with each other, its impact on promoting uncivil behavior could be examined in future studies.


The authors are very grateful to Yashasvi wallia, Kanika Khanna and Rajshree Rathore who guided throughout the writing process and provided with the moral support.


Adil, M. S., Hamid, K. B. A., & Waqas, M. (2020). Impact of perceived organisational support and workplace incivility on work engagement and creative work involvement: a moderating role of creative self-efficacy. International Journal of Management Practice, 13(2),117.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Akhter, S., Ghayas, S., & Adil, A. (2012). Self-efficacy and optimism as predictors of organizational commitment among bank employees. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 2(2).

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). TIT FOR TAT? THE SPIRALING EFFECT OF INCIVILITY IN THE WORKPLACE. Academy of Management review (Vol. 24, Issue 3).

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Bandura, A. (1999). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. In Psychological Review (Vol. 84, Issue 2).

Indexed at,  Cross Ref

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Aggression. Teachers College Record: The Voice of Scholarship in Education, 64(9), 364–415.

Cross Ref

Cohen, A. (2007). Commitment before and after: An evaluation and reconceptualization of       organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 17(3), 336–354.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Dhar, U., Mishra, P., & Srivastava, D. K. (2002). Manual for Organisational Commitment Scale.

Guo, J., & Qiu, Y. (2019). Workplace incivility and organisational identification: The role of affective organisational commitment and perceived insider status. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 29(5), 452–459.

Indexed at, Google Scholar , Cross Ref

Guo, X. S., & Kumar, S. S. (2020). The effect of workplace incivility on organizational outcome (mediating role of psychological capital). 14(4), 110–122.African Journal of Business Management

Google Scholar

Hoy, A. W., & Spero, R. B. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(4), 343– 356.

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Irum, A., Ghosh, K., & Pandey, A. (2020). Workplace incivility and knowledge hiding: a research agenda. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 27(3), 958–980.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref ,  

Jha, J. K., & Sud, K. (2021). Exploring Influence Mechanism of Abusive Supervision on Subordinates’ Work Incivility: A Proposed Framework. Business Perspectives and Research, 9(2), 324–339.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Law, F. M., & Guo, G. J. (2016). Correlation of Hope and Self-Efficacy With Job Satisfaction, Job Stress, and Organizational Commitment for Correctional Officers in the Taiwan Prison System. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(11), 1257–1277.

Indexed at, Google Scholar,  Cross Ref

Liu, E., & Huang, jiatao. (2019). Occupational self-efficacy, organizational commitment, and work engagement. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 47(8), 1– 7.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Loi, N., Golledge, C., & Schutte, N. (2021). Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between emotional intelligence and uncivil workplace behaviour among managers. Journal of Management Development, 40(1), 94–103.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref,

Luthans, F., Zhu, W., & Avolio, B. J. (2006). The impact of efficacy on work attitudes across cultures. Journal of World Business, 41(2), 121–132.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref,

Martin, R. J., & Hine, D. W. (2005). Development and validation of the Uncivil Workplace Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(4), 477–490.

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171–194.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (2004). TCM Employee Commitment Survey Academic Users Guide 2004.

Google Scholar

Murphy, D. P. (2013). An examination into the relationship between teacher efficacy and organizational commitment of special education teachers.

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Pajares, P. (2002). Current Directions in Self-efficacy Research. Neuropsychology .

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). The general self-efficacy scale(GSE).

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

SINHA, S. P., TALWAR, T., & RAJPAL, R. (2002). Correlational study of organizational commitment, self - efficacy and psychological barriers to technological change. Psychologia, 45(3), 176–183.

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Solinger, O. N., van Olffen, W., & Roe, R. A. (2008). Beyond the three-component model of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 70–83.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Taşkaya, S., & Aksoy, A. (2021). A bibliometric analysis of workplace incivility in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management,29(3), 518-525

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Tsai, M.-T., Tsai, C.-L., & Wang, Y.-C. (2011). A study on the relationship between leadership style, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and organizational commitment: A case study of the Banking Industry in Taiwan. African Journal of Business Management, 5(13), 5319–5329.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Received: 07-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AMSJ-23-13731; Editor assigned: 08-Jun-2023, PreQC No. AMSJ-23-13731(PQ); Reviewed: 26-Oct-2023, QC No. AMSJ-23-13731; Revised: 02-Nov-2023, Manuscript No. AMSJ-23-13731(R); Published: 01-Dec-2023

Get the App