Academy of Marketing Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6298; Online ISSN: 1528-2678)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 24 Issue: 1

Yielding to Temptation Analyzing Billboard Advertisement and House Hold Consumers Perception in Pakistan

Ahmed Muneeb Mehta, Hailey College of Banking and Finance, University of the Punjab


This study explores the impact of advertising trough billboards on house hold consumer decision making process. Previous studies conclude that advertising through billboards have positive impact on consumers to create awareness’ and positioning of product and service. Also, companies spend heavily on billboards to create awareness and do product positioning and service in terms of consumer’s perception. But in Pakistan, the research gaps extends to a considerable extent in this field. For data analysis, quantitative research method has been used. Advertising through billboards has favorable impact in terms of creating awareness and consumer perception positioning.


Consumer Awareness, Consumer Perception, Confusion, Perception Positioning.


According basic consumer model, marketing help to consumer in decision making processes of consumer during buying the product. Marketing of product through advertising help to consumer to aware about product and positioned in consumer mind. In decision making model awareness play an important role to make decision to buying the product. Awareness persuades to consumer increase the knowledge abbot product and service, after evaluation the knowledge the consumer reaches the final stage called purchase decision. Awareness can be measure by recognition of specific product and service and recalling that product during purchasing (keller). Marketer use advertising to communicate with consumer and create awareness. In adverting, unless repetition of the message does not take place, learning or what we call recall condition will not occur. The purpose of advertising is to create awareness of the advertised product and provide information that will assist the consumer to make informed-purchase decision (Eze1 & Lee, 2012).

Positioning is the use of marketing to enable consumers to form a mental image of product and services in their mind. Positioning is a method by which a marketer tries to place his product in a favorable position among all the other products that are located and which provide same need specifying features. The two areas that would consider important in positioning the product and service in consumer mind are offering a feature and offering a benefit and both are communicate through advertising Some time consumer confuse to consumer due to using more than one strategies of advertising. Marketers try to create awareness and positioning the product and service but consumer may confuse through marker strategies. Due to advertising of different bands in same marketing segment marketing strategies of marker peruse the consumer to choose the alternative product than positioned their mind.

In the reference of prior study almost all over the world advertising have favorable impact on consumer buying decision making process like create awareness about specific product and service and positioning in consumer mind. That is beneficial for marketer that’s why almost all world spend much on advertising but on the other hand advertising also have unfavorable impact on consumer with perspective of marketer as well as consumer prospective like confusion during purchasing and consider alternative product than positioned. As per a survey that we conducted regarding empty hoardings revealed that at least 31 % hoarding and billboards businesses has fallen due to recession. On Murree road in Rawalpindi, from Fiazabad to Saddar, there are total of 200 small and big hoardings and billboards out of which 89 were found empty. Among these hoardings we noted that relatively bigger boards were FREE and available for TO LET. By the way, these large sized hoardings cost Rs. 7 to 8 Million per year on average. ( For the purpose of this research, Billboard ads include signboards and posters that hung in public squares and streets, and those posted on public (Shihabi, 2012).

In this research explore the impact of advertising through billboards on consumer decision process during purchasing in Pakistan abound area. The impact on decision making process of consumer can by measuring impact on awareness, positioning, confusion and consider alternative. The result will also very helpful for making advertising strategies about product and service that may be help full for cost effectiveness for advertising that are beneficial for consumer to reducing cost and also helpful for marketers increasing profitability. This research may peruse the marketer to creativity and to create affective advertising.

Literature Review

Before taking decision of buying by consumer gathered information about product or services. Advertising play an important role to deliver the information to consumer. Advertising have positive impact to consumer decision making brand name also influenced in consumer decision making (Adhikary, 2014). Advertising enhance the awareness and increase the likelihood of product and service include consideration set (Huang & Sarigöllü, 2012). Outdoor advertising is categorized as fraction of support media. Support media include billboards, poster and transit advertising. In America 6.99 billon approximately spend for outdoor advertising in 2007and 66% of the total cost was spend on billboard advertising the average growth rate is 6.1% is significant evidence of effecting the consumer behavior to create awareness and positioning the product and service. The effect of billboards in consumer behavior is significant globally China and Japan spend 14% of total marketing expense on billboard and more than 10% spend in France. In Russia encourage the usage of billboard for public awareness and positioning of product and service (Roux, 2011). Billboard is most suitable medium of outdoor advertising to delivering promotional massage about products and service. The purpose of using this medium is to create the public awareness and poisoning of product and service in consumer mind (Shihabi, 2012).

Billboard advertisements have also effective role to promote the products and services; create the consumer awareness and positioning the product and service among the illiterate people due to large and repeatable viewership (Eni, 2008). The consumer of China, Hong Kong and United Kingdom prefer to outdoor advertising for getting awareness about product and service. Some marketer take estimated the flow of public for suitability of placing the billboard. Innovating execution of billboards and poster have more effective than duration of display. Male prefer responded more than female to outdoor advertising for getting awareness about product and service (Chan & Fung, 2013). Images on billboards have more positively impact on consumer awareness and positioning of products and service than text in outdoor advertising. The message should be concise and understandable quickly for consumer outdoor advertising have only potential to integrated the brand name in respondent physical environment have significant impact on consumer behavior the most important feature of outdoor advertising is its potential to deliver the target message to targeted consumers in a specific area and raise awareness in consumer very rapidly Franch et al. (2013) advertising expenditure have significant positive effect on consumer awareness (Clark et al., 2009).

The impact of billboards on consumer is positive when billboard locate at that place where have large number of viewer in short duration of time like placing billboard surrounding of live matches on other hand number of competitive brand of place billboard at same place to deliver the awareness to consumer may confuse to consumer related to decision making have also negative impact on positioning of products and service in consumer mind (Gijsenberg, 2013).

The billboard advertising is most effective advertising to targeted consumers for deliverance of awareness and positioning of products and service and size, image, location and color also influence on effectiveness of advertising through billboards. The impact of billboards advertising also significant on children because parents and society organizer worried about the impact of smoke and drink brand’s billboard (Hussain & Nizamani, 2011).

Very few studies openly consider the efficiency of advertising through billboard especially in house hold consumer product because of radio advertising is three to seven time more efficient than the billboard advertising similarly TV advertising is more effective than outdoor advertising. In prior research seriously ignored the effectiveness of billboards on consumer behavior the author found very little evidence to prove the effectiveness of billboard advertising in consumer packaged goods (Frison et al., 2014). The objective of billboard advertising is deliverance of awareness to consumer. Billboards advertising have strong impact on consumer decision making and increase in sale. Respondent focus on model on billboard rather than the advertised product so advertiser to make sure that the message should be enable to deliver the awareness about product and service.

The advertising message that use on billboard is a structures and non-personal and if the model is consider then model usually persuasive about products and service (Edegoh et al., 2013). Those ads that have significant effect on consumer buying are more likely to be watched by consumer. Advertisement is persuading the consumer to buy the specific product. Advertisement is strong way to commutate the awareness to target consumer. Advertisements also play an important role to change the consumer buying decision (Kumar & Raju, 2013). Advertising is way to convince to consumer to buy specific product or service it also have positive effect on consumer buying decision making process by delivering information about product and services that information help to take final decision to buy (Zain-Ul-Abideen & Saleem, 2012).


H1: Advertising trough billboards have positive relation on house hold consumer to create awareness.

H2: Advertising trough billboards have positive relation with house hose hold consumer to positioning the product and service in consumer mind.

H3: Household consumer confuse by advertising trough billboards during purchasing making decision.

H4: Household consumers consider alternative product and service than the positioned in consumer mind due to advertising trough billboards.

Impact of advertising through billboards on consumer buying decision making process in Figure 1.

Figure 1:


The purposes of this research explore the impact of advertising thorough billboards on consumer. Influence of advertising through billboards consumer awareness about the product brand, positioning of the product in consumer mind, confusion during purchasing and consider alternative product than positioned in consumer mind. The reason of chosen of this topic is Lack of research on this topic in Pakistan than other word. Advertising through billboard have same impact on consumer in Pakistani culture as compared to other world. Advertising through billboard have positive impact on consumer like awareness and positioning in consumer mind and on other hand have also negative effect on consumer like confusion during purchasing and purchase alternative due to excessive billboards.


Sampling Procedure

In this study we will use the quantitative, collect data from students of different universities only those responders are include whose age is between 17 year to 25 year because in this study only focus on youngster. Distribute 160 questionnaires and 147 collect responses use convince sampling in which responses will be randomly drawn from the potential consumers in Lahore. This questionnaire will be designed in the form of structured close-ended questions about impact of advertising on consumer buying decision making process and consumer buying decision making process further divide into awareness, product positioning, consumer confusion and consider alternative product than positioned in consumer mind (house hold product) due to advertising through billboard. We had to choose small sample size and restrict our sample to Lahore only due to time and financial constraints and specific collection of data from the ordinance in the Table 1.

Table 1: Frequency
Description No of respondents Cumulative Percentage
Male 99 99 67%
Female 48 147 33%
Look at bill boards adverts      
Yes 127 127 86%
No 20 147 14%
Enjoy watching billboard adverts      
Yes 106 106 72%
No 41 147 28%
Describe billboards adverts      
Persuasive 106 106 72%
Not persuasive 41 41 28%
View of billboard adverts      
Very often 89 89 60%
Often 58 147 40%

Measurement Tools

In this study we have chosen to collect primary data direct from the audience and we will use likert scale (5 = strongly disagree 4 = disagree 3 = undecided 2= agree 1= strongly agree) to rate the answers we will get in Table 2 and Table 3.

Tables 2: Correlations
  ATB positioning
ATB Pearson Correlation 1 0.345**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0
N 147 147
  ATB awareness
ATB Pearson Correlation 1 0.363**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0
N 147 147
    ATB Consider alternative
ATB Pearson Correlation 1 0.315**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0
N 147 147
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
    ATB confusion
ATB Pearson Correlation 1 0.138
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.095
N 147 147
Table  3: Regression
Model Un standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) 1.646 0.127 12.994 0 1.396 1.897
ATB 0.262 0.056 0.363 4.698 0 0.152 0.373
a. Dependent Variable: positioning
2 (Constant) 1.664 0.125   13.258 0.000 1.416 1.912
  ATB 0.245 0.055 0.345 4.432 0.000 0.136 0.354
a. Dependent Variable: confusion
3 (Constant) 2.324 0.188   12.365 0.000 1.952 2.695
  ATB 0.139 0.083 0.138 1.679 0.095 -0.025 0.303
a. Dependent Variable: confusion
4 (Constant) 1.900 0.146   13.011 0.000 1.611 2.189
  ATB 0.257 0.064 0.315 3.992 0.000 0.130 0.384
a. Dependent Variable: consider alternative


All hypotheses are accepted except H3. In H1 c =0.363 & t= 4.698 and significant value is less than .001 so H1 is accepted means advertising thorough billboard have positive and significant impact on consumer awareness. Advertising through billboard create and enhance the consumer awareness about household product and service. In H2 coefficient of correlation is (c =0.345 & t=4.698) and significant value is less than 0.01so H2 is accepted means advertising thorough billboard have positive and significant impact on positioning of product and service in consumer mind. Advertising through billboard is effective way to positioning the product and service in consumer mind. H3 is not accept because p>0.01. In H4 c=0.315 & t = 3.992 and significant value is less than 0.01 so h4 is accept mean due to advertising through billboard consumer consider alternative than positioned.


According to finding of study above than 85% people look at billboard along the roadside in daily life and above 70 %people enjoying to watching billboard adverts and almost all people those are enjoying to watching billboard are persuade through billboard advertising. 60% people view very often while 40 % view often billboards in their routine life. Advertising through billboard is strong tool to create the awareness and positioning of product and service. And consumers also change their product that purchase before due to advertising through billboards. This study is important for marketer and helpful for making effective advertising strategies for marketing of product and services and enhance the sales.


Limitations of the research study inconsideration the limitation of this study are quite obvious with regard to the scope. The population of this study much scatter is not accurately measureable, which leads to ambiguous sampling (parameters and statistic). Covenant sampling is itself a biased technique. Due to deficiency of time and cost study cannot conduct in extensive manner. The nature of topic the degree of subjectivity is unable to control.


Advertising through billboard effectiveness can research in further dimension other than these four which are investigated in the study. This study is limited to Lahore its can extended to larger scale in future.